著者
小山 真人
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.111, no.2, pp.222-232, 2002-04-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
73
被引用文献数
7 6

Previous studies have reported many examples of possible mechanical coupling between volcanic unrests and large earthquakes, which occurred around the volcano. This paper reviews these studies and reorganizes the types of mechanical coupling into the following five cases (cases A-1, A-2, B-1, B-2, and C) and 10 mechanisms : In case A-1, in which a large earthquake triggers activation of a volcano, the following four mechanisms can explain their coupling : (A-1-1) an increase in compressional stress, which was produced by earthquake source faulting, squeezes magma up to the surface; (A-1-2) an increase in differential stress (or magma pressure), which was produced by earthquake source faulting, promotes dike intrusion; (A-1-3) increase in tensional stress, which was produced by earthquake source faulting, triggers gas bubbling in magma; and, (A-1-4) dynamic stress change, which was associated with seismic wave, triggers gas bubbling in magma.In case A-2, in which a large earthquake triggers deactivation of a volcano, the following three mechanisms can explain their coupling : (A-2-1) increase in compressional stress, which was produced by earthquake source faulting, chokes a vent or prevents gass bubbling in magma; (A-2-2) decrease in differential stress (or magma pressure), which was produced by earthquake source faulting, prevents dike intrusion; and, (A-2-3) increase in tensional stress, which was produced by earthquake source faulting, drains magma back toward a chamber.In case B-1, in which a volcanic unrest triggers a large earthquake, coupling can be explained by mechanism B-1-1 : change in stress, which was produced by dike intrusion (or pressure change in a magma chamber), promotes earthquake source faulting. In case B-2, in which a volcanic unrest prevents a large earthquake, coupling can be explained by mechanism B-2-1 : change in stress, which was produced by dike intrusion (or pressure change in a magma chamber), prevents earthquake source faulting.In case C, in which a change in plate motion causes a stress change and then triggers (or prevents) a large earthquake (or a volcanic unrest), coupling can be explained by mechanism C : stress change promotes (or prevents) earthquake source faulting or ascending / intrusion of magma.
著者
中村 一明
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.2, pp.93-104, 1966-04-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
14

Taal Volcano, situated at SW part of Luzon Island, Philippines, erupted during 28th to 30th, September 1965 after fifty-four years of quiescence.As an example of a magmatophreatic eruption of basaltic volcano, this paper deals with the course and the ejecta of the eruption with special reference to the horizontal blasts, based both on a paper by MOORE et al. and on the writers field observation. Topography of the island and historical records of eruption are examined from the same viewpoint by literature survey.Taal Volcano is an island in Taal Lake and is 25 km2 in area with a summit crater 2 km in diameter. The volcano island is composed almost of pyroclastic materials which are the product of past magmatophreatic eruptions. Sixteen craters are found on the slope of the main flat cone and they are wide in proportion to their height suggesting their origin to be explosive eruptions.No historical record describes quiet effusion of lava flows, but it indicates explosive nature of eruption.Essential materials responsible for the present eruption was titanaugie-olivine-basalt. The eruption continued for about 60 hours and no lava flow issued. The area of about 60 km2 was covered by new pyroclastic ejecta more than 25 cm thick. New elongate explosion crater was opened by the present fissure explosion on the southwestern slope of the main cone.From the base of explosively rising eruption clouds, horizontal blasts spread out in all directions. The blast is turbulent mixture of mud, lapilli, blocks and crept on the surface of the ground with hurricane velocity and near the crater it spilled over a ridge of 300 m in relative height (summit crater rim). But it tended to spread on lower places as it proceeded further away from the crater. Parts of the blast crossed the lake surface over 2 km and caused much damage to the villages at opposite lakeside. The blasts left giant ripples on the surface of the deposits within 2 km from the crater. The wave-length of the ripples decreases regularly from 15 m to 3 m as the distance from the crater increases.The blasts are regarded to be a low temperature pyroclastic flows. The mobility of the flow is thought to be maintained only by the initial formation of a fluidized system. Because, no delayed vesiculation is expected since the essential material is basaltic in composition, and also because the internal turbulence caused by envelopment of cold air is not great enough, since the temperature of the flow was only about 100°C or below. Magmatophreatic explosion through layers of pyroclastics seems to have been a favourable condition for the initial formation of the fluidized system.
著者
河名 俊男 中田 高
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.103, no.4, pp.352-376, 1994-08-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
37 39

