著者
赤羽 恵一 飯本 武志 伊知地 猛 岩井 敏 大口 裕之 大野 和子 川浦 稚代 立崎 英夫 辻村 憲雄 浜田 信行 藤通 有希 堀田 豊 山崎 直 横山 須美
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.1, pp.67-75, 2015 (Released:2015-12-18)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
3

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) have been defined operational quantities and protection quantities. Dose limits have been also recommended by the ICRP using protection quantities. These quantities and some related values for main radiation such as photons, electrons, and neutrons, are summarized in this article with some historical considerations. The ICRP indicated conversion coefficients for the lens of the eye as absorbed dose per fluence as protection quantities. Equivalent dose is not used because a protection quantity that uses radiation weighting factors is not intended to be calculated for tissue reactions. So far, the ICRP has not indicated a specific RBE value for cataract formation. Operational quantities are used for measurements. There have been three types of phantoms, namely a slab phantom, a reduced phantom, and a cylindrical phantom, but none of them has been definitely recommended for the lens of the eye by the ICRP or the ICRU. Although conversion coefficients to personal dose equivalent, Hp(3), for electrons have been recommended, no other conversion coefficients to personal dose equivalent for the lens of the eye has been indicated by the ICRP or the ICRU. However, there have been several studies described personal dose equivalent. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(3), and directional dose equivalent, H'(3,a), have been indicated in several limited conditions by the ICRP and the ICRU. These status are overviewed in this article.
著者
藤波 直人 西内 一 渡辺 哲也 都築 英明 伊吹 勝藏
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.3, pp.305-311, 1997 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1 1 2

In order to examine the dispersion of tritium released from the Takahama nuclear power plant into Uchiura Bay, seawater was sampled at three stations off the release point every two months. Tritium concentrations in these samples were determined. Simultaneously, the surface temperature of the seawater was also recorded at 25 points around the sampling stations. Observed data indicated that on those occasions when the sampling coincided with the release of tritium from the plant, the contribution of released tritium could be temporarily detected within the dispersion area of thermal effluent.
著者
Shigenobu NAGATAKI
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.4, pp.370-378, 2010 (Released:2011-07-12)
参考文献数
12

The latest knowledge encompass findings presented both in individual scientific publications and in internationally accepted reports. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on radiobiological effects on the latter level, using studies of atomic bomb survivors and victims of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. First of all, it is important to note that while examining individual patient, it is impossible to distinguish a radiation-induced cancer patient and non-radiation-induced cancer patient even when using state-of-the-art techniques. Therefore, investigation of radiation effects on humans, especially late health effects has been based on the epidemiological and statistical methods. Based on studies on atomic bomb survivors, it is well accepted that there is a linear increase in the risk of cancer with the increase of radiation dose. However, the existence of a threshold is a controversial issue, and health effects with regards to non-cancer diseases are not yet accepted by international authorities. Childhood thyroid cancer has increased after the Chernobyl accident and more than several thousands children are affected by it. However, there is no proof that any disease, with the exception of thyroid cancer and acute radiation effects, has increased after the Chernobyl accident. Finally, it should be mentioned that providing scientific explanation of the results to general public is an honorable duty of concerned scientists.
著者
神田 玲子 辻 さつき 米原 英典
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.68-78, 2014
被引用文献数
1

In general, the press is considered to have amplified the level of public's anxiety and perception of risk. In the present study, we analyzed newspaper article headlines and Internet contents that were released from March 11, 2011 to January 31, 2012 using text mining techniques. The aim is to reveal the particular characteristics of the information propagated regarding the Fukushima NPP Accident. The article headlines of the newspapers which had a largest circulation were chosen for analysis, and contents of Internet media were chosen based on the number of times they were linked or retweeted. According to our text mining analysis, newspapers frequently reported the "measurement, investigation and examination" of radiation/radioactive materials caused by the Fukushima Accident, and this information might be spread selectively via the social media. On the other hand, the words related to health effects of radiation exposure (i. e., cancer, hereditary effects) were rare in newspaper headlines. Instead, words like "anxiety" and "safe" were often used to convey the degree of health effects. Particularly in March of 2011, the concept of "danger" was used frequently in newspaper headlines. These indirect characterizations of the situation may have contributed more or less to the misunderstanding of the health effects and to the enhanced perception of risk felt by the public. In conclusion, there were found no evidence to suggest that newspapers or Internet media users released sensational information that increased the health anxiety of readers throughout the period of analysis.
著者
安齋 育郎
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.41-44, 1975 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1
著者
Naoto FUJINAMI Taeko KOGA Hiroshige MORISHIMA Farideh ZAKERI Seiichi NAKAMURA Kanji TORIZUKA Tsutomu SUGAHARA
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.66-69, 2011 (Released:2012-01-25)
参考文献数
11

