著者
武者 賢一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.12-23, 2000-09-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
2
著者
中島 義一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.1-15, 1962-09-25 (Released:2010-02-26)

以上の記述を要約すれば, 次のとおりである。1) 従来の城下町研究が中以上のものに偏っていたことにかんがみ, 一万石級の小城下町研究を企てた。2) 一万石城下町は関西・関東に最も多く, 遠ざかるほど減少する。 関東では東関東に多い。3) 小藩においては新田藩の例のように強力な領国経済は成立しなかった。4) 一万石級の大名の家臣団は80戸ぐらいが標準である。 この程度を顧客としては商工業者の成立はほとんど期待できない。5) そのため, 他の機能を兼ねない一万石級城下町においては, 商工業者は僅少で非都市的な集落であった。 他の機能を兼ねる場合, 相当数の商工業者をもつことがあるが, これは他の機能のために成立したものと考えるべきである。6) 一万石級の城下町では維新後, 士族が離散して農村に還元したものもあるが, 後年まで旧観を留めたものもある。 その差違の要因として東京への近接度, 藩の土着性の強弱, 地元での就業機会の有無を考えた。7) 小規模ながら城下町としての計画的な町割りが行なわれていた。 町屋は武家屋敷と完全に分離している場合と下級士族と混住する場合とがあった。
著者
青木 栄一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.4, pp.1-11, 1982-03-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1

There have been many oral traditions relating to oppositions against railway constructions in the early period of railway development in Japan. The most famous oral traditions have been in Shukubamachis (towns or villages with facilities for relay post-horse), where the inhabitants had There have been many oral traditions relating to oppositions against railway constructions in the early period of railway development in Japan. The most famous oral traditions have been in Shukubamachis (towns or villages with facilities for relay post-horse), where the inhabitants had opposed to railway constructions for fear of losing their travel customers. Curiously, however, in Japan, there have been no reliable historical documents relating to the oppositions, or no historical articles certifying the facts of oppositions, using reliable records. Many stories of railway opposition have remained in vague condition from a view-point of positivism, today. The author insists that it is necessary to prove the fact of railway oppositions, through the following procedures. They are, (1) discovery of reliable documents written contemporaneously, (2) consideration to policies and general opinions about railways on the day, and (3) investigation of ideal rail-routes in relation to topographic feature and railway track gradient (25‰ in maximum gradient in case of Japanese trunk railways).There were two periods of railway mania in Japan, in the closing years of 19th Century, 1885-90 and 1894-99. In those days, inhabitants of rural towns made passionate movement to raise their fund for private railway construction, or to introduce national railways to their towns. It is unreasonable to suppose railway oppositions in those days without showing any reliable documents. As for the Kobu Railway, between Tokyo and Hachioji (opened in 1889), having famous oral traditions of railway opposition by shukubamachis along a traditional trunk road, we have no reliable records to prove the existence of oppositions, and many preserved documents showing the insistence of introduction of railway construction in those days, showed the decision in ideal rail-route in relation to topographic feature and track gradient.There were some categories of railway oppositions, capable to certifying their existence by reliable documents. They were, (1) the oppositions to coastal or riverside railways, which compete with steamship operations, by officers of national railways, (2) the oppositions by military authorities or conservative samurais (feudal warriors) class, insisted the precedence of military expansion or anti-foreign spirit, and (3) the oppositions by farmers, protested the change for worse utilization of water in paddy field, because of the construction of embankment for railways. The first and second categories had lasted by about 1880s and 1870s, respectively, but the third one has continued toward the 20th Century. The author presents some examples belonging to the first and the third categories of oppositions during the Meiji Era (1868-1912) in this article.
著者
松尾 俊郎
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.1-10, 1952-09-01 (Released:2010-02-26)

