著者
武者 賢一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.12-23, 2000-09-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
2
著者
中島 義一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.1-15, 1962-09-25 (Released:2010-02-26)

以上の記述を要約すれば, 次のとおりである。1) 従来の城下町研究が中以上のものに偏っていたことにかんがみ, 一万石級の小城下町研究を企てた。2) 一万石城下町は関西・関東に最も多く, 遠ざかるほど減少する。 関東では東関東に多い。3) 小藩においては新田藩の例のように強力な領国経済は成立しなかった。4) 一万石級の大名の家臣団は80戸ぐらいが標準である。 この程度を顧客としては商工業者の成立はほとんど期待できない。5) そのため, 他の機能を兼ねない一万石級城下町においては, 商工業者は僅少で非都市的な集落であった。 他の機能を兼ねる場合, 相当数の商工業者をもつことがあるが, これは他の機能のために成立したものと考えるべきである。6) 一万石級の城下町では維新後, 士族が離散して農村に還元したものもあるが, 後年まで旧観を留めたものもある。 その差違の要因として東京への近接度, 藩の土着性の強弱, 地元での就業機会の有無を考えた。7) 小規模ながら城下町としての計画的な町割りが行なわれていた。 町屋は武家屋敷と完全に分離している場合と下級士族と混住する場合とがあった。
著者
青木 栄一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.4, pp.1-11, 1982-03-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1

There have been many oral traditions relating to oppositions against railway constructions in the early period of railway development in Japan. The most famous oral traditions have been in Shukubamachis (towns or villages with facilities for relay post-horse), where the inhabitants had There have been many oral traditions relating to oppositions against railway constructions in the early period of railway development in Japan. The most famous oral traditions have been in Shukubamachis (towns or villages with facilities for relay post-horse), where the inhabitants had opposed to railway constructions for fear of losing their travel customers. Curiously, however, in Japan, there have been no reliable historical documents relating to the oppositions, or no historical articles certifying the facts of oppositions, using reliable records. Many stories of railway opposition have remained in vague condition from a view-point of positivism, today. The author insists that it is necessary to prove the fact of railway oppositions, through the following procedures. They are, (1) discovery of reliable documents written contemporaneously, (2) consideration to policies and general opinions about railways on the day, and (3) investigation of ideal rail-routes in relation to topographic feature and railway track gradient (25‰ in maximum gradient in case of Japanese trunk railways).There were two periods of railway mania in Japan, in the closing years of 19th Century, 1885-90 and 1894-99. In those days, inhabitants of rural towns made passionate movement to raise their fund for private railway construction, or to introduce national railways to their towns. It is unreasonable to suppose railway oppositions in those days without showing any reliable documents. As for the Kobu Railway, between Tokyo and Hachioji (opened in 1889), having famous oral traditions of railway opposition by shukubamachis along a traditional trunk road, we have no reliable records to prove the existence of oppositions, and many preserved documents showing the insistence of introduction of railway construction in those days, showed the decision in ideal rail-route in relation to topographic feature and track gradient.There were some categories of railway oppositions, capable to certifying their existence by reliable documents. They were, (1) the oppositions to coastal or riverside railways, which compete with steamship operations, by officers of national railways, (2) the oppositions by military authorities or conservative samurais (feudal warriors) class, insisted the precedence of military expansion or anti-foreign spirit, and (3) the oppositions by farmers, protested the change for worse utilization of water in paddy field, because of the construction of embankment for railways. The first and second categories had lasted by about 1880s and 1870s, respectively, but the third one has continued toward the 20th Century. The author presents some examples belonging to the first and the third categories of oppositions during the Meiji Era (1868-1912) in this article.
著者
松尾 俊郎
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.1-10, 1952-09-01 (Released:2010-02-26)

