著者
横山 伸也 和泉 敏太郎 沖 一雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.12, pp.1183-1186, 2011 (Released:2011-12-28)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1 2

Radioactive species such as 137Cs were discharged from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant which was severely damaged by the enormous earthquake and tsunami. Cropland has been radioactively contaminated by 137Cs etc. and it seems impossible to plant rice due to the non-suitability for food. According to the reports, 137Cs transferred into the rice from soil is less than 1% on the average. Therefore, it is expected that the concentration of 137Cs in bioethanol will be well below the tentative restriction value even if bioethanol could be produced from the rice. It is proposed that the rice field should be filled with water to avoid the flow of runoff contaminated by radioactive cesium compounds because they are insoluble in aqueous phase and that bioethanol should be produced from the rice in order to maintain the multifunction of rice field and to continue the agriculture. If rice farming is halted and neglected, agricultural function of rice field as well as local community will be permanently destroyed.
著者
小林 一樹 齊藤 由空 廣神 奏音 広井 勉 小野田 淳人
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.96, no.6, pp.199-206, 2017-06-20 (Released:2017-06-30)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

世界中で消費され始めている日本の伝統的な食材の一つにこんにゃくがある。こんにゃく製品を製造する過程で多量のこんにゃく飛粉が副産物として生み出されているが,有効な活用方法が少なく,その付加価値を高めるために利用方法を模索する研究が求められている。本研究は,こんにゃく飛粉から再生可能エネルギーの一つであるバイオエタノールを生成することが可能かどうか検証することを目的として行った。硫酸,塩酸または硝酸を用いてこんにゃく飛粉中に含まれる多糖類を単糖類に分解(糖化)し,発酵で単糖類をエタノールと二酸化炭素に分解,蒸留による精製を行うことでエタノールの濃縮を試みた。また,糖化,発酵,精製の各工程後に生成する物質を明らかにするため,高速液体クロマトグラフならびにガスクロマトグラフによる成分分析を行った。本研究により,硫酸を用いた糖化を経ることで,こんにゃく飛粉(30 g)から他の食糧廃棄物と同様にエタノール水溶液(9.1 g/L,600 mL)の生成が可能であることが,明らかになった。本研究は,肥料や家畜飼料の他に,こんにゃく飛粉の新たな活用方法としてバイオエタノールが製造できる可能性を示した。
著者
Takanori KOBAYASHI Leo MATSUOKA Keiichi YOKOYAMA
出版者
The Japan Institute of Energy
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.96, no.10, pp.441-444, 2017-10-20 (Released:2017-10-31)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
1

セシウム交換反応133CsI (v = 0, j = 0) + 135Cs → 133Cs + I135Csの反応断面積と速度定数を評価するため,準古典的トラジェクトリー計算を行った。トラジェクトリー計算は,MP2/def-QZVPPDレベルのab initio電子状態理論計算より得たポテンシャルエネルギー曲面上で行った。得られたポテンシャルエネルギー曲面より,このセシウム交換反応では活性化障壁無く容易にCs2I中間状態が形成されることが示唆された。このCs2I中間状態の2つのCs-I結合長は同じであり,化学的に等価である。セシウム交換反応の反応断面積は,衝突エネルギーが高くなるにつれて小さくなる傾向を示した。反応速度定数は温度500 Kから1200 Kの間で約3×10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1と計算され,わずかな負の温度依存性も確認された。
著者
西田 孝伸 進藤 昌 増田 祥子 榊 郁子 高橋 武彦 森 英明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.95, no.4, pp.283-288, 2016-04-20 (Released:2016-04-28)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
1

本研究は杉微粉末からの同時糖化発酵によるバイオエタノール製造に関するものである。振動型粉砕機ダンデムリングミルにより粉砕した杉微粉末は,酵素糖化において効率的に糖に変換できる。杉微粉末と高温発酵性酵母Schizosaccharomyces japonicus SS4-5 を用いた40℃での同時糖化発酵ではエタノールの生成が阻害された。そこで,高温条件下で効率的にエタノール生成が行えるように改良するためにSS4-5株の細胞をUV処理に供与した。変異処理の結果,高温条件下で安定してエタノール生成が可能な変異株SS4-5SP株を取得した。SS4-5SP株を用いた40℃での同時糖化発酵ではエタノール生成とエタノール収率は51.11 g/Lと81.81%であった。SS4-5SP株を用いた同時糖化発酵により高効率のエタノール生成が実現できる。
著者
矢野 浩之
出版者
一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, no.12, pp.1134-1140, 2010-12-20

