著者
茂木 正利 井口 信義 坂口 健二
出版者
日本醗酵工学会
雑誌
醗酵工学雑誌 (ISSN:03675963)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.5, 1956-05

1) The transition of the molds, yeasts, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in "Homare Shiro Miso" was studied by a new viable counting method.2) In raw materials, especially in soy-bean and salt, molds and bacteria markedly found.3) Although the viable counts of molds are declining during the ripening process, a constant number may be found through the storage.4) In the koji-making, the counts of yeasts increase rapidly, but during ripening they decrease and rather constant number has been found during the storage.5) Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria increase surprisingly during koji-making, but at its end they decrease to some extent. During ripening they decline rapidly and, when the material is kept at a temperature below 25℃, they increase again in the number.
著者
小玉 健吉 京野 忠司
出版者
日本醗酵工学会
雑誌
醗酵工学雑誌 (ISSN:03675963)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.1, pp.1-9, 1974-01

A taxonomic survey has been made of ascosporogenous yeasts found in exudates occurring on tree stumps of broad-leaved trees in Japan during the periods of April and July of 1967,1968,1972,and 1973. The samples were collected in test tubes by using cotton pieces. Usually within 2 to 7 days after collecting, a loopful of the sample was streaked directly on carrot juice-koji extract agar medium containing 100 ppm of chloramphenicol. At the same time, samples were enriched by 2 kinds of liquid media besides the koji extract, i.e., sodium acetate-peptone-yeast extract, and glucose-nitrate media, both supplemented with 100 ppm of chloramphenicol, for 3-7 days at 25℃ followed by streaking on the agar media mentioned above. The pure cultures were identified mainly by the procedures described in "The Yeasts" edited by Lodder (1970). Out of 334 strains identified, this paper deals with the species belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Pichia, and Debaryomyces.Among these a new species of Pichia naganishii is proposed beased on the reasons menitioned below.Pichia naganishii Kodama sp. n.The strain studied resembles Pichia angophorae Miller et Barker and Pichia bovis van Uden et do Carmo-Sousa, in both the shape of the ascopore and the assimilation pattern of the routine five sugars.However, in contrast to P. angophorae, this strain does not form pseudomycelium, nor does it ferment sucrose and maltose but assimilates _L-arabinose, _D-ribose, _L-rhamnose, glycerol and erythritol, and can grow at 37℃. Also, this strain is differentiated from P. bovis, in that it assimilates in addition to the above carbon compounds, ribitol and galactitol, and furthermore heterogamous conjugation preceds its ascus formation.Single strain (LKB-747) of this species was isolated from exudate of Camellia sp. in Nagasaki prefecture.
著者
小玉 健吉 京野 忠司 市川 邦介 長西 広輔
出版者
日本醗酵工学会
雑誌
醗酵工学雑誌 (ISSN:03675963)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.11, 1962-11

This paper deals with two yeast cultures which were isolated from a mushroom (Russula spec.) sent from Germany. Judging from the morphology of the ascospores with warty surface walls, these cultures should be classified in the genus Debaryomyces.These isolated agree well with debaryomyces cantarellii Capriotti not only in the morphological properties (ie. large long oval cells in malt extract, pellicle formation in malt extract, etc.) but also in the physiological ones (ie. fermentation of sugars, assimilation of carbon compounds, no vitamin required for growth).This species should be considered as one of the unique and significant species in discussing the diagnosis of genus Debaryomyces, because of both of its strong fermentative ability of sugars and oxidative dissimilation, as well as the cell morphology. A culture of the isolates (L.K.B.D-2) has been deposited in the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (Delft. Holland).
著者
小玉 健吉 京野 忠司 市川 邦介 長西 広輔
出版者
日本醗酵工学会
雑誌
醗酵工学雑誌 (ISSN:03675963)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.9, 1962-09

