著者
松田 秀晴 深谷 光春 湊 進
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.4, pp.385-390, 1990 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
2 3

Natural gamma-ray and cosmic-ray exposure rates were measured indoors and outdoors for 94 model houses of four housing centers in Nagoya to obtain basic data for estimation of the population dose. Influence of the structure of houses on indoor exposure rates and relationship between indoor and outdoor natural gamma-ray exposure rates were studied. Exposure rates were measured with a 1.5″φ×4″ NaI (Tl) scintillation counter and a 6″φ spherical plastic scintillation counter.The mean indoor natural gamma-ray exposure rate in ferro-concrete buildings was about 40% higher than that in fireproof wooden houses, about 60% higher than that in light-weight steel-framed buildings, in fireproof wooden houses, it was also about 10% higher than in light-weight steel-framed building.The ratio of indoor to outdoor natural gamma-ray exposure rate was found to be about 0.95±0.15, 0.77±0.10, and 0.72±0.13 for ferro-concrete buildings, fireproof wooden houses and light-weight steel-framed buildings, respectively.The mean indoor cosmic-ray exposure rate in ferro-concrete buildings was 2.8μR/h, about 18% lower than the outdoors. The indoor cosmic-ray exposure rate in fireproof wooden houses and light-weight steel-framed buildings were 3.2μR/h, about 6% lower than the outdoors.
著者
仲宗根 峻也 石津 裕二 池本 憲弘 城間 吉貴 赤田 尚史 田中 将裕 古川 雅英
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.2, pp.65-71, 2018

In this study, to estimate the recent tritium concentration and its variation with latitude and time in Japan, environmental water samples were taken monthly from June 2014 to October 2016 in Okinawa Island, subtropical region of Japan. The inland water samples were taken from two springs and the drop water samples were taken in a limestone cave. The samples were distilled to remove impurities and then electrolysed using electrolytic enrichment system. Each of the enrichment samples was mixed with the liquid scintillation cocktail, and the tritium concentration was measured with a low background liquid scintillation counter. Arithmetic mean &plusmn; standard deviation for the tritium concentration of Morinokawa (spring water), Kakinohanahikawa (spring water) and Gyokusendo (cave drop water) samples were estimated to be 0.13 &plusmn; 0.04 Bq L<sup>-1</sup>, 0.12 &plusmn; 0.03 Bq L<sup>-1</sup> and 0.13 &plusmn; 0.03 Bq L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The comparison between these results and reported data suggested that the latitude effect is one of factors in the relatively low tritium concentration observed in Okinawa Island.
著者
中川 晴夫 神田 啓治
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.41-51, 2000 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
11

The Health Control Policy of Japan was established in 1965 by the Atomic Energy Commission and has not been revised since then. However, in 1972, a law concerning the health of elderly persons was enacted, and the recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP), which presents the basic standards regarding radiation protection, were published. Both of these events had a very strong impact on the drafting of health control policy, as the Japanese Government was compelled to introduce a new policy aimed at reducing the risk of cancer, the greatest physical probability risk facing radiation workers. Laws governing the physical examinations of radiation workers working in nuclear power stations in Japan are divided into three groups: 1) Laws for Safety and Sanitary Conditions of Workers; 2) Laws for Health Insurance Cooperatives; and 3) Law for the Health of the Elderly. As controlling the data of these examinations is more complicated than that of the physical examinations of A-bomb survivors, a centralized registration system is needed. This paper proposes the need for such a registration system to be granted under the three laws governing special accounts for power supply municipalities and suggests setting up the system within regional medical information systems. It also proposes the founding of an overall health insurance cooperative, to be managed by the Contractors Safety Union in each municipality.
著者
高原 省五 本間 俊充 米田 稔 島田 洋子
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.3, pp.147-159, 2016 (Released:2016-11-18)
参考文献数
58

Management of radiation-induced risks in areas contaminated by a nuclear accident is characterized by three ethical issues: (i) risk trade-off, (ii) paternalistic intervention and (iii) individualization of responsibilities. To deal with these issues and to clarify requirements of justification of interventions for the purpose of reduction in radiation-induced risks, we explored the ethical basis of the radiological protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ICRP's radiological protection system is established based on three normative ethics, i.e. utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics. The three ethical issues can be resolved based on the decision-making framework which is constructed in combination with these ethical theories. In addition, the interventions for inhabitants have the possibility to be justified in accordance with two ways. Firstly, when the dangers are severe and far-reaching, interventions could be justified with a sufficient explanation about the nature of harmful effects (or beneficial consequences). Secondly, if autonomy of intervened-individuals can be promoted, those interventions could be justified.
著者
浅野 孝 小林 保 樋熊 孝信
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.33-37, 1973