The plant cell wall consists of a cellulose nanofiber or a cellulose microfibril bundle. Since nanofibers are bundles of semi-crystalline extended cellulose chains, their thermal expansion is as low as that of quartz whilst their strength is five times that of steel. However, the industrial utilization of nanofibers has been limited despite their being the most abundant biomass resource on earth. Recently, due to the risk of depletion of oil reserves and global environmental concern, the extraction of cellulose nanofibers and their utilizations has gained increasing attention. This review summarizes the research works on the production of nanofibers from plant resources and their application in polymer composites.
著者
Surya Prakash CHANDAK Kumanduri Ranga CHARI Mushtaq Ahmed MEMON
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.94, no.10, pp.1129-1147, 2015-10-20 (Released:2015-10-30)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1

A project was implemented in India to promote conversion of waste agricultural biomass into energy in partnership with Birla Institute of Management Technology. Several capacity building and awareness raising workshops were carried out. The topics covered in these workshops included: assessment of waste agricultural biomass; technologies; methodology for sustainability assessment of technologies; and policies. In India, 415.546 Tg (415.546 million t) of waste agricultural biomass is generated annually equivalent to 103.88 Tg of oil of which 101.88 Tg (equivalent to 25.47 Tg of oil) is estimated to be surplus. The technology demonstration was carried out at M/s Starlit Power Systems Ltd. Sohna, Haryana, which is a lead recycling company. It was decided to replace the diesel oil firing system with syngas produced from a biomass gasifier. A 540 kW (thermal) gasifier installed which led to a saving of 440,000 L/year of diesel and thus avoided 1,160 t/year of GHG emissions. The company invested US$ 160,000 but the savings amounted to US $ 400,000 thus the investment was paid back in just 5 months. A national strategy for enhancing conversion of waste agricultural biomass into energy was developed. A sub-regional workshop was organized to share the results achieved and lessons learnt.
著者
山田 理
出版者
The Japan Institute of Energy
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.10, pp.985-992, 1993

Themoplastic property of liquefaction residue produced at NEDOL lt/d Process Supporting Unit using Wandoan and Wyoming coals was studied by Gieseler plastometer under atmospheric and elevated pressure. Effect of air oxidation on thermoplasticity was also investigated. Gieseler fluidity of residue was successfully reduced to zero by air oxidation at 150°C. Pressure dependency of fluidity of oxidized residue was different from that of caking coal. Fluidity was more reduced under higher pressure. Photoacoustic FT-IR spectra were measured for oxidized residues. Oxidation of residues was also observed in-situ by diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectrometer equipped with controlled environment chamber. IR spectra obtained showed that oxidation reaction of residue seemed to be similar to that of coal. Increase in absorption at around 1700 and 3400cm<SUP>-1</SUP> along with decrease in absorption at 2800 to 3050cm<SUP>-1</SUP> was observed as oxidation reaction proceeds, indicating formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups and dehydrogenation from methylene group mainly in aliphatic compounds.
著者
森泉 由恵 スクッスィー ピヤワン 本藤 祐樹 和気 洋子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.92, no.5, pp.491-502, 2013 (Released:2013-05-31)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1

Ethanol production using multiple feedstocks has the potential to be an important option for the development of ethanol industry in Thailand. In the present study, two types of plants that produce ethanol from both cassava and molasses (multi-feedstock plant) were evaluated with respect to profitability and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of one type of plant that produce ethanol from cassava only (single-feedstock plant). The results show that multi-feedstock plants have lower GHG emissions than a single-feedstock plant. Despite environmental benefits, multi-feedstock plants have no advantage in terms of profitability. However, the use of multiple feedstocks is more effective for avoiding the risk of feedstock price fluctuation and ensuring the economic viability of ethanol production. In addition, scenario analysis was carried out to explore the effective use of the biogas collected from wastewater treatment process. The analysis suggests that when the biogas is used for electricity generation, profitability of all plants is significantly improved compared with when it is used for steam generation. Although the biogas utilization for electricity generation has a negative impact on the environmental performance, it is an appealing option from a cost perspective.
著者
松野 泰也 稲葉 敦 Manfred SCHUCKERT
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.11, pp.1070-1079, 1998-11-20 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
6 7