The difficulties of place name interpretation have long been recongnized by leading Japanese geographers. Underlying this problem is the fact that place names may be rooted in natural as well as cultural or man-made phenomena, thus introducing elements of great complexity and diversity. Furthermore, it frequently occurs that place names which may have been fresh in the beginning, later become fossil names often unfamiliar to modern ears. Most certainly, another complicating factor is the infiltration of Ainu, Korean and other foreign terms into the language. On the other hand, it appears that certain names may have their origins in surely local dialects frequently unintelligible to outsiders. Finally, the existence of ateji deserves to be emphasized as one of the major complicating factors in Japanese place name interpretation. With different Chinese characters pronounced alike and applied to the same place names, it becomes quite difficult to reinterpret such names. When binding the significance of place names to the character meanings, far-fetched interpretations often result.In studying the complicated place names of Japan, a grouping based upon certain significant criteria may be employed. Of primary interest in this paper are those place names associated with topography, more particularly, those which concern “escarpment.”Not only has the escarpment remarkable topographic characteristics but it is often associated with cultural aspects of significance to human life, for example, its functions as a barrier to communication as well as a limitation upon land utilization. Thus by its very nature, the escarpment often attracts the attention of people and is utilized as a point of origin in the development of place names. Below are ten items concerned with place names related to the topography of escarpments. Various ateji are used for these names.1. “Kura” and “Kake”Kura has two meanings. By kura is meant a mountain on one hand and a valley on the other. It often occurs that the mountain or valley having the name of kura is not a common type of either, but has conspicuous escarpments, crumbled valleys or expanses of exposed bare rock. Kake is also applied to the escarment. Many of the mountains termed kurakake have escarpments in them.2. “Mama”Mama is another of the names derived from the escarpment. It is distributed throughout Eastern Japan, southern Kwanto being its center, and is a good example of the necessity to be concerned with the pronounciation rather than the meaning of Chinese characters associated with it.3. “Kue” and “tsue”These are found in large numbers particularly in Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyushu. Both terms mean “crumbling”.4. “Hake” (Hakke, Bake, Bakke) and “Hoki” (Hokki)Hake and others of its group ……hakke, bake and bakke……are distributed over Eastern Japan particularly in the surroundings of Tokyo. Hoki (hokki) is a fossil word meaning “escarpment” and is found mainly in Western Japan especially in Shikoku and Kyushu.5. “Haba”It is found in the Nobi Plain and in areas to the east of it.6. “Nagi”, “Kama” and “Nuke”These are often applied to such narrow valleys as radiating valleys on the slopes of a volcano or escarpments of horseshoe type. In addition kama is widely applied to common escarpment or cave topography.7. “Gare”, “Zare” and “Zore”Often these are also applied to steep slopes or escarpments having many crumbled rocks and walls. They are distributed all over Japan.8. “Maku-iwa”
著者
山口 幸男
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.27-36, 1994-03-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
24
著者
西脇 保幸
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.4, pp.1-12, 1995-03-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
18

The place-name is essential to geographic studies. We geographic educators, however, are sometimes confused about teaching how foreign place-names should be called and transcribed, because it is not easy to call and transcribe them with a standard. In Japan some authorities tried to solve this problem after a modern school system had been established in the Meiji era. For instance, the Ministry of Education showed the standard of foreign place-names in the official gazette in 1902. After that The Shigaku-kai, NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) and Japan Textbook Research Center showed each guideline for foreign place-names, respectively. Moreover, several geographers and geographic educators contributed several articles of this issue to magazines. In this paper the author examine how the names of foreign countries have been called in 40 Japanese school atlases since the Meiji Era, and investigate the consequence from the viewpoint of international understanding.The author used school atlases for elementary level as to the prewar period, junior high school postwar period, respectively, because they are considered to be important in Japanese national education. After examining the names of foreign countries according to the date, the author could type the consequence of calling and transcribing them as follows.1) countries which have been called and transcribed in a language different from both English and theirs......India, Greece, The Netherlands etc.2) countries which have been called and transcribed in English (excluding English countries)......Argentina, Austria, Egypt, Finland Hungary, Norway, Poland, Sweden etc.3) countries which have been called and transcribed temporarily in their own language, but mainly in English......Spain etc.4) countries which have been called and transcribed at first in English then in their own language......Germany, Italy etc.5) countries which have been called and transcribed in their language......English countries, Portugal, Thailand, countries which got independence after the Second World War etc.Calling and transcribing the names of foreign countries in English was very common in the early Meiji Era because they could get information from English literature. Some coutries began to be called and transcribed in their own language since the mid-Meiji Era, and the guidelines showed such a trend about some countries. However, all guidelines adopted a principle to call former names as far as they were in common use, therefore calling and transcribing in English remains common.It is possible to teach cross-culture by using foreign place-names for international understanding. Particularly the name of a country, which is her symbol and reveals her history and culture, is very significant. Now that Japanese are considered to need more international understanding, the names of foreign countries should be called and transcribed in their own language. The change of calling and transcribing is very difficult though, because of its influence on the social area beyond the school.
著者
関 信夫
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.13-42, 1976-09-25 (Released:2010-02-26)
参考文献数
28
著者
三宅 達也
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.45-68, 1979-03-25 (Released:2010-02-26)
参考文献数
90
被引用文献数
2
著者
青木 栄一
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.4, pp.1-11, 1982

