著者
Akio TAKAHASHI Keita NISHIYAMA Midori OHKITA Kosuke SAWA
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2-3, pp.91-99, 2016 (Released:2017-09-21)
参考文献数
26

From the perspective of animal welfare, positive reinforcement should be used in animal training situations, such as an equestrian event. To assess the reinforcement properties of patting the neck of horses, a simple instrumental conditioning test was administered. Three horses were required to press a button with their nose for a food pellet and patting. ABA reversal design was administered to assess the relative reinforcement properties of patting to food reinforcement; and, the reinforcement schedule for the food reinforcer was gradually changed from the continuous reinforcement (CRF) to a fixed ratio (FR) 5. All subjects consistently showed a low level of response for a patting reinforcer, suggesting that reinforcement effect of neck patting may be trivial, if any.
著者
Ayaka TAKIMOTO Yusuke HORI Kazuo FUJITA
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2-3, pp.100-111, 2016 (Released:2017-09-21)
参考文献数
50

We tested whether horses (Equus caballus) are sensitive to human attentional states and modify the modality of begging behaviors as a function of human attentional states in a naturalistic food-requesting situation. In Experiment 1, horses tended to produce more auditory or tactile begging behaviors when the human experimenter (E1)’s eyes were covered by her hand than when they were not covered. However, there was no difference in visual begging behaviors between conditions. In Experiment 2, horses produced significantly more auditory or tactile begging behaviors when E1’s eyes were closed than when they were open. In contrast, horses produced significantly more visual begging behaviors when E1’s eyes were open than when they were closed. These results suggest that horses understand the role of eyes as an indicator of human attentional states and show effective and flexible begging behaviors proactively as a function of human attentional states.
著者
Yuki ITO Arii WATANABE Saho TAKAGI Minori ARAHORI Atsuko SAITO
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2-3, pp.112-120, 2016 (Released:2017-09-21)
参考文献数
42

We tested whether cats (Felis catus) could recognize human attentional states when begging for food from one of two unfamiliar actors. Cats were tested under three conditions that differed in the actors’ actions: Visual only condition—the actor looking at the cat silently versus facing sideways silently; Visual and Auditory condition—the actor looking at and calling to the cat versus looking at the cat silently; and Auditory only condition—the actor facing down and calling to the cat versus facing down silently. In the Visual and Auditory condition, cats preferred the actor who was calling to them. In the Visual only and the Auditory only conditions, the cats showed no preference for the actors’ attentional states. There was a modest difference in the preference between the Visual and Auditory condition and the Auditory only condition. These results suggest that cats can use vocal cues of attention toward them only in situations in which humans are looking at them.
著者
Yuki TANIDA Taiji UENO Matthew A. LAMBON RALPH Satoru SAITO
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.145-154, 2015 (Released:2016-09-24)
参考文献数
20

It is well established that the phonological system captures the quasiregularity of phoneme sequences. For example, repetition performance is better for nonwords composed of phoneme combinations that occur frequently in one’s native language. Although phoneme sequences are necessarily accompanied by suprasegmental aspects (e.g., accent patterns), the influence of suprasegmental aspects has not been investigated extensively. This study examined the influence of Japanese pitch-accent pattern on nonword repetition. Exploration of nonwords provides an opportunity to investigate phonological factors largely without lexical and semantic influences. We conducted immediate and delayed nonword repetition experiments, manipulating phonotactic frequency and pitch-accent type. Two experiments revealed that nonwords presented with atypical accent patterns showed more frequent phonemic and accent pattern errors than nonwords with more typical accent patterns. The results indicate that the phonological system captures a range of sublexical phonological characteristics found in each language through linguistic experiences and is not limited to coding phonemic sequences alone. We suggest that although there is diversity in functioning of phonological systems driven by linguistic variability, such diversity stems from universal learning mechanisms in language processing systems.
著者
Nobuhito ABE
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.131-145, 2012 (Released:2012-09-20)
参考文献数
73
被引用文献数
2 or 0

It is widely recognized that human memory is an imperfect process that sometimes causes various kinds of distortions and illusions. Recently, some light has been shed on the brain mechanisms involved in this false memory phenomenon as a result of research into its neural basis embarked on by cognitive neuroscientists. This article reviews neuroimaging studies that have attempted to distinguish between true and false memory retrieval. It also reviews neuroimaging studies that have measured neural activity during encoding and addresses the question of whether the encoding-related neural activity predicts subsequent memory distortions. Finally, there is a brief discussion from the cognitive neuroscience perspective about whether the memory distortion reflects deficient cognitive processing or is a by-product of adaptive cognitive processing.
著者
Kazuo FUJITA
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2-3, pp.71-72, 2016 (Released:2017-09-21)
参考文献数
11
著者
Mary FLAHERTY
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.31-38, 2005 (Released:2005-05-12)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
6 or 0

