著者
工藤 伸一 西出 朱美 吉本 恵子 古田 裕繁 三枝 新
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.29-39, 2019-04-18 (Released:2019-09-03)
参考文献数
30

In August 2018, the latest analysis of the UK National Registry for Radiation Workers (NRRW 3rd update) has been published. The NRRW studies have been published almost every ten years since the first analysis (1992). The series of NRRW aimed to analyse cancer risk from low dose occupational radiation exposure. This latest analysis is the study using third analysis data and an additional ten years of follow-up information, but did not include additionally dosimetry information. As the set of ten years lag period, only the risks of cancer were analysed, but excluding leukaemia risks owing to its lag period as two years. The same statistical methods were used in the series of NRRW study. This review provides an outline and summary of the key points of NRRW 3rd update. We denote introduction in chapter 1, summary in chapter 2, comparison with previous studies and other studies in chapter 3, discussion about results in chapter 4, meaning and limitation in chapter 5 and conclusion in chapter 6.
著者
栗原 千絵子
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.19-28, 2019-04-18 (Released:2019-09-03)
参考文献数
26

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued in February 2018 the Publication 138, titled “Ethical foundation of radiological protection system.” Although the ICRP has longtime recognized that ethics is an essential component of their radiological protection system, they have rarely described explicitly about the ethical foundation of the system. For this reason, the Commission established in 2012 the task group 94 to clarify and describe the ethical foundation of the system. As the result, the publication shows the process of evolution of the radiological protection system through 20th century until now, which leads to the identification of four core ethical values underpinning the system: beneficence and non-maleficence; prudence; justice; and dignity, along with related procedural values: accountability; transparency; and inclusiveness (stakeholder participation). As one of the authors of this publication, I will briefly introduce the developing process and the outlines of it, and additionally will provide a short summary of my experience of discussion through the workshops worldwide, concerning the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, as well as commonalities and diversities of Western and Asian perspectives of ethical core values.
著者
矢部 明
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.163-172, 1972 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
35
著者
保田 浩志
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.232-235, 2011 (Released:2012-07-28)
参考文献数
2
著者
山根 靖弘
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.269-277, 1990 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
4
著者
工藤 ひろみ 床次 眞司 細田 正洋 岩岡 和輝 葛西 幸彦
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.92-97, 2016

On 11 March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, which occurred at Northern Japan, and subsequent tsunami caused serious damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). People living within a radius of 30 km were evacuated from their homes. Residents of Namie Town stayed for several days at a location 30 km northwest of the FDNPS. However, as a highly concentrated radioactive plume passed over this location, the evacuees are very much worried about their radiation exposure. On the other hand, there are several nuclear facilities in Aomori Prefecture. Such circumstances may produce concerns among people regarding an increased risk of cancer or other radiation-induced disease. In this study, focusing on the citizens of Namie Town and Aomori Prefecture (Hirosaki, Aomori and Hachinohe Cities), their understanding of basic knowledge on radiation was investigated through anonymous questionnaires. The present study has revealed that people recognized that they are exposed to natural radiation of more than 1 mSv, Despite this fact, however, people in Namie Town believe even radiation of 1 mSv will cause them some biological effects. Although basic general knowledge on radiation should be provided, a reliable relationship between the general public and experts also needs to be established.
著者
松田 秀晴 深谷 光春 湊 進
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.4, pp.385-390, 1990 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
2 3

Natural gamma-ray and cosmic-ray exposure rates were measured indoors and outdoors for 94 model houses of four housing centers in Nagoya to obtain basic data for estimation of the population dose. Influence of the structure of houses on indoor exposure rates and relationship between indoor and outdoor natural gamma-ray exposure rates were studied. Exposure rates were measured with a 1.5″φ×4″ NaI (Tl) scintillation counter and a 6″φ spherical plastic scintillation counter.The mean indoor natural gamma-ray exposure rate in ferro-concrete buildings was about 40% higher than that in fireproof wooden houses, about 60% higher than that in light-weight steel-framed buildings, in fireproof wooden houses, it was also about 10% higher than in light-weight steel-framed building.The ratio of indoor to outdoor natural gamma-ray exposure rate was found to be about 0.95±0.15, 0.77±0.10, and 0.72±0.13 for ferro-concrete buildings, fireproof wooden houses and light-weight steel-framed buildings, respectively.The mean indoor cosmic-ray exposure rate in ferro-concrete buildings was 2.8μR/h, about 18% lower than the outdoors. The indoor cosmic-ray exposure rate in fireproof wooden houses and light-weight steel-framed buildings were 3.2μR/h, about 6% lower than the outdoors.
著者
仲宗根 峻也 石津 裕二 池本 憲弘 城間 吉貴 赤田 尚史 田中 将裕 古川 雅英
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.2, pp.65-71, 2018