This paper deals with 5 yeast cultures isolated from soils sent from abroad, which should be classified in the genus Debaryomyces Klocker judging from their ascospores with distinct warty surface walls formed after hetro or isogamic conjugation. These isolates are similiar to Debaryomyces globosus Klocker in many of their properties, as follows : 1. Fermentation of glucose, saccharose and raffinose2. Assimilation of glucose, saccharose3. No pellicle formation on malt or "koji" extract4. A rather higher maximum temperature for the growth (ie 40-41℃).Whereas, in 1952,Lodder et van Rij changed Debaryomyces globosus to Saccharomyces rosei (Guilliermond) Lodder et van Rji, based predominantly on its strongly fermentative activity. In the author's opinion, however, it seems to be noteworthy that, as in most species belonging to genus Debaryomyces Klocker hitherto reported (except for a very few species such as D. vini etc.) a distinct warty wall of ascospores can be clearly observed in all strains under discussion and therefore this characteristic of ascospores should be considered as one of the most important properties to define the genus Debaryomyces as Klocker originally proposed.Eventually, taking the above mentioned into consideration, the authors wish to identify our isolates not as Saccharomyces rosei but as Debaryomyces globosus which should be regarded as a species of different genus from the former in the morphology of ascospores. A type culture of the isolates (D-1) has been deposited in Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (Delft. Holland).
著者
関口,順一
出版者
日本醗酵工学会
雑誌
醗酵工学会誌 : hakkokogaku kaishi
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.3, 1983

Patulin is a typical mycotoxin originally isolated from Penicillium patulum as an antibiotic, and the patulin biosynthetic pathway is a classical example of the large group of polyacetate-dervied secondary metabolites known as polyketides. Unexpected metabolites produced by a patulin-deficient mutant revealed a new portion of the pathway. We have investigated the patulin biosynthetic pathway with the aid of several patulin-deficient mutants, pathway enzymology, bioconvesion of metabolites, and immobilized cell techniques. It was found that three mycotoxins (phyllostine, isoepoxydon and ascladiol) and a new lactone (neopatulin) exist on the pathway. Two dehydrogenases among the pathyway enzymes were characterized. Furthemore, in contrast to the accepted assumption, monooxygenase mediated the ring cleavage of an aromatic precursor, gentisaldehyde. Finally, the patulin pathway becomes twice as long as the portion known before 1978,and is one of the best characterized pathways of secondary metabolism. In this monograph, mechanisms of the conversion of phyllostine to neopatulin, and neopatulin to phyllostine, are proposed, and a pathway for the related mycotoxin, penicillic acid, is also discussed.
著者
岩井 譲 大村 智 秦 藤樹
出版者
日本醗酵工学会
雑誌
醗酵工学雑誌 (ISSN:03675963)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.10, pp.842-846, 1971-10

In the course of various fermentations for the production of antibiotics by Streptomyces sp., glycerol, as well as glucose, has been found to be a preferred carbon source. In order to determine glycerol in the fermentation broth, a colorimetric method based on the procedures described by West was modified with respect to the condition of oxidation of glycerol by periodic acid. It has been found that, under a mild condition of periodic acid oxidation at 0 ℃ for 30 min, glycerol can be determined even when glucose is present. This method was applied in the practical production of three antibiotics : cycloserine, echinomycin, and streptomycin, and the following results were obtained : (1) The metabolism of glycerol was more active than that of glucose or starch; during each fermentation, the glycerol in the medium was nearly consumed after 45 hours.(2) The peak of antibiotic production in fermented broth appeared after the glycerol consumption was completed.
著者
村田 晃
出版者
日本醗酵工学会
雑誌
醗酵工学雑誌 (ISSN:03675963)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.125-133, 1973-02

