著者
西尾 嘉朗 佐野 有司
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.109, no.4, pp.636-645, 2000-08-25 (Released:2010-11-18)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
1

Based on δ 13C values and CO2/ 3He ratios of North Fiji Back-Arc Basin basalt glasses, wediscuss the carbon geochemical cycle in the subduction zone. Among the North Fiji Back-ArcBasin basalt glasses, there is a close correlation among CO2/ 3He ratios, δ 13C value, and143Nd/ 144Nd ratios. The CO2/ 3He ratios and the δ 13C values of North Fiji Basin basalt maybe attributed to binary mixing between the mantle component (low-CO2/ 3He, high-δ 13C, andhigh-143Nd/ 144Nd) and the subducted (recycled) component (high-δO2/ 3He, low-δ13C, and low-143Nd/ 144Nd). From a simple mass balance calculation, it is derived that the subductedend-member (recycled carbon) has 70% carbonate and 30% organic matter in origin.Assuming that complete decomposition of the subducted organic matters has occurred, most (about 90%) carbonates are not decomposed, because the amounts of subducting carbonatesand organic matters throughout the North Fiji subduction zone are estimated in a ratio of20: 1. This suggests that carbonate can be transported into the mantle through the subduction zones.
著者
新井 智一
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地學雜誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.114, no.5, pp.767-790, 2005-12-25
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
2 1

This study examines the interaction between the politics in Fussa City and the Yokota Air Force Base, that is "the politics of place, " from a range of political, economic, and cultural processes which maintain the existence of the base.<BR>Military bases are generally established for global geopolitical purposes. However, the establishment of a military base has cultural implications for the local communities where the base is located, i.e., increased concerns about crimes committed by seavicepersons and noise by aircrafts. Although these military bases have some serious impacts, especially in Japan, geographers have not yet examined the issues regarding a particular military base and the resultant politics in the city.<BR>On the contrary, since the 1980s, Anglo-American political geographers have paid more attention to "the politics of place" This refers to the local politics that occur due to the interaction between a structural constraint and the individuality of a particular place.<BR>Therefore, this study examines "the politics of place" on the Yokota Air Base in Fussa City, Tokyo, by using resources from the local newspapers, novels, magazine articles, and council proceedings.<BR>The results are as follows : (1) Owing to the independence between the U.S. Air Force and local political and economic actors, an urban structure and local economy that depended on the Yokota Air Force Base were constructed in Fussa Town after the establishment of the base in 1945; (2) because of this structure, the local economy became to depend on Air Force personnel as consumers; (3) however, due to a shift to the floating exchanging rate and a reduction in the population of the base in the first half of the 1970s, there was a decrease in the influence that Air Force personnel had on the local economy; (4) since the 1980s, an economic agent utilized the "atmosphere" and "image" adjacent to the base to revitalize the local economy; (5) furthermore, the mass media represented Fussa City as a "base town" and conducted a review of the city in the 1960s, thus contributing to its revitalization; (6) during the economic slump in the 1970s, some local political agents were against the existence of the base. However, successive mayors of Fussa City have accepted the existence of the base, and utilized the subsidies it receives from the national government in order to construct the urban infrastructure.
著者
横山 又次郎
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.61-67, 1932

更新世中に猿人と今の人類と相異る人類との産した後、その末季に當つて出現した人類がある。之をホモ・サピエンス・フヲッシリスと稚へて、今人の亞種と見倣さるゝ者である。而もそれは一でなく三ある、日ぐオーリニヤック曰くグリマルヂー、曰くクロマニヨンである。中でクロマニヨン種は惜に前の二種より時期上晩生の春である。但し三者其に人類學者の所謂奮石器時代と稽する時期の後半中に隊洲に蔓延してゐた者である。
著者
河角 広
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.3, pp.115-138, 1970-06-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
被引用文献数
7 11