In 1771, according to several trustworthy historical records, a huge tsunami named the Meiwa Tsunami washed the southern part of the Ryukyu Islands killing about 12, 000 people. The tsunami attributed probably to a large earthquake generated by a submarine thrust fault along the Ryukyu Trench. The southern Ryukyu Islands consisting of Miyako, Irabu, Shimoji, Tarama, Ishigaki, Iriomote and other small islands are fringed by coral reefs, and large Holocene coralline boulders possibly transported by past tsunamis, are extensively distributed on land and reef flats. Among these boulders, those composed of aragonite by 100% or nearly 100% are reliably dated by the radiocarbon method, and are good evidence for inundation, run-up heights and timing of tsunamis in the past.In order to infer the timing of past tsunamis, we dated samples carefully collected from the uppermost parts of these Holocene coralline boulders and fragments. Based on 65 dates, we restored a tsunami history in the area during the past several thousand years.Most of the coralline boulders we dated are much older than the age of the Meiwa Tsunami about 200 yr BP. Certain periodical distributions of the ages among the boulders suggest that the area had been attacked by huge tsunamis around 600, 1, 100, 2, 000 and 2, 400 yr BP during the last 3, 000 years. Thus tsunamis which brought tsunami boulders on land occurred repeatedly with intervals of several hundred to one thousand years in the study area.The tsunamis occurred around 1, 100, 2, 000 and 2, 400 yr BP were judged from the distribution of boulders of similar ages, that they were generated along the Ryukyu Trench while that of 600 yr BP along the Okinawa Trough.The tsunami about 2, 000 yr BP is most reliably restored among the past tsunamis in the area and is named the “Okinawa-Sakishima Tsunami”. This tsunami attacked an extensive area from Miyako to Ishigaki islands and transported many huge tsunami boulders such as “Tsunami Oishi” deep on land.
著者
山川 修治
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.102, no.2, pp.183-195, 1993-04-25 (Released:2010-11-18)
参考文献数
60
被引用文献数
1 2

Natural disasters in Little Ice Age (c. 1550-1850) and its climatic variations which formed a significant background for the disasters are mentioned. Cool summers due to a prevailing Okhotsk High were characteristic of this period. Cold winters, summer heavy rains and unstable atmospheric conditions also constituted essential features of Little Ice Age. Aerosol ejected by a series of major volcanic eruptions partly prevented solar radiation from reaching the earth' s surface (parasol effect), which resulted in cool and unusual weather. Agriculture, in particular, was vulnerable to bad weather damage. As a result of decreasing direct insolation, sometimes together with lowering temperature and/or locally increasing precipitation, seven major famines occurred during the Edo Era (1663-1868) which approximately coincided with Little Ice Age. Several cases in this paper suggest that natural environment in Little Ice Age was marked by both volcanism and weakened solar activities which “Maunder Minimum”(1645-1715) represented.
著者
石橋 克彦
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.108, no.4, pp.399-423, 1999-08-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
75
被引用文献数
12 11

A large volume of historical documents in Japan show that great subduction earthquakes have repeatedly occurred along the Suruga-Nankai trough off southwest Japan since A.D. 684 with an interval of 100-200 years. They occurred as pairs of M8 events, one in the eastern half (Tokai earthquake) and another in the western half (Nankai earthquake), as was the case for the 1854 Ansei earthquakes, while sometimes occurring as single giant events like the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake. Although the space-time pattern of their recurrence is the best-known in the world, we should study more past events in order to understand the tectonophysical bases of their recurrence. In this respect I review the present understanding of historic Tokai and Nankai earthquakes and discuss related problems from the viewpoint of historical seismology. In this paper, the first of the three in all, I review the events until the early half of the 14th century. The keys to identifying older events are strong ground motion and damage in Kyoto, Nara, and Osaka, those in wider area of southwest Japan, tsunamis along the Pacific coasts of southwest Japan, typical coseismic vertical crustal movements of the Kochi plain, the Muroto and Oma'ezaki points, and the Ise and Suruga Bay coasts, temporal inactivity of specific hot springs, and aftershock activities recorded in Kyoto. The 684 Hakuho earthquake was definitely a Nankai event, and possibly included a Tokai event simultaneously (possibly Ho'ei type). The 887 Nin'na earthquake was also a definite Nankai event and was probably a Tokai event as well (Ho'ei type). The 1096 Eicho earthquake was clearly a Tokai event, but the following 1099 Kowa earthquake has some discrepancies that prevent it from being regarded as a M8 Nankai event. It is not clear yet whether great earthquakes occurred or not in the ca. 200 year intervals of 684-887 and 887-1096. It seems probable that great Tokai and Nankai earthquakes took place in the mid-13th century, but a more detailed investigation of historical seismology is required to discover the missing event.
著者
相馬 清二
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.204-217, 1975-08-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
3 2