乳酸菌利用醗酵に使用されているLactobacillus caseiのJ1ファージの増殖機構を究明する一手段として, 生体高分子物質の生合成に影響を与える抗生物質を阻害剤として用い, それら阻害剤のファージ増殖阻害の機作について追求し, 正常なJ1ファージ増殖過程の解析を行なおうとした.既に, DNAの生合成を阻害するマイトマイシンC, DNA依存RNAの生合成を阻害するアクチノマイシンDについて報告した.今回は, タンパク質の生合成を阻害すると知られているクロラムフェニコール(CM)について検討した.1)CMは, L. casei S-1菌株式会社に対して静菌的に作用しその生育・増殖を抑制すること(最小生育阻止濃度は20μg/ml), ならびに, 最小生育阻止濃度において, タンパク質の生合成を阻害するが, DNAおよびRNAの生合成に対してはほとんど影響を与えないことが示された.2)CMは, 遊離状態のJ1ファージを不活性化しなかった.3)CMは, J1ファージの宿主菌細胞表面への吸着, 引き続いてのファージDNAの菌細胞内注入を阻害しなかった.但し, 吸着速度はCM存在下で若干低下した.4)CMは, J1ファージの増殖を阻害した.20μg/ml以上では, 増殖阻害は完全であったが, それ以下では, 濃度に応じて潜伏期は延長され, バースト・サイズは減少した.5)CMによるJ1ファージの増殖阻害は, ファージDNA注入以後の菌細胞内増殖段階のブロックによると示されたので, CMの菌細胞内増殖阻害の機作を追求した.CM存在下で成熟ファージ粒子は形成されないことから, CMの作用段階は暗黒期の段階であると示された.CM存在下でファージエンドリジンおよびファージ構成タンパク質は合成されなかった.細胞内における増殖型ファージの紫外線感受性を指標にしてファージDNAの複製に対するCMの影響を検したところ, CM存在下で, 注入された親ファージDNAの状態の変化は認められたが, 子ファージDNAの複製は認められなかった.化学的にもCM存在下ではファージDNAの生合成は認められなかった.CM・パルス実験の結果から, 注入された親ファージDNAはCM存在下で完全にintactな状態に保たれていること, CMによる阻害は可逆的なものであること, CMが系から除去された場合一定時間のlag後に反応が再開されること, CMによるファージ増殖阻害の段階はごく初期の段階であることなどが示された.CMが感染時から存在する場合には, ファージDNAは合成されないが, ファージDNAの合成が開始された後にCMを作用させた場合には, ファージDNAの合成は影響を受けず正常に続行された.一方, ファージタンパク質の合成は作用後すぐ停止された.以上の諸結果を総合して, CMは, ファージDNAの複製の開始に必須のタンパク質の合成をブロックすることによりJ1ファージの増殖を阻害すると考えられた.
著者
中西 透 横手 保治 武次 保之
出版者
日本醗酵工学会
雑誌
醗酵工学雑誌 (ISSN:03675963)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.10, pp.742-749, 1973-10

著者らはCorynebacterium glutamicumによるL-グルタミン酸発酵液中にしばしばL-プロリンを副生することを見出し, この副生プロリンを増加せしめ発酵法によってL-プロリンを製造することを目的として種々の検討を行なった.多数のL-グルタミン酸生産菌株についてL-プロリン生産能をしらべたところ, 殆ど全部の菌株に生産能を認めたが, また一方, L-プロリン生成蓄積能の強さは菌株によって大きな差が認められ, L-プロリン生成蓄積能の最も菌株としてC. glutamicum KY 9003を選択した. 本菌を用いてL-プロリンの生産条件を検討した結果, 高濃度の塩化アンモニウム存在下でビオチンを菌体の生育増殖に充分量与えることによってL-プロリンの生成蓄積がいちじるしく増大した. この場合L-グルタミン酸の生産は非常に少なく両因子の高濃度化によるL-グルタミン酸発酵からL-プロリン発酵への転換が判然と認められた. また塩化アンモニウムの効果はアンモニウムイオンと塩素イオンの相乗的作用によることが判明した. アルコール類の添加効果を検討しエタノール, プロパノールまたはブタノール等の添加が菌体の過剰生育を抑制するとともに, L-プロリンの生成蓄積をいちぢるしく増進した.以上の検討の結果にもとずき5l-ジアーファーメンターを用い, 糖濃度23%, 塩化アンモニウム6.0%, ビオチン50γ/l, エタノール1.5%を含む培地で培養し, 96~120時間でL-プロリン40mg/ml以上を蓄積した.