Half-face masks have been used routinely at plutonium facilities in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. In 1970, a mask man-test began to evaluate the protection efficiencies of masks when wearing and to instruct workers how to wear them properly. DOP was used as a test aerosol, and 232 persons were tested. In the first test 70% of the persons could wear the masks with a good fit (leak rate less than 1%). The persons with leak rate over 1% were repeatedly tested to investigate causes of the leak.<br>The persons were classified into three groups; the first one having experience of wearing masks, the second one having no experience and the third one being given some instructions about masks before the test. The persons in the first group weared the masks better than those in the second group, but the test suggest the instruction is the most effective.<br>The methods procedures and results of the tests are described.
著者
中村 典
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.217-223, 2000 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
14
著者
今岡 達彦 勝部 孝則 川口 勇生 臺野 和広 土居 主尚 中島 徹夫 森岡 孝満 山田 裕 王 冰 神田 玲子 西村 まゆみ 二宮 康晴 村上 正弘 吉永 信治 柿沼 志津子
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.68-76, 2017 (Released:2017-07-29)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
2

Strategic research will be needed to unveil the uncertainty regarding the health effect of radiation at low dose and low dose rate. Recently, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) published Commentary No. 24 dealing with the perspective of integrating radiation biology and epidemiology to address this issue. Results of radiation biology have not been effectively used for radiation risk assessment because 1) available epidemiological studies based on direct observation of human population have been considered to be the most relevant despite their uncertainties and 2) biological studies have not been conducted with their use in risk assessment in mind. The present paper summarizes the Commentary to present perspectives on integrating biology and epidemiology for radiation risk assessment.
著者
井上 義教 備後 一義 藤田 稔
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.73-77, 1975 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
19

For the purpose of utilizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes as a means of dose evaluation in a criticality accident, a study was made of the relationship between fission neutron+gamma dose and the chromosome aberrations. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed in vitro to fission neutrons+gamma rays at Japan Research Reactor No. 4 for 5, 10, 20, 30, or 40min at 200kW. The cells were observed at their first mitotic division stage in culture.The frequency of the chromosome aberrations per cell, Y, was expressed as a power function of exposure time in minutes, t, as follows: Y=0.0018t1.12.On the assumption that there was no mutual interaction between chromosome aberrations induced by the neutrons and those by gamma rays and that there was similarity of the effects of the gamma rays produced in fissions and those of Co-60 gamma ays, estimation was made of contribution of the gamma rays to total yields. However, there was a contradiction that the contribution of gamma rays exceeded the total yield.
著者
木村 秀樹 高橋 秀昭 齋藤 稔
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.60-68, 2008 (Released:2010-08-05)
参考文献数
23

As part of the environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear fuel cycle facilities constructed in Rokkasho-mura, we are carrying out continuous measurements of gross α and gross β radioactivities in air dust samples. Considering there measuring conditions, it is suggested that 210Po and 210Bi mainly contribute to gross α and gross β, respectively. The higher concentration of gross β radioactivity was observed during fall and winter. But then gross α radioactivity lowered during winter, and fluctuated on spring and fall. It is suggested that surface soils are one of major origins of gross α radioactivity, because 210Po/210Pb ratio in the soil is higher than the ratio in the air and the ground is covered with snow in winter. Large peaks of gross a radioactivity and α/β radioactivity ratio were observed on May 2003. Satellite imageries showed forest fires around Lake Baikal in this period. We confirmed that the air mass passed the vicinity of Lake Baikal and flowed in Rokkasho-mura by backward trajectories. There was a positive correlation between gross α radioactivity and the frequency of air mass traveling from the vicinity of Lake Baikal to Rokkasho-mura. The result suggested that the large peaks of the concentration of gross α radioactivity and α/β radioactivity ratio were caused by the forest fire in Russia.
著者
田中 裕史 迫田 晃弘 安藤 正樹 石森 有
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.107-114, 2016 (Released:2016-08-09)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
1

Ambient dose rates are continuously monitored in Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The present study discussed the variations in ambient dose rates, observed from April 2014 to March 2015, due to snowfall as well as rainfall. It is much snowy as one of climatic features in this area. Rain or snow was sampled for a certain period in the day of interest (17 cases in total), and then the concentration of radon progeny was measured. With the measured data, the variation in ambient dose rate was calculated considering the accumulation of the radon progeny on the ground. As a whole, this calculation was found to reasonably reproduce the time trends of observed dose rates, except for four cases. Based on the backward trajectory analysis, it was explained that the discrepancy in two cases out of the four was induced by changes of radon progeny concentration in precipitation around sampling period. It was suggested that the other two cases were caused by the run-off of rain from the ground surface.
著者
阿部 史朗
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.169-193, 1982 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
9 5 34