著者
高橋 豪仁
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.139-150, 2006 (Released:2008-01-25)
参考文献数
37

Mass audiences can now commonly congregate in stadiums due to factors such as advanced transport, increased leisure time, and the growth of the mass media, which has improved spectator sports to create a vibrant and exciting atmosphere produced by the cheering of large numbers of fans who wish to watch players performing. Cheering is a critical component of spectator sports culture. In Japanese professional baseball there are private fan clubs that are central for the generation of cheering within the stadium during the game. The present study focused on the subculture of professional baseball fan clubs that are organized voluntarily by mass sports fans. This paper not only deals with the pattern of action and the value standards peculiar to such fan clubs, but also clarifies the dominant/parent culture that is central to the subculture, and how the subculture is created by adopting the dominant/parent culture through negotiation or conflict between members or groups based on the power resource of the subculture typical to their own. The data were collected through participant observation of private fan clubs of the Hiroshima Carp. It is inferred from descriptions about conflict and power relationships among the members or groups that the social resources are demo-commitment in the stadium and closeness with the baseball team and players, and that “flag-waving” and “leading”, which are the typical forms of cheering behavior in stadiums, serve a ritualistic function of symbolizing the social power of the fan clubs. Furthermore, bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution are adopted into these distinctive patterns of action and value standards. The former is a dominant culture taken from the mainstream of modern society, and the latter is a parent culture located at a lower level of society. Multiple strata are evident in the subculture of fan clubs. This does not simply mean that the fan clubs have the characteristics of bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution, but illustrates that the subculture of private fan clubs is created by domesticating bureaucracy and the quasi-family institution to their own values standard and pattern of act about cheering.
著者
岡部 祐介 友添 秀則 春日 芳美
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1203240225, (Released:2012-04-03)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
2

Konjo is the willpower necessary to endure suffering, and for making an effort, having become a word in daily use in society, as well as in sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the opportunity and the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo in Japanese society in the 1960s. Our study focused on three points: 1) Clarifying how the meaning of the word konjo changed in the 1960s, from its dictionary definition and usage in newspaper articles. 2) Clarifying the situation in which konjo became popular through the Tokyo Olympic Games, and its spread to the sports community and to society. 3) Considering the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo, and to propose a hypothesis that could account for it. Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The meaning of konjo evolved from a negative context of “a fundamental character and mindset with which a person is born” to a positive context of “a strong, resilient character that cannot be suppressed” and “a strong motivation to accomplish an aim” at the beginning of the 1960s. 2) Konjo was considered to the spiritual keynote for athletes at the Tokyo Olympic Games. Hirobumi Daimatsu's “konjo theory” had the persuasive reason by winning “Oriental Witches” championship at the Tokyo Olympics. In view of these factors, we considered that konjo was interpreted as a popularized moral virtue by society, and impacted on both education and popular culture. 3) We considered that the concept of konjo became transformed and was used to promote competitiveness in sports at the Tokyo Olympics as part of the strategy for “character building”. It also played a role in bolstering human resources that played a key role in economic development during the 1960s, and thus was of strategic value. The considerations listed above show that the Tokyo Olympic Games played an important role in the transformation of the concept of konjo in the 1960s.
著者
三津家 貴也 辻 俊樹 鍋倉 賢治
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18040, (Released:2019-02-26)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1 1

An individual’s anaerobic capacity is evaluated in terms of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in the supramaximal test. The present study was conducted to validate the method used for evaluation of anaerobic capacity using an index calculated from the aerobic test (a submaximal test conducted 5 or 6 times in 3-minute stages and a maximal test of 4-6 minutes). Seventeen well-trained Japanese middle- and long-distance runners including elite athletes participated in the aerobic test on one day and in the supramaximal test of 2-4 minutes on another day. The mean accumulated oxygen deficit in the maximal test was 30.6 ± 10.0 mlO2/kg, and the mean maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in the supramaximal test was 55.7 ± 16.1 mlO2/kg. There was a significant positive relationship between accumulated oxygen deficit and the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (r=0.82, p<0.001). A stronger positive relationship between the above 2 parameters was evident in 10 middle distance runners (r=0.94, p<0.001). These results suggest that maximal accumulated oxygen deficit can be evaluated in terms of the accumulated oxygen deficit in the maximal test.
著者
水島 淳 梶谷 亮輔 九鬼 靖太 柴田 篤志 前田 奎 大山 卞 圭悟 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.703-714, 2021 (Released:2021-10-20)
参考文献数
28