The difficulties of place name interpretation have long been recongnized by leading Japanese geographers. Underlying this problem is the fact that place names may be rooted in natural as well as cultural or man-made phenomena, thus introducing elements of great complexity and diversity. Furthermore, it frequently occurs that place names which may have been fresh in the beginning, later become fossil names often unfamiliar to modern ears. Most certainly, another complicating factor is the infiltration of Ainu, Korean and other foreign terms into the language. On the other hand, it appears that certain names may have their origins in surely local dialects frequently unintelligible to outsiders. Finally, the existence of ateji deserves to be emphasized as one of the major complicating factors in Japanese place name interpretation. With different Chinese characters pronounced alike and applied to the same place names, it becomes quite difficult to reinterpret such names. When binding the significance of place names to the character meanings, far-fetched interpretations often result.In studying the complicated place names of Japan, a grouping based upon certain significant criteria may be employed. Of primary interest in this paper are those place names associated with topography, more particularly, those which concern “escarpment.”Not only has the escarpment remarkable topographic characteristics but it is often associated with cultural aspects of significance to human life, for example, its functions as a barrier to communication as well as a limitation upon land utilization. Thus by its very nature, the escarpment often attracts the attention of people and is utilized as a point of origin in the development of place names. Below are ten items concerned with place names related to the topography of escarpments. Various ateji are used for these names.1. “Kura” and “Kake”Kura has two meanings. By kura is meant a mountain on one hand and a valley on the other. It often occurs that the mountain or valley having the name of kura is not a common type of either, but has conspicuous escarpments, crumbled valleys or expanses of exposed bare rock. Kake is also applied to the escarment. Many of the mountains termed kurakake have escarpments in them.2. “Mama”Mama is another of the names derived from the escarpment. It is distributed throughout Eastern Japan, southern Kwanto being its center, and is a good example of the necessity to be concerned with the pronounciation rather than the meaning of Chinese characters associated with it.3. “Kue” and “tsue”These are found in large numbers particularly in Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyushu. Both terms mean “crumbling”.4. “Hake” (Hakke, Bake, Bakke) and “Hoki” (Hokki)Hake and others of its group ……hakke, bake and bakke……are distributed over Eastern Japan particularly in the surroundings of Tokyo. Hoki (hokki) is a fossil word meaning “escarpment” and is found mainly in Western Japan especially in Shikoku and Kyushu.5. “Haba”It is found in the Nobi Plain and in areas to the east of it.6. “Nagi”, “Kama” and “Nuke”These are often applied to such narrow valleys as radiating valleys on the slopes of a volcano or escarpments of horseshoe type. In addition kama is widely applied to common escarpment or cave topography.7. “Gare”, “Zare” and “Zore”Often these are also applied to steep slopes or escarpments having many crumbled rocks and walls. They are distributed all over Japan.8. “Maku-iwa”
著者
山口 幸男
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.27-36, 1994-03-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
24
著者
西脇 保幸
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.4, pp.1-12, 1995-03-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
18

The place-name is essential to geographic studies. We geographic educators, however, are sometimes confused about teaching how foreign place-names should be called and transcribed, because it is not easy to call and transcribe them with a standard. In Japan some authorities tried to solve this problem after a modern school system had been established in the Meiji era. For instance, the Ministry of Education showed the standard of foreign place-names in the official gazette in 1902. After that The Shigaku-kai, NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) and Japan Textbook Research Center showed each guideline for foreign place-names, respectively. Moreover, several geographers and geographic educators contributed several articles of this issue to magazines. In this paper the author examine how the names of foreign countries have been called in 40 Japanese school atlases since the Meiji Era, and investigate the consequence from the viewpoint of international understanding.The author used school atlases for elementary level as to the prewar period, junior high school postwar period, respectively, because they are considered to be important in Japanese national education. After examining the names of foreign countries according to the date, the author could type the consequence of calling and transcribing them as follows.1) countries which have been called and transcribed in a language different from both English and theirs......India, Greece, The Netherlands etc.2) countries which have been called and transcribed in English (excluding English countries)......Argentina, Austria, Egypt, Finland Hungary, Norway, Poland, Sweden etc.3) countries which have been called and transcribed temporarily in their own language, but mainly in English......Spain etc.4) countries which have been called and transcribed at first in English then in their own language......Germany, Italy etc.5) countries which have been called and transcribed in their language......English countries, Portugal, Thailand, countries which got independence after the Second World War etc.Calling and transcribing the names of foreign countries in English was very common in the early Meiji Era because they could get information from English literature. Some coutries began to be called and transcribed in their own language since the mid-Meiji Era, and the guidelines showed such a trend about some countries. However, all guidelines adopted a principle to call former names as far as they were in common use, therefore calling and transcribing in English remains common.It is possible to teach cross-culture by using foreign place-names for international understanding. Particularly the name of a country, which is her symbol and reveals her history and culture, is very significant. Now that Japanese are considered to need more international understanding, the names of foreign countries should be called and transcribed in their own language. The change of calling and transcribing is very difficult though, because of its influence on the social area beyond the school.
著者
大島 登志彦
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.1-24, 1983-09-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
1 1
著者
山口 幸男 原口 美貴子
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.4, pp.1-13, 1999-03-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
27