Individual external doses of inhabitants were examined in high levels of natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) in Ramsar. Each of 15 inhabitants in HLNRAs and 10 inhabitants in a control area carried an electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) for one day in April and in December 2005. In addition, their individual doses were estimated from indoor and outdoor radiation dose rates determined with a NaI (Tl) survey meter. A good correlation existed between the dose rate values obtained through estimation and personal measurement, and estimated annual doses ranged from 0.5 to 32 mGy/y. Each of the dosimetric subjects carried also an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) for about one month in September 2005, but a few values obtained by these measurements deviated widely from those obtained by one-day measurements with EPDs and those estimated by environmental dosimetry. This deviation might have been due to the fact that these OSLDs were left behind somewhere in houses. Hence, the observed dose values depended heavily on the place where dosimeters had been left, because of the non-uniform distribution of Ra-226 contained in building materials as well as the structure of the house and the existence of shields.
著者
Miroslaw JANIK Shinji TOKONAMI
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.116-121, 2009 (Released:2010-10-08)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
2

In Poland there are some special regions in which the natural background radiation is obviously higher than in neighboring areas. This paper presents a review of recent radiation measurements taken in the Polish environment. Natural sources including radon, potassium, uranium and thorium as well as artificial sources such as cesium are characterized. Their contribution to the annual radioactivity dose rate is described.
著者
古賀 佑彦
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.39-42, 1989 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
8
著者
辻村 憲雄
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.40-44, 2019-04-18 (Released:2019-09-03)
参考文献数
21

Rainwater containing radioactive materials originating from the USA’s nuclear weapon test conducted at Bikini Atoll was observed throughout Japan in 1954. It has been reported that the maximum gross beta activity observed at that time in Kyoto was 523 pCi/mL (19,000 Bq/L). This measurement, however, focused on the gross beta activity contained in a small amount of rain sampled at the beginning of rainfall, which is different from present observations that are based on the average gross beta activity contained in rain collected during a 24-h period. As a result of reviewing and converting the 1954 data to be equivalent to current measurement, the maximum value was reduced to 50 pCi/mL (1,800 Bq/L), with a resultant surface deposition density of 310 mCi/km2 (11,000 MBq/km2). These values are well below 1/10 of the past maximum observed a few days after China’s fifth nuclear weapon test in 1966.
著者
Mikhail BALONOV
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.3, pp.161-171, 2019-10-29 (Released:2019-11-21)
参考文献数
32

In the history of the world nuclear industry there were four major accidents of operating nuclear reactors, i.e., at plutonium production facility in Windscale, UK, 1957; at NPP Three Mile Island, USA, 1979; at Chernobyl NPP, USSR, 1986; and at Fukushima-1 NPP, Japan, in 2011. The Chernobyl accident was the most severe, causing a huge release and deposition of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. Only after this accident there were real health effects caused by radiation, including carcinogenic effect among the population of the adjacent areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. In this paper, same-type basic radiological characteristics are presented for four reactor accidents with more detail presented for the Chernobyl accident. The latter include mean radiation doses incurred by various groups of inhabitants of the three more affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Those who were children at the time and drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine received high thyroid doses. Since early 1990s there was dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed to radioiodine at a young age. Apart from this kind of health effects there was no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation. The paper discusses the reasons why the Chernobyl accident had severe radiological consequences.
著者
松原 孝祐 Thunyarat CHUSIN 大久保 玲奈 小川 善紀
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.4, pp.238-246, 2018 (Released:2019-03-03)
参考文献数
39

Evaluation of radiation dose from medical exposure is important because the use of ionizing radiation in medical field contributes significantly to the exposure of the population. In plain radiography, the entrance skin dose, which is absorbed by the skin as it reaches the patient, is generally estimated. It is calculated from the air kerma at the same focus skin distance on the beam central axis measured with a dosimeter. In fluoroscopy, the indirect monitoring using dose-area product meter is generally performed for estimating the entrance skin dose in real-time to avoid skin injuries. In mammography, the average glandular dose is estimated because mammary glands have more sensitive to radiation than skin. The European Organization for Quality-Assured Breast Screening and Diagnostic Services protocol has been used to estimate average glandular dose from full-field digital mammography in Japan. Although volume CT dose index or dose-length product, as seen on CT consoles, do not represent the actual dose for the patient, they are measured to assist in quality control and optimization as well as the air kerma rate at the patient entrance reference point in fluoroscopy and the average glandular dose in mammography. For the purpose of patient dose evaluation, physical dose measurements using an anthropomorphic phantom and Monte Carlo simulations can estimate patient organ doses from medical exposure.