著者
藤田 克昌
出版者
一般社団法人 日本生物物理学会
雑誌
生物物理 (ISSN:05824052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.4, pp.174-179, 2010 (Released:2010-07-25)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
2 or 3

Recent developments in fluorescence microscopy techniques have broken the diffraction limit and achieved the spatial resolution of sub 100 nm range. Saturated excitation (SAX) microscopy and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy utilize saturable optical phenomena seen in laser excitation and stimulate emission of fluorescence molecules to induce strongly nonlinear optical effects for the resolution improvement. Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) applied photoswitchable fluorescence probes for precise measurement of positions of the fluorescence probes in a sample in a few tens of nanometer scale. This review introduces the principles and the characteristics of those super resolution microscopy techniques with discussing the imaging formation and the resolution limit in conventional microscopy techniques.

17 0 0 0 OA 若手の声

出版者
一般社団法人 日本生物物理学会
雑誌
生物物理 (ISSN:05824052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.3, pp.173-174, 2013 (Released:2013-05-29)
著者
福島 健児 藤田 浩徳
出版者
一般社団法人 日本生物物理学会
雑誌
生物物理 (ISSN:05824052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.5, pp.255-261, 2016 (Released:2016-09-27)
参考文献数
15

Carnivorous plants produce morphologically complex leaves that serve as a trapping device. Among a variety of the trap leaves, pitcher-shaped leaves have been considered to have evolved by drastic morphological changes, since no evolutionary intermediate has been identified in both extant and extinct species. Here we review roles of organ polarity and cell division patterns in the pitcher development, as well as applications of vertex dynamics model to understand leaf development. Development and evolution of pitcher leaves are inferred from both experimental and computational approaches.
著者
岩切 淳一 浜田 道昭
出版者
一般社団法人 日本生物物理学会
雑誌
生物物理 (ISSN:05824052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.4, pp.217-220, 2016 (Released:2016-07-25)
参考文献数
20

Recent advances in high throughput sequencing technologies unveiled that large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed from human genome. Currently, these emerging transcripts are needed to be functionally classified and annotated. Here we review several bioinformatic approaches for analyzing the important characteristics of the lncRNAs toward discovering their functions: 1) tissue specificities of lncRNA expressions, 2) two types of macromolecular interactions (RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions), 3) secondary structures of lncRNAs.
著者
Takayoshi Tomono Hisao Kojima Satoshi Fukuchi Yukako Tohsato Masahiro Ito
出版者
一般社団法人 日本生物物理学会
雑誌
Biophysics and Physicobiology (ISSN:21894779)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.57-68, 2015 (Released:2015-11-12)
参考文献数
59

Glycans play important roles in such cell-cell interactions as signaling and adhesion, including processes involved in pathogenic infections, cancers, and neurological diseases. Glycans are biosynthesized by multiple glycosyltransferases (GTs), which function sequentially. Excluding mucin-type O-glycosylation, the non-reducing terminus of glycans is biosynthesized in the Golgi apparatus after the reducing terminus is biosynthesized in the ER. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analyses of human GTs by investigating the degree of conservation of homologues in other organisms, as well as by elucidating the phylogenetic relationship between cephalochordates and urochordates, which has long been controversial in deuterostome phylogeny. We analyzed 173 human GTs and functionally linked glycan synthesis enzymes by phylogenetic profiling and clustering, compiled orthologous genes from the genomes of other organisms, and converted them into a binary sequence based on the presence (1) or absence (0) of orthologous genes in the genomes. Our results suggest that the non-reducing terminus of glycans is biosynthesized by newly evolved GTs. According to our analysis, the phylogenetic profiles of GTs resemble the phylogenetic tree of life, where deuterostomes, metazoans, and eukaryotes are resolved into separate branches. Lineage-specific GTs appear to play essential roles in the divergence of these particular lineages. We suggest that urochordates lose several genes that are conserved among metazoans, such as those expressing sialyltransferases, and that the Golgi apparatus acquires the ability to synthesize glycans after the ER acquires this function.