There have been many oral traditions relating to oppositions against railway constructions in the early period of railway development in Japan. The most famous oral traditions have been in <i>Shukubamachis</i> (towns or villages with facilities for relay post-horse), where the inhabitants had There have been many oral traditions relating to oppositions against railway constructions in the early period of railway development in Japan. The most famous oral traditions have been in <i>Shukubamachis</i> (towns or villages with facilities for relay post-horse), where the inhabitants had opposed to railway constructions for fear of losing their travel customers. Curiously, however, in Japan, there have been no reliable historical documents relating to the oppositions, or no historical articles certifying the facts of oppositions, using reliable records. Many stories of railway opposition have remained in vague condition from a view-point of positivism, today. The author insists that it is necessary to prove the fact of railway oppositions, through the following procedures. They are, (1) discovery of reliable documents written contemporaneously, (2) consideration to policies and general opinions about railways on the day, and (3) investigation of ideal rail-routes in relation to topographic feature and railway track gradient (25&permil; in maximum gradient in case of Japanese trunk railways).<br>There were two periods of railway mania in Japan, in the closing years of 19th Century, 1885-90 and 1894-99. In those days, inhabitants of rural towns made passionate movement to raise their fund for private railway construction, or to introduce national railways to their towns. It is unreasonable to suppose railway oppositions in those days without showing any reliable documents. As for the Kobu Railway, between Tokyo and Hachioji (opened in 1889), having famous oral traditions of railway opposition by <i>shukubamachis</i> along a traditional trunk road, we have no reliable records to prove the existence of oppositions, and many preserved documents showing the insistence of introduction of railway construction in those days, showed the decision in ideal rail-route in relation to topographic feature and track gradient.<br>There were some categories of railway oppositions, capable to certifying their existence by reliable documents. They were, (1) the oppositions to coastal or riverside railways, which compete with steamship operations, by officers of national railways, (2) the oppositions by military authorities or conservative <i>samurais</i> (feudal warriors) class, insisted the precedence of military expansion or anti-foreign spirit, and (3) the oppositions by farmers, protested the change for worse utilization of water in paddy field, because of the construction of embankment for railways. The first and second categories had lasted by about 1880s and 1870s, respectively, but the third one has continued toward the 20th Century. The author presents some examples belonging to the first and the third categories of oppositions during the Meiji Era (1868-1912) in this article.
著者
浅井 得一
出版者
The Geographic Education Society of Japan
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.4, pp.1-31, 1963