A violent fire-tornado has broken out at the former site of the Army Clothing Depot in combustion caused by the destructions of the Great Kanto Earthquake at 3.30 p.m. September 1, 1923. By this fire-tornado, about 40 thousand people have been burned to death in a moment. An interpretation that the fire-tornado has been caused by passage of a cold front has generally dominated academic circles in this field up to date. According to the detailed reexaminations, this interpretation included many inconsistencies. We could obtain recently the various data with respect to the fire-tornado which occurred in the last several years. From these data, it became clear that the fire-tornadoes often have occurred near a combustion area.An example which was the most similar with the fire-tornado at the former site of the Army Clothing Depot was found out in the combustion of Wakayama City by an air raid on July 9, 1945. 748 persons have been burned to death by the fire-tornado in this city.Finally, our study leads to the conclusion that the fire-tornado at the former site of the Army Clothing Depot was caused by the widespread great fire following the Great Kanto Earthquake. There was a cold front in northwestern direction of Tokyo, but it did not play the leading role for formation of the fire-tornado.

13 0 0 0 OA 擦文文化

著者
藤本 強
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.2, pp.122-136, 1981-04-25 (Released:2010-11-18)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1

The Satsumon culture was in existence in Hokkaido from 9th to 13th century A.D. as a Pre-Ainu culture of Hokkaido. The Satsumon culture succeeded the Post-Jomon culture. The Satsumon culture was formed on the basic cultural elements of the Post-Jomon culture. Some cultural elements from Japanese culture of that time were added to them. The basic cultural elements of the Post-Jomon culture had their roots in late or the latest Jomon culture in northern Japan. So, the Satsumon culture can be regarded as one of the direct descendants of the late or the latest Jomon culture in the northern Japan.About two thousands years ago, rice cultivation began in Japan. At first, rice cultivation was practised in southwestern Japan and it gradually expanded to the east. Finally, it reached the southern Tohoku district, but it could not penetrate into northern Tohoku and Hokkaido. In the northern Tohoku and Hokkaido, people lived on fishing, gathering and hunting as was the case in the previous Jomon period. After the introduction of rice cultivation, the livelihood of people in Japan was separated into two different ways. In most parts of Japan, in southern Japan, people depended on rice cultivation and in the northern extremity of Japan, people lived on fishing, gathering and hunting.
著者
湊 進
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.115, no.1, pp.87-95, 2006-02-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
21 17

Nationwide in-situ measurements of terrestrial gamma ray dose rates have been carried out using a scintillation counter. A database of over 4300 entries has been compiled by adding data taken from literature to the data collected by the mentioned survey. A contour map of dose rates in Japan calculated from the database is presented along with a table of dose rates for each bedrock type.
著者
増田 隆一
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.105, no.3, pp.354-363, 1996-06-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1 1

The richness of fauna diversity is seen on the Japanese Islands, which range through 3, 000 km. When and from where have theanimals immigrated to Japan? Also, for understanding natural history of the Japanese Islands, it is very importantto investigate evolutinary history and origin of animals distributed on each island. While the evolutionary questions have been paleontologically and geologically examined so far, some of them are still unclear. Recent development of molecular phylogenetic study provides a reliable sight to understanding evolutionary history and origin of species. Advantageously, molecular study can analyze phylogeny of living species without fossil data.In Japan, two wildcats, the Iriomote cat and the Tsushima cat, live on the Iriomote Island and the Tsushima Island, respectively, where land bridges between the Asian continent and the Japanese Islands were present in the past time. To know evolution of these wildcats gives us useful information for better understanding of natural history of the Japanese Islands. Moreover, because both the wildcats are now endangered, it is now strongly needed to understand phylogenetic status of them for conservation and management. For the reason, we investigated molecular phylongeny of the two wildcats based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, and revealed that both the wildcats are very closely related to the leopard cat Felis bengalensis, which is widespread throughout Asia. Furthermore, from the DNA data, the Iriomote cat and the Tsushima cat were estimated to have diverged from the continental leopard cat approximately 200, 000 and 100, 000 years before present, respectively. The dates estimated by molecular data were in concordance with formation dates of the Ryukyu Arc and the Tsushima Island, respectively. These results suggest that geographic barrier has led fixation of some unique morphological characters into each cat population, while the two Japanese wildcats are still genetically close to the continental leopard cat.
著者
西上 欽也 田所 敬一 永井 悟 水野 高志 加納 靖之 平松 良浩
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.111, no.2, pp.268-276, 2002-04-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1