Literature on mental rotation tasks consistently reports that males perform better than females. The current study is an attempt to scrutinize the influence of culture and experience with spatial activities in performance on a mental rotation test. The participants were 115 Ecuadorians, 120 Irish Caucasians and 128 Japanese. Half the participants in each group were male and half were female. They completed the Group Mental Rotation Test (GMRT) and a Spatial Activities Questionnaire (SAQ). Males outperformed females on the GMRT in all three cultures. Participation in “masculine activities” from the SAQ correlated with high GMRT scores, in “feminine activities” with low GMRT scores. There was a main effect of nationality; subjects from Ireland and Japan scored higher than their counterparts in Ecuador. The implications of the nationality effect raises questions about the widely accepted stability of the gender difference in spatial ability.
著者
Rika MIZUNO Takao MATSUI
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.3, pp.208-221, 2013 (Released:2013-12-11)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
3 or 0

Native Japanese readers are known to rely heavily on visual codes and far less on phonological codes in letter processing (Mizuno, Matsui, & Bellezza, 2007). This study aimed to determine whether the lexical access of words written in kanji characters would parallel Japanese letter processing. Two experiments measured native Japanese readers’ performance on lexical decision tasks under three nonword conditions: orthographically misleading transposed-letter nonwords, phonologically misleading pseudohomophones, and standard nonwords. The results showed that readers’ performance was impaired by transposed-letter nonwords but not by pseudohomophones, suggesting that native Japanese speakers relied heavily on visual information and to a lesser degree on phonological information in the lexical access of kanji words. These characteristics of lexical access in native Japanese readers may be adaptations to the fact that Japanese kanji words have many homophones.
著者
Christopher R. MARTELL
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.131-137, 2013 (Released:2013-08-30)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Behavioral treatments for depression that originated in the early 1970s have emerged again in the early 21st century known as Behavioral Activation (BA). The current formulation of BA is based on the earlier work, and represents a refinement rather than a completely new approach. As the treatment has gained in popularity, several misconceptions and misunderstandings about the treatment have developed: that it is unique; that there are multiple, substantially different forms of BA; that the treatment requires specific strategies be used in all cases; and that the treatment is conducted in a lock-step fashion. In this article one of the primary authors of the main texts/protocols for BA argues that these are misconceptions and that BA needs to remain a treatment driven by a good functional analysis of the individual case, and that, at the most basic level, BA is just good behavior therapy for depression.
著者
Petter JOHANSSON Lars HALL Sverker SIKSTRÖM
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.142-155, 2008 (Released:2008-09-02)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
15 or 31

The phenomenon of change blindness has received a great deal of attention during the last decade, but very few experiments have examined the effects of the subjective importance of the visual stimuli under study. We have addressed this question in a series of studies by introducing choice as a critical variable in change detection (see Johansson, Hall, Sikström, & Olsson, 2005, Johansson, Hall, Sikström, & Tärning, 2006). In the present study, participants were asked to choose which of two pictures they found more attractive. For stimuli we used both pairs of abstract patterns and female faces. Sometimes the pictures were switched during to choice procedure, leading to a reversal of the initial choice of the participants. Surprisingly, the subjects seldom noticed the switch, and in a post-test memory task, they also often remembered the manipulated choice as being their own. In combination with our previous findings, this result indicates that we often fail to notice changes in the world even if they have later consequences for our own actions.
著者
Takashi NAITO Yuriko SAKATA
出版者
プシコロギア会
雑誌
PSYCHOLOGIA (ISSN:00332852)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.3, pp.179-194, 2010 (Released:2010-11-03)
参考文献数
33

To explore different functions of gratitude and indebtedness, two questionnaire studies were conducted with female university students in Japan. These studies examined the correlations between positive feelings, regret, and indebtedness when receiving a favor, and the resulting feelings such as the enhancement of prosocial motivation (wish to help) and the obligation to help others. The results of Study 1 suggested that positive feelings and indebtedness in a hypothetical helping situation differently correlated with other variables: Positive feelings had a significant positive correlation with the enhancement of prosocial motivation. In contrast, indebtedness had a significant positive correlation with enhancement of obligation (should help). Study 2 was conducted by using positive and socially conceptualized feeling items such as the fulfillment of friendship. Results suggested that the social conceptualization might add obligatory nature to the positive feelings.