Primary aluminum consumes much energy in its production process-es leading a great quantity of emissions. In Japan, 99 ‰ amount of primary aluminum is currently imported from other countries. In this work, Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Acidification Potential (AP) values for primary aluminum ingot produced in Brasilia, Russia, Australia, Venezuela, U. S. A., Norway and Island have been investigated. The average GWP and AP values for Japanese import mixtures were calculated. The mini-mum GWP and AP values for primary aluminum ingot produced with best available tech-nology have also been estimated.It was found that GWP value of primary aluminum ingot produced in each country varied from 10.4 to 27.4 kg-CO2 equiv./kg, while AP value varied from 0.0172 to 0.135 kg-SO2 equiv./kg. The average GWP and AP values for Japanese import mixtures were 15.5 kg-CO2 equiv./kg and 0.0516 kg-SO2 equiv./kg, respectively. GWP value of primary alu-minum ingot could be reduced up to 6.32 kg-CO2 equiv./kg if it is produced with best available technology, and AP value could be reduced up to 0.0103 kg-SO2 equiv./kg. The environmental impact of primary aluminum ingot widely varies according to which coun-tries primary aluminum ingot was produced in and which technology was used in its pro-duction process.
著者
金 煕濬 橋本 賢 松井 幸次郎 小名 清一 定方 正毅
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.3, pp.205-213, 1997-03-20 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
5 5

Chongqing city, which is located in the southwest of China, suffers from acid rain damage caused by SO2 in coal combustion gas. Particularly, stoker type boilers in medium and small factories have no emission control facility in spite of using coal with high sulfur content (3-5%), so that a suitable countermeasure is required in angles of the cost, technological level and social conditions.We proposed a coal briquette combustion with the additive of limestone or slaked lime as one of the countermeasure. The possibility of coal briquette combustion methods was examined experimentally and compared with other methods from points of view of the cost and energy saving effect. The desulfurization rate of 70% was obtained in the briquette combustion method with the additive of limestone and 80% for slaked lime. Most of sulfur in the coal (both organic and pyritic) was trapped as gypsum anhydride (CaSO4). The desulfurization rate slightly depended on initial oxygen concentration in the supplied gas and size of limestone, while it was not influenced by briquetting pressure.The desulfurization cost of coal briquette was calculated as 20-30% of semi-dry or fluidized bed process. The briquette combustion method was expected to be effective in improving the human health and forest conservation in Chongqing city.
著者
多田 千佳 柳田 高志 佐賀 清崇 ベスピャトコ リュドミラ バティスタ エルマー 藤本 真司 美濃輪 智朗
出版者
The Japan Institute of Energy
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.10, pp.869-876, 2009

The economic impacts, CO<SUB>2</SUB> emission, and change in industrial structures using rice husk power plant in Japan were investigated using input-output table of Japan. The direct and second economic impacts by investment to the rice husk power plant sector were 1.5 times higher than that to the power sector. The flow of money shifted to the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector during introduction rice husk power plant. Increasing rate of using rice husk power plant induce the high-value added and the low CO<SUB>2</SUB> emission society with a very little change in industrial structure.
著者
Herdhata AGUSTA HENDRAYANTO Muhamad T. SUDARYANTO Ambar M. DEWI Dirk HOELSCHER
出版者
The Japan Institute of Energy
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.98, no.5, pp.101-105, 2019-05-20 (Released:2019-05-31)
参考文献数
11