This paper briefly reviews the triggering characteristics of injection-induced seismicity. Water injection experiments were carried out in the Nojima fault, southwest Japan in 1997 and 2000 to detect the healing process of the fault zone after being ruptured by the MJMA 7.3 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake in 1995. During the experiment in 2000, ultramicroearthquakes of M-1.2 to 1.0 were induced at about 2.5-4.5 km from the injection point and about 4-6 days after the beginning of injection. This space-time migration can be explained by a 2-D diffusion process of pore water pressure. Permeability estimated near the surface, at about 540-800 m depth, is extrapolated well to a depth of 2-4 km where induced events occurred. Other experiments at Matsushiro, central Japan and KTB, Germany also showed similar space-time relationships of induced seismicity. From observations in the Nojima experiment, we obtained characteristic states that suggest differences in the generating process between induced and normal (tectonic) earthquakes. Our findings are as follows : (1) high-frequency component is richer in the waveforms of tectonic events, and (2) the clustering of hypocenters is more dominant in induced events. Further analyses of these observations will lead to elucidating the generating process of induced earthquakes by increasing pore water pressure.
著者
多田 隆治
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.107, no.2, pp.218-233, 1998-04-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
57
被引用文献数
1 1

Since the ice core records from central Greenland revealed the presence and significance of millennial-scale large and abrupt climatic changes, widely known as Dansgaard-Oeschger [D-O] Cycles, it becomes the major objective of paleoclimatological researches to clarify their extent, nature, propagation mechanism, and driving force. Although the ultimate driving force is not yet understood, results of recent studies suggest 1) D-O Cycles are global phenomena, 2) they involve complicated interactions and feedback processes among the subsystems including atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and 3) they seem tohave initiated from changes in atmospheric circulation.Catastrophic surges of Laurentide Ice Sheet called Heinrich Events are closely associated with D-O Cycles. Although Heinrich Events are likely to have been caused by free oscillationsof ice sheet growth and decay, they were probably not a cause of D-O Cycles but the events seem to have been phase-locked by D-O Cycles. Results of numerical modelling suggest the presence of multi-modes for global deepwater circulation. Switching among the modes is most likely caused by slight variation in hydrogical cycles which change the fresh water balance between Atlantic and Pacific.
著者
西村 蹊二 斉藤 祥 谷岡 誠一 門脇 淳
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.6, pp.346-363, 1977-12-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
20

Detailed and intensive investigations have been carried out on the abrupt failure of submarine slope of a small island, Shin-jima, in Kagoshima Bay, Kyushu on April 1, 1975 by the joint research group of Geographical Survey Institute of Japan, Japan Maritime Safety Agency and Geological Survey of Japan under the sponsorship of Japan Science and Technology Agency.The Shin-jima island emerged from water at the great eruption of adjacent Sakurajima Volcano in 1779 to 1780 (An-ei Eruption) as one of central corns of Aira Caldera (MATSUMOTO, 1933). The island gradually reduced its exposed area by continuous wave erosion to form truncated configuration, being surrounded by broad, shallow, flat tidal bench.Geologically the island is composed of the latest Pleistocene to the earliest Holocene thick loose pumice deposits with intercalations of silt and clay showing inner bay facies. These formations are strongly faulted by eastwest faults. The surface of the island is covered with thin shell bed dominantly composed of Ostrea and andesitic lava. The flat bench around the Shin-jima consists of recent, loose pumiceous drift sand deposits derived from the island by wave erosion.The failure of the slope now in concern occurred at the spit of the southern tip of the island, where thickness of drift sand deposits attains at most about 35 meters according to sonic prospecting and borings at the spit. It was caused by submarine landslide in the thick, loose drift sand deposits. Volume of the slide mass amounts approximately 265, 000 cubic meters.The spit had formed steep submarine slope near critical angle by abundant supply of very loose drift sand from northern part of the island before the failure occurred. Neither sensible earthquakes nor volcanic activities of the Sakurajima which might have given significant effects to submarine landslide are observed and recorded in seismometer around the crucial moment of the failure.Therefore, the cause of the landslide is considered that the increase of load resulted from the deposition of drift sand attaining about 8, 400 tons in volume atop of the slope brought about decrease of safety factor of the slope to make it slide. Wave pressure seems to have triggered the slide because safety factor decreases about 20 % when fluctuation of pressure at the bottom caused by wave agitation is taken into account.
著者
新井 健司
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.104, no.2, pp.267-283, 1995-04-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1 1