泰緬鉄道については, はじめて耳にする人もあると思うので, 正編とやや重複のきらいはあるが, その概要についてしるすことにする。<br>泰緬鉄道は太平洋戦争中に日本軍がタイとビルマの間に建設した延長415kmにおよぶ鉄道である。<br>日本軍は昭和17年5月のビルマ全土の占領をもって, 南方進攻作戦を成功のうちに終了した。しかし連合軍の日本軍占領地域に対する反攻は, インド洋方面においてまず開始され, 昭和17年の後半になると, ラングーン-シンガポール間の航路は, 連合軍の航空機と潜水艦による攻撃のために危険となって, ほとんどとだえてしまった。このため17年6月から安全な陸路としての鉄道の建設が始まったのである。<br>ビルマとタイを結ぶ鉄道の建設は, イギリス側でも調査をしたことがあり, トングーからチェンマイに至るもの, モールメンからビサヌロークに至るもの, メルギーからチュンポンに至るものなどのルートが考えられていたが, のちに日本軍が鉄道を建設したサム・オン峠 (いわゆるThree Pagodas' Pass) を越えるタンビザヤ-ノンブラドック間のルートについては, 工事が困難であるとして, 具体的な計画は何も立てていなかったようである。 (第1図) タンビザヤ-ノンブラドックのルートは, 地形的に見ればそれほどけわしいものではなく, 最高点のサム・オン峠も海抜450mしかない。イギリス側が困難なりとしたのは, おそらくここが世界的に名高い悪性マラリアの浸淫地であつたからではなかろうか。そして日本軍がここを選んだのはこのルートがビルマ側およびタイ側の既設の鉄道を結ぶ最短距離であったからである。<br>このルートのタイ側はメクロン川およびその支流ケオノイ川の谷に沿っており, 雨期には川を利用すればビルマ国境に近いところまでさかのぼることができる。ジャングルの主体は竹で, 株をつくってはえているから, 株と株の間は自由に通行できるが, 1つの株の竹と他の株の竹は上方で互にからみ合っていて, 道を開くために下方を切っても, 竹は倒れず, また焼いても燃えない。工事にはこのような思わぬ困難が待っていたのである。雨量は年に3,000mm内外であるが, その2/3は5月から9月までの雨期に降るから, ケオノイ川は氾濫の危険があり, またビルマ側は多くの川がこのルートを横切っているので, 流木を伴う急流のために, 橋が流失するおそれがある。<br>工事はビルマ側およびタイ側から同時に始められ, 昭和18年10月17日に東西の軌道がタイのコンコイターで連接され, 1年余りで完成した。日本軍の鉄道2個連隊を基幹とする部隊のほか, ジャワ, シンガポール, ビルマから集めたオランダ, オーストラリア, イギリスなどの連合軍の俘虜と, タイ, ビルマ, マライ, ジャワ, 仏印などの現地人の労務者がこの工事に従った。俘虜は昭和18年8月には47,737名 (うち患者27,053名, 就業率42%) に達し, 現地人労務者は多いときには10万名ぐらいいた。<br>工事に従う者の多くがマラリアにたおれたほか, 昭和18年の初めにはコレラがビルマ側で発生し, 4月にはタイ側に波及, マラリアやコレラのために日本軍1千, 俘虜1万, 現地人労務者3万の死者を出している。雨期には食料の輸送が不円滑となり, 奥地方面約100kmの間は, 栄養失調のための犠牲者も出た。<br>軌間はlmで, 日本からC56型機関車および貨車 「トム」 が送られビルマ, タイ, マライ, 仏印からも機関車, 貨車が集められた。軌条はラングーン-マンダレー間の複線およびイェ線の一部をはずしてもってきたり, マライの東部線をはずすなどおもに現地のものを利用したが, サイゴンに集結してあった大本営手持ちのもの120kmも使った。<br>鉄道は完成したが, 最初の計画の1日の輸送量1方向3,000tは, 工事をいそいだためその1/3の1,000tに変更された。すなわち1列車100t (10t貨車10両), 10往復20列車という案で, これは5個師団分の常続補給量であり, 絶対に欠くことができないものであった。しかし開通後間もなく空襲が始まって, 昼間輸送は困難となり夜間を主として1日に3列車の運転がせいいっぱいというところであった。停車場には必ず密林内に待避線をつくり, 昼間は列車をここへいれておくのである。また輸送は主として貨物と患者のみに限り, 健康な兵員は線路に沿って歩かせた。列車の時速も20kmにすぎなかったが, 航空路を除けば, これはビルマ-タイ間の唯一の連絡路となり, ビルマにおける20万の日本軍への補給は, 細々ながらこの1本の鉄道によってささえられていたのである。<br>敗戦後は日本軍の引揚げに使われたのち, こんどはイギリス軍に指揮された日本軍の俘虜の手によって, その大部分が撤去されてしまった。シンガポールの繁栄を守るため, あるいはビルマ, タイ2国の接近を警戒するためにイギリスがとった処置は, 大きな犠牲をはらって建設したこの鉄道をふたたびジャングルの中にうずめてしまったのである。
著者
土田 邦彦
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.15-38, 1971-09-25 (Released:2010-02-26)
被引用文献数
1