In earlier days most Japanese wanted eagerly to have means of earthquake prediction in order to escape earthquake disaster taking refuge in advance in open spaces since they were almost powerless in encountering the menaces. We are now enabled to long for the mitigation of the disaster by the advancement of science and technology, although we have not yet succeeded to predict the coming of a disastrous earthquake. Our safety thus depend entirely on our effort for the countermeasures against the calamity. But we have only limited allowances for such preparations economically and in time available. It is therefore inevitable to start the preparation from the most important and imminent localities in a country, from the national point of view.In Japan, according to the writer's witness on the imminence of Southern Kwanto District at the Diet in July, 1964, such preparation work for Tokyo Metropolis was started the next month by a new Earthquake Division of the Disaster Prevention Council of the Metropolis, and several important hazard possibilities of the imminent earthquake have been revealed with the result that similar committees have also been made in other prefectures and cities in the same area as well as in the Central Government of the country.In this paper the writer intended to give the ground for his assertion of the imminence of a disastrous earthquake giving proofs of the periodicity of such calamities on the statistical and historical analyses, and made some comments on the possible consequences and major problems in the countermeasures to cope with the conceived disaster as revealed by the studies made on the national and metropolitan levels.In view of the importance, interest and the space allowance, only the proofs of the periodicity in the recurrence of destructive earthquakes in the district concerned are summarised in this abstract.Historical earthquakes in and around Kwanto District as shown in the map (Fig. 2.1) were examined and those which were destructive at Kamakura or presumable as such from the standard intensity-distance-magnitude curve were selected and listed in Table 1.1. Periodicities of these earthquakes were analysed statistically. Similar analyses were also applied to the earthquakes experienced in Tokyo which are listed in Table 2.2. A definite period τ of 69 years (besides a few integral multiples of this period) was clearly found. The methods used in the above analyses were by means of (1) Fourier transforms (Fig. 1.1), (2) autocorrelation functions (Figs. 1.3 and 1.4) and (3) historical examinations of the number of cases when no destructive earthquakes took place within the standard deviation +√ ξ2 from the year tp when a destructive earthquake was expected to occur from the periodicity. Test of persistence of the period was also made by means of the theory of random walks consisting of Fourier amplitudes in successive periods (Figs. 1.5 a and b). Rayleigh-Schuster's criterion (Formula 1.3) that is the probability of obtaining the actual Fourier amplitude on the assumption of no periodicity or the resultant distance of above mentioned random walks gave the values of the probability equal to 0.06% and 0.03% for Kamakura and Tokyo respectively. In comparison to usual value of 5 or 10% for recognizing periodicity in geophysical phenomena, the smallness of the above values is more than enough to disprove the non-existence of the periodicity of 69 years in the recurrence of destructive earthquakes in the districts under consideration.
著者
Isamu KAYANE
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi) (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.98, no.2, pp.128-138, 1989-04-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
1

Both river and groundwater are mode of occurrence of water in the hydrologic cycle. Relation between river water and groundwater are discussed on the basis of groundwater flow system, whose water table configuration is controlled by the topography and the distribution of specific flux within the system by the geology. Examples of the relation are shown for sand dunes, mountains composed of permeable rocks, volcanoes, hills, uplands, alluvial fans and lowlands.
著者
Kayori MAENO Hiroo OHMORI Jun MATSUMOTO Taiichi HAYASHI
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi) (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.113, no.4, pp.512-523, 2004-08-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
2 1

This paper analyzes the characteristics of daily precipitation during the monsoon season from June to September for 21 years from 1976 to 1996 in Nepal, which is situated in the southern Himalaya. The average monsoon precipitation, and the number of rainy days in Nepal are 1, 410 mm, and 73 days, respectively. On the basis of the total monsoon precipitationand the number of rainy days, 1978, 1984, and 1985 are classified as wet years, and 1977, 1979, and 1992 are classified as dry years. Nepal is divided into six regions on the basis of the statistical characteristics of total monsoon precipitation and number of rainy days.On the other hand, the distribution pattern of 5-year probable rainfall in Nepal, is considerably different from that of average monsoon precipitation. Five-year probable rainfall is small in northern Nepal, and becomes large toward the south. On the basis of 5-year probable rainfall, which is regarded to be the threshold value of heavy rainfall in Nepal, heavy rainfall occurred more frequently in 1981 and 1987. These years did not agree with the wet years based on total precipitation and number of rainy days, indicating that the occurrence of heavy rainfall that causes water hazards in Nepal does not synchronize with wet years.
著者
田近 英一
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.116, no.1, pp.79-94, 2007-02-25 (Released:2009-11-12)
参考文献数
86