Plio-Pleistocene fluvial sediments are distributed in the hills along the western margin of the Kanto Plain. In this paper, the author reports its sedimentary environments at Hidaka City, Saitama Prefecture, namely, those of Yaoroshi tuff, Hanno gravel and their correlatives.The basement in this area (Chichibu Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations and Takaoka formation) is divided into three zones structurally by Koma-Hongo and Komagawa fault systems. And terrace deformation dipping toward the Kanto Plain is recognized on its surface.Yaoroshi tuff is in fault or unconformity contact with the basement in part of Koma-Hongo fault system. The vertical displacement of each fault system is over 50 m. Yaoroshi tuff is not distributed in west of Koma-Hongo fault system.Hanno gravel, conformably overlying Yaoroshi tuff, is in fault or unconformity contact with the basement. Hanno gravel and its correlatives were formed by old long rivers, of and the valley bottoms were at least 140 m above sea level in Koma River system area and at least 150 m above sea level in Shukuya River system area.Boulders of granite and diorite characterizing Hanno gravel in the south of Tenran-zan (Mt. Tenran) are not found in the investigated area. This fact suggests that the area was in different conditions of sedimentation from the southern area. The ridge directions of Koma Hills and Moroyama Hills had already settled before dissection proceeded.The gravel from Moroyama Hills and the adjacent areas is divided into the lower and the upper layers. The former is correlated with Yaoroshi tuff, while the latter with Hanno gravel.When Yaoroshi tuff deposited, forested stable land had extended widely. And short rivers flowing out from near mountains sometimes flooded and destroyed forests. After Yaoroshi tuff was formed, long rivers transported boulders with sands in large quantities from distant western mountains. These old long rivers kept their main courses to the present as Koma River system and Shukuya River system, and they mixed gravels by gathering currents and forming talus deposits.
著者
伊藤 孝士 阿部 彩子
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.116, no.6, pp.768-782, 2007-12-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
40

The climate in the Quaternary is characterized by ice age cycles with periods in the range of tens of thousands to a hundred thousand years, triggered by long-term insolation variations due to the Earth's orbital and precessional motions. Although we can accurately calculate long-term insolation variations at the top of the Earth's atmosphere, we need to know the physical and dynamical processes occurring in the complicated climate system of the Earth in order to understand the true nature and origin of the ice age cycles. In this manuscript, first we briefly review how the gravitational interaction between planets causes insolation variations. Then, we summarize the recent status of large-scale numerical experiments as to how the ice age cycles take place in the climate system of the Earth, with a particular focus on dynamical modeling of ice sheets.
著者
Mitsuhisa WATANABE
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi) (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.116, no.3-4, pp.387-393, 2007-08-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
3 6

The cabinet office of the Japanese government demonstrated the prospects of future seismic hazards associated with a working model for possible earthquakes in the capital area of Japan. If this assumption is not unrealistic, it is reasonable to use this working model. However, it has already been reported that several active faults may exist in this area. This discrepancy can lead the assessment into unreal issue.I reveal the nature of the Ayasegawa fault located close to the capital area on the basis of geomorphic features. The fault extends in the NWSE direction for at least over 30 km, and the fault trace is linear, which is indicative of lateral movement. There is a graben structure delineated by the fault in the Minuma ward, Saitama City. The vertical component of the Ayasegawa fault is upthrown to the southwest and the average vertical slip rate is 0.05 to 0.1 m/ky. The netslip rate should be much larger than the vertical one, taking lateral movement into account. Although the single vertical offset is assumed to be 0.8 to 4 m, the rupture history of the fault remains unknown.The Ayasegawa fault is an southeastern extension of the Fukaya fault, and is composed of an active fault extending more than 120km through the Kanto Plain across the capital area of Japan. To prepare for a real seismic hazard and to try to reduce damage, we should check the properties and clarify the rupture history of these active faults as an urgent task. Precise local information on these active faults is necessary for motivating people to develop an awareness of disaster mitigation.

5 0 0 0 熊本の地震

出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.9, pp.520b-520b, 1894
著者
跡部 治
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.1, pp.41-45, 1975-02-28 (Released:2009-11-12)
著者
河村 公隆
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.98, no.6, pp.791-797, 1989-12-05 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
35