In this study, to estimate the recent tritium concentration and its variation with latitude and time in Japan, environmental water samples were taken monthly from June 2014 to October 2016 in Okinawa Island, subtropical region of Japan. The inland water samples were taken from two springs and the drop water samples were taken in a limestone cave. The samples were distilled to remove impurities and then electrolysed using electrolytic enrichment system. Each of the enrichment samples was mixed with the liquid scintillation cocktail, and the tritium concentration was measured with a low background liquid scintillation counter. Arithmetic mean &plusmn; standard deviation for the tritium concentration of Morinokawa (spring water), Kakinohanahikawa (spring water) and Gyokusendo (cave drop water) samples were estimated to be 0.13 &plusmn; 0.04 Bq L<sup>-1</sup>, 0.12 &plusmn; 0.03 Bq L<sup>-1</sup> and 0.13 &plusmn; 0.03 Bq L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The comparison between these results and reported data suggested that the latitude effect is one of factors in the relatively low tritium concentration observed in Okinawa Island.
著者
中川 晴夫 神田 啓治
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.41-51, 2000 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
11

The Health Control Policy of Japan was established in 1965 by the Atomic Energy Commission and has not been revised since then. However, in 1972, a law concerning the health of elderly persons was enacted, and the recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP), which presents the basic standards regarding radiation protection, were published. Both of these events had a very strong impact on the drafting of health control policy, as the Japanese Government was compelled to introduce a new policy aimed at reducing the risk of cancer, the greatest physical probability risk facing radiation workers. Laws governing the physical examinations of radiation workers working in nuclear power stations in Japan are divided into three groups: 1) Laws for Safety and Sanitary Conditions of Workers; 2) Laws for Health Insurance Cooperatives; and 3) Law for the Health of the Elderly. As controlling the data of these examinations is more complicated than that of the physical examinations of A-bomb survivors, a centralized registration system is needed. This paper proposes the need for such a registration system to be granted under the three laws governing special accounts for power supply municipalities and suggests setting up the system within regional medical information systems. It also proposes the founding of an overall health insurance cooperative, to be managed by the Contractors Safety Union in each municipality.
著者
高原 省五 本間 俊充 米田 稔 島田 洋子
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.3, pp.147-159, 2016 (Released:2016-11-18)
参考文献数
58

Management of radiation-induced risks in areas contaminated by a nuclear accident is characterized by three ethical issues: (i) risk trade-off, (ii) paternalistic intervention and (iii) individualization of responsibilities. To deal with these issues and to clarify requirements of justification of interventions for the purpose of reduction in radiation-induced risks, we explored the ethical basis of the radiological protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ICRP's radiological protection system is established based on three normative ethics, i.e. utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics. The three ethical issues can be resolved based on the decision-making framework which is constructed in combination with these ethical theories. In addition, the interventions for inhabitants have the possibility to be justified in accordance with two ways. Firstly, when the dangers are severe and far-reaching, interventions could be justified with a sufficient explanation about the nature of harmful effects (or beneficial consequences). Secondly, if autonomy of intervened-individuals can be promoted, those interventions could be justified.
著者
浅野 孝 小林 保 樋熊 孝信
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.33-37, 1973

Half-face masks have been used routinely at plutonium facilities in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. In 1970, a mask man-test began to evaluate the protection efficiencies of masks when wearing and to instruct workers how to wear them properly. DOP was used as a test aerosol, and 232 persons were tested. In the first test 70% of the persons could wear the masks with a good fit (leak rate less than 1%). The persons with leak rate over 1% were repeatedly tested to investigate causes of the leak.<br>The persons were classified into three groups; the first one having experience of wearing masks, the second one having no experience and the third one being given some instructions about masks before the test. The persons in the first group weared the masks better than those in the second group, but the test suggest the instruction is the most effective.<br>The methods procedures and results of the tests are described.
著者
中村 典
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.217-223, 2000 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
14
著者
今岡 達彦 勝部 孝則 川口 勇生 臺野 和広 土居 主尚 中島 徹夫 森岡 孝満 山田 裕 王 冰 神田 玲子 西村 まゆみ 二宮 康晴 村上 正弘 吉永 信治 柿沼 志津子
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.68-76, 2017 (Released:2017-07-29)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
3

Strategic research will be needed to unveil the uncertainty regarding the health effect of radiation at low dose and low dose rate. Recently, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) published Commentary No. 24 dealing with the perspective of integrating radiation biology and epidemiology to address this issue. Results of radiation biology have not been effectively used for radiation risk assessment because 1) available epidemiological studies based on direct observation of human population have been considered to be the most relevant despite their uncertainties and 2) biological studies have not been conducted with their use in risk assessment in mind. The present paper summarizes the Commentary to present perspectives on integrating biology and epidemiology for radiation risk assessment.
著者
井上 義教 備後 一義 藤田 稔
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.73-77, 1975 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
19

For the purpose of utilizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes as a means of dose evaluation in a criticality accident, a study was made of the relationship between fission neutron+gamma dose and the chromosome aberrations. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed in vitro to fission neutrons+gamma rays at Japan Research Reactor No. 4 for 5, 10, 20, 30, or 40min at 200kW. The cells were observed at their first mitotic division stage in culture.The frequency of the chromosome aberrations per cell, Y, was expressed as a power function of exposure time in minutes, t, as follows: Y=0.0018t1.12.On the assumption that there was no mutual interaction between chromosome aberrations induced by the neutrons and those by gamma rays and that there was similarity of the effects of the gamma rays produced in fissions and those of Co-60 gamma ays, estimation was made of contribution of the gamma rays to total yields. However, there was a contradiction that the contribution of gamma rays exceeded the total yield.