Liquid water on the surface of the Earth might have frozen entirely at least 3 times during the history of the Earth (650 Ma, 700 Ma, and 2.2 Ga). Assuming such extreme conditions, the snowball Earth hypothesis explains several unusual geological features associated with glacial deposits in the Proterozoic glaciations. Life should, however, have faced serious crises during these glaciations because liquid water is necessary for life. In particular, survival of photosynthetic algae, which are supposed to have appeared before the Neoproterozoic glaciations, might have been difficult if the surface water froze completely. There would have been refugia for life during the global glaciations. Life could have survived if the equatorial ocean was not completely frozen (soft-snowball condition), or equatorial sea ice might have been very thin (on the order of 10 meters). Even if these conditions were not achieved, life could have survived in shallow hot springs around volcanic islands. It would be much more difficult for eumetazoa to survive such severe conditions if they appeared before the Neoproterozoic glaciations as suggested by molecular clock studies. The appearance of eumetazoa after the last global glaciation (Marinoan glaciation), as suggested by the paleontological record, however, avoids this problem.
著者
田近 英一
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地學雜誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.116, no.1, pp.79-94, 2007-02-25
参考文献数
86
被引用文献数
3

Liquid water on the surface of the Earth might have frozen entirely at least 3 times during the history of the Earth (650 Ma, 700 Ma, and 2.2 Ga). Assuming such extreme conditions, the snowball Earth hypothesis explains several unusual geological features associated with glacial deposits in the Proterozoic glaciations. Life should, however, have faced serious crises during these glaciations because liquid water is necessary for life. In particular, survival of photosynthetic algae, which are supposed to have appeared before the Neoproterozoic glaciations, might have been difficult if the surface water froze completely. There would have been refugia for life during the global glaciations. Life could have survived if the equatorial ocean was not completely frozen (soft-snowball condition), or equatorial sea ice might have been very thin (on the order of 10 meters). Even if these conditions were not achieved, life could have survived in shallow hot springs around volcanic islands. It would be much more difficult for eumetazoa to survive such severe conditions if they appeared before the Neoproterozoic glaciations as suggested by molecular clock studies. The appearance of eumetazoa after the last global glaciation (Marinoan glaciation), as suggested by the paleontological record, however, avoids this problem.

2 0 0 0 江戸と水

著者
徳仁 親王
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, no.4, pp.389-400, 2014
被引用文献数
3
著者
Mori Jim 加納 靖之
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地學雜誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.118, no.3, pp.492-498, 2009-07-07
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1 6

2006年5月26日に発生したジョグジャカルタ地震による地震動が,250km離れたインドネシアのSidoarjo泥火山の噴出を誘発した可能性について検討した。この泥火山は2006年5月から噴出を続けている。泥火山の近傍で生じた流体圧変化と地震発生の時間的な一致から,地震波がこの地域の地下流体の状態に影響を与えたことが示唆される。別の同規模の地震のデータを用いて,地震波による応力変化の大きさを見積った。応力変化はごくわずか(0.005から0.010MPa)であったが,他の地域であればこの程度の応力変化でも微小地震を誘発した場合がある。地震の数分後に流体圧変化が生じたようであり,これは地下流体が地震動に対して応答したことを示していると考えられる。2006年ジョグジャカルタ地震は,Sidoarjo泥火山で小さな流体圧変化をひきおこした可能性があるが,これが泥火山の噴出開始に直接関係しているかどうか評価することは困難である。
著者
蔵田 延男
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.6, pp.325-340, 1965

Since 1946, the exploration used every kinds of prospecting methods to discover groundwater courses in the lava-flows had been practiced on the extensive lower slopes of Mt. Fuji. In this report, the historical explanations and my dearest datum collected extending over past eighteen years are disclosed.<BR>There are several paragraphs, on the geophysical prospecting in large scale derived from the first jointing exploration of 1947, on the adventurous borings to find out the subterranean river in the Mishima lava-flow, on the successful explorations used electric prospecting by the Department of Agriculture and Forestry, on the investigation for Kakitagawa springs as the biggest spring in Japan, on the salt-water encroachment in the artesian aquifer on the southern foot of Mt. Fuji and on the troublesome study to research the hydrogeological connection between the Lake Motosu and the other lakes on the northern foot of the same.

2 0 0 0 大人の足跡

出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.12, pp.654a-654a, 1890
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.122a-123, 1929