Since water balance is considered as a major constituent in the environmental issue for sustainability of oil palm production system, particularly as significant biomass contributor, runoff water as water loss and infiltrated water for oil palm consumption play the most significant role for the explanation of water status and should be exposed comprehensively. In case of water inefficiency in oil palm cultivation system, problem-solving solutions are to be identified and recommended. The purpose of the experiment was to approach the value of infiltrated water at smallholders oil palm plantation in Jambi at 4 gradient slopes category i.e. plain (0-5%), slight (6-10%), moderate (11-21%) and heavy slope (24-33%). The experiment was conducted at dry season from June to October 2013 in 4 replications. Water throughfall from September-October amounted to 35-39 mm from the total precipitation value of 97.1 mm. Infiltrated water from the water throughfall amounted to 32.3 mm at the slight gradient slope and 6.8 mm at the heavy gradient slope. Runoff rate at heavy gradient slope reached the value of 82.7 mm per 100 mm of total throughfall value. Canopy covering rate measured by sunlight transmission ranging from 11.9% - 13.5% had no significant effect on throughfall value at all of gradient slopes category.
著者
益山 久男
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.1, pp.31-42, 1998-01-20 (Released:2011-02-23)
参考文献数
24

China has made every effort to increase the railway transport since the foundation of the Peple's Republic of China. In 1995, Chinese railways reached 54, 615 km.The transport distance is now 2.50 times longer than that in the foundation in 1949 and 1.12 times longer than that in the start of market-oriented reform and open-door policy in 1978.Ministry of Railways has succeeded in modernization of railways such as electrification, double tracking and making larger the freight car. China is expect to continue 8% economic growth rate for the next fifteen years. The production of coal is estimated at 1.4 billion tons in 2000, and 2.0 billion tons in 2010.The shortage of investment in railways will bring the shortage of the railway trans-port.I think that the tailway trasport, if it is insufficent to invest in railway transport would be bottole-neck of the production of coal in China. It is also necessary that both the waterway transport and road transport are expanded and strengthend by investments. Thus coal and railway are essential to Chinese economy.This paper expects that appropriate policy on the transport of coal is quite necessary for the sound economic growth in the future.
著者
千葉 正毅 ペルライン ロン コーンブル ロイ プラード ハーシャ スタンフォード スコット エカリー ジョセブ
出版者
一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌 (ISSN:09168753)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.9, pp.743-747, 2007-09-20
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1 9

In the past decade, much research has been focused on electroactive polymers (EAPs) as actuators. However, less well known is the fact that some of these materials have outstanding performance in the generator mode. Whereas polymer actuators convert electrical energy to mechanical energy, polymer generators convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. Many of the characteristics that make EAPs attractive as actuators also make them attractive as generators. Potential advantages include high energy output per unit mass, low cost, good coupling to many mechanical inputs, lightweight materials, and flexible design. We believe that given new capabilities enabled by EAPs, and the world's critical need for electrical power, that EAP power generation is an important focus area for research and development. Indeed, it is possible that EAP power generation could well exceed the importance of EAP actuators, itself an exciting technology area.
著者
松野 泰也 稲葉 敦 BETZ Michael SCHUCKERT Manfred
出版者
一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会
雑誌
日本エネルギー学会誌
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.12, pp.1162-1176, 1998
被引用文献数
5

Since most industrial products consume electricity during their life cycle, the results of inventory analyses are usually sensitive to the data of electricity. In Japan, electricity is supplied by 10 electric companies that have their own regions to supply electricity. Constitution of power stations differs with each electric company. Thus, resources consumption and emissions per kWh of electricity are different with each electric company. It is, therefore, necessary to develop the inventories for electricity grid mix of each electric company for LCA practitioners in Japan. In this work, life cycle inventories for electricity gird mix of 10 electric companies in Japan have been developed.<BR>It was found that average CO<SUB>2</SUB> emissions related to 1 kWh of electricity distributed by electric companies were 0.45 kg-CO<SUB>2</SUB>/kWh, whereas average SO<SUB>2</SUB> and NOx emissions were 0.51 g/kWh and 0.47 g/kWh, respectively. Relative contribution of fuel production and fuel transport to CO<SUB>2</SUB> emissions was 4-12 % of total emissions. On the other hand, relative contribution of fuel production and fuel transport to SO<SUB>2</SUB> and NOx emissions was around 50 %. Average values of CO, CH<SUB>4</SUB>, NMHC and dust emissions were 1.3&times;10<SUP>-4</SUP> kg/kWh, 1.3&times;10<SUP>-3</SUP> kg/kWh, 3.3&times;10<SUP>-4</SUP> kg/kWh and 2.4&times;10<SUP>-5</SUP> kg/kWh, respectively. Heavy metal emissions into air were also investigated.