The writer shows in this paper the stages of development foundry industry of Sanjo: (1) The foundry dependent on handicraft of the farmer's side job. (2) Emergence of the foundry craftsman as a specialist. (3) The first stage of the foundry under the control of the wholesale merchants. (4) The second stage of the foundry under the control of the wholesale merchant. (5) The modernized and concentrated foundry.In the developing stage of the Shogunate Era the foundry craftsmen obtained their materials of products from the wholesale merchants and the deal of their products were under the control of the wholesale merchants. Afterwards the wholesale merchants gave craftsmen the fund to obtain materials. The production and dealing system changed gradually, but remarkable change came after the 2nd World War. The control of the wholesale merchants quickly disappeared since then, and modernized factories were built. Concentration of the factories was the new trend.In spite of modernization, the foundry industry of Sanjo are all the small scale one in both capital and factory even today. The kinds of products which are produced in the different factories are very various and each amount of products is not much. In addition the technical process still depends mainly upon handicraft, most of them are combined each other through various kinds of technical processes. It is one of the reasons why concentration are promoted.
著者
木谷 正夫
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.9-22, 1965-06-25 (Released:2010-02-26)
著者
天井 勝海
出版者
The Geographic Education Society of Japan
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.3, pp.21-30, 1967

(1) 東京大都市圏における人口変動の型の構成は, 明瞭な同心円的圏構造として捉えることができ, H型-C型-H型と展開されている。<br>(2) C型地域の拡大は, 東京 (23区), 東京周辺の都市の郊外化人口の結果である。<br>(3) C型地域の拡大は, もとH型地域をくみいれたものであり, その前線はまさに大都市地域化の進行しつつある地域として位置づけることができる。<br>(4) C型地域の拡大に伴い, 都心部においては人口の空洞化現象がみられ, H型地域の副都心方向への拡大傾向にある。<br>(5) H型からC型へ, C型からH型への変移地帯にA型, B型の分布が認められ, H型, またはC型への移行する前段階と考えられる。<br>(6) 人口流動から得た都市圏度の値は核心都市との結び付きを示す尺度として有効であるが, C型地域のほとんどは都市圏度500以上の地域であり, 東京 (23区) との関係を維持しながら人口の郊外化を起し, 大都市圏の拡大を行っていることを示すものである。<br>(7) このようにして捉えられた東京大都市圏は, 東海道線方向→東北, 高崎線方向に拡大化が進み, 現在では東武伊勢崎線, 常磐線方向への拡大が顕著である。<br>地形的には台地の都市化→沖積低地の都市化の傾向がみられる。
著者
矢ケ崎 典隆
出版者
日本地理教育学会
雑誌
新地理 (ISSN:05598362)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.3, pp.15-32, 2006-12-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
38

Regionalization is a traditional method of geography for understanding regional features as well as the overall characteristics of a nation as a whole. This paper intends to review various attempts mostly by Americans at dividing the United States into regions on the basis of various criteria for varied purposes. Twenty-four examples of regionalization of the United States are presented, which include physical geographic regions, Native American culture regions, culture-economic regions of European colonization, federal administrative regions, economic-industrial regions, culture regions, ordinary people's perceptive regions, settlement process regions, and voting behavior regions. By laying division lines on top of another, I would suggest simple regionalization of dividing the country into four quarters with boundaries of the 37th parallel and the 95th meridian. Geographic characteristics of the four quarters are summarized in Table 1. This regionalization appears to be valid in geographic education in order to provide students with rough images of the United States.