The Japanese word “Kyodo” means one's home area or one's home province. Present day, the term of “Kyodo” is not used and the term of “local area” is used in geographical teaching and social studies education in the primary and secondary school in Japan. But the “Kyodo” had been used before 1968. The authors would like to using the term of “Kyodo”.In this paper they discuss on the spatial extent of Kyodo area which is one of the main themes about the Kyodo study in school.There are following three ideas on the spatial extent of Kyodo area.(1) Observable field(2) Sphere of living(3) Administrative district (Prefecture, city, town and village).Makiguchi (1912, 1916) has supported the idea of “observable field”, and he recognized the far distant observable field as the Kyodo area too. From the same view, Kikuchi (1960) has described that discussing the spatial extent of Kyodo area was not meaning.Uchida (1933) and Tanaka (1954) have supported the idea of “sphere of living” which is the residents' daily living area. As the sphere of living is spread beyond on the administrative districts such as the city, town and so on, Uchida and Tanaka have not supported the idea of “administrative district”. Though the sphere of living is the most popular idea present day, the authors support the idea of “administrative district” (prefecture, city and so on).The authors consider not only cognitive contents but also children's attitudes to thier Kyodo in the school teaching. Thinking from this view, the “administrative district” is very important. Therefore we support this idea. And we have proved this idea by interview method resarch to 308 residents in Oota city, Gunma prefecture and Ashikaga city, Tochigi prefecture which are located close to the prefectures' boundary at 1994-1996.Lastly we want to revive the term of “Kyodo”.
著者
矢ケ崎 典隆
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.3, pp.15-32, 2006-12-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
38

Regionalization is a traditional method of geography for understanding regional features as well as the overall characteristics of a nation as a whole. This paper intends to review various attempts mostly by Americans at dividing the United States into regions on the basis of various criteria for varied purposes. Twenty-four examples of regionalization of the United States are presented, which include physical geographic regions, Native American culture regions, culture-economic regions of European colonization, federal administrative regions, economic-industrial regions, culture regions, ordinary people's perceptive regions, settlement process regions, and voting behavior regions. By laying division lines on top of another, I would suggest simple regionalization of dividing the country into four quarters with boundaries of the 37th parallel and the 95th meridian. Geographic characteristics of the four quarters are summarized in Table 1. This regionalization appears to be valid in geographic education in order to provide students with rough images of the United States.
著者
関 信夫
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.13-42, 1976-09-25 (Released:2010-02-26)
参考文献数
28
著者
三宅 達也
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.45-68, 1979-03-25 (Released:2010-02-26)
参考文献数
90
被引用文献数
2
著者
青木 栄一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.1-17, 2006-06-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
45

The author once published two reports of criticism, in 1982 and 2001, on the legend of movement against railway construction during Meiji Era, spreading all over Japan. On many books of regional history, both in academic or journalistic works, they have introduced the legend that there were many movements against railway, for the infringement to right vested in feudal system, or simple ignorance to newly coming technologies. Strange enough, they did not show any document providing the movement. The author pointed that the legend was fiction created by posterity. His paper was agreed and supported by many articles of railway historians and geographers.In this paper, the author shows some examples of regional history books and school text-books, mainly in the case of the Kobu Railway in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. The railway has had legend that it was constructed in spite of strong opposition by some post-town, along main roads. And he shows how they described the legend, and how they changed their description, with the passage of time. Prior to the 1980s, they had described the legend without any document and had also added “new” legend one after another. After the 1990s, however, many regional history books have changed their style of description, telling the legend apart from the historical truth. It corresponds to the development of regional railway history and geography studies. As for school text-books, correspondence to the change of description in regional history books is progressing, but is slow to some extent.
著者
浅井 得一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.27-30, 1988-09-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
13