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week barefoot sprint training program on sprint biomechanics and stretch-shortening cycle jump ability. Methods: Fourteen children with no experience in barefoot sprinting were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a barefoot training group (3 boys and 4 girls; age, 11.0 ± 0.8 years-old; height, 143.1 ± 8.4 cm; body mass, 35.4 ± 5.6 kg; shoe mass, 0.17 ± 0.02 kg) and a control group (3 boys and 4 girls; age, 11.0 ± 0.8 years-old; height, 142.6 ± 8.2 cm; body mass, 34.4 ± 6.4 kg; shoe mass, 0.18 ± 0.01 kg). The 4-week intervention consisted 40 minutes of sprint training per weekly session using the allocated footwear. Before and after the intervention, 2-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the 50-m maximal sprint under both shod and barefoot conditions, and the countermovement jump and 5 repeated rebound jumping tests were performed by both groups. Pre- to post-test changes in spatio-temporal parameters and sprint kinematics, and jump heights for both jump types, and the contact time and rebound jump index for the rebound jump, were analysed using 2-way mixed ANOVA. Results and Discussion: After the 4-week intervention, a higher step frequency (p <0.01), a longer step length (p <0.05), and a higher sprint velocity (p <0.01) were observed in the barefoot training group, although no change was observed in the foot strike patterns and the swing leg velocity. The barefoot training group showed a higher rebound jump index (p <0.05) and a shorter contact time (p <0.01), while no differences were evident in the counter-movement jump height. These results suggest that 4-week barefoot sprint training seems to be an effective strategy for improving certain aspects of sprint biomechanics and for development of fast stretch-shortening cycle ability in children.
著者
鈴木 秀人
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, pp.205-223, 2020 (Released:2020-03-17)
参考文献数
61
被引用文献数
2 1

In 2012, a high school student who was the captain of a school basketball team committed suicide after suffering repeated corporal punishment from the head coach, who was a physical education teacher. This sort of tragic incident always prompts discussion about the current state of Japanese sports clubs. However, although such incidents occur repeatedly, Japan has not been able to eradicate violence in sports clubs. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reasons why Japanese society has tolerated corporal punishment by coaches or seniors in sports clubs, focusing on a popular belief that the roots of these practices lie in behavioral patterns that were prevalent in the old Japanese military during the Second World War. Initially, the paper proposes reasons why many people in Japanese society have believed and shared this view for a long time, although it has not been proven. Secondly, an attempt is made to reveal this as a problem for ordinary people who have consciously or subconsciously accepted corporal punishment as an intrinsic aspect of sports clubs, rather than considering it as an issue specifically for coaches or seniors. The following points were clarified: 1) For critics of corporal punishment, the “military origin theory” supports their opinions powerfully. Because this logic demonstrates the relationship between sports clubs and the old military, it is able to emphasize the problematic and inhuman nature of corporal punishment in sports clubs. This is one explanation for why this belief has been shared by many Japanese people for so long. 2) The “military origin theory” is a way of shifting the responsibility for violence in sports clubs away from the perpetrators. This has been supported by the general feeling of Japanese ordinary people against the old Japanese military. 3) The existence of violence in sports clubs reflects a degree of maturity in the general public viewpoint about sports by a considerable proportion of Japanese who do not or can not distinguish between hard training and violent behavior. Consequently, this belief negates the chances that many Japanese people consider corporal punishment in sports clubs to be their own problem.
著者
中澤 篤史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, pp.501-517, 2022 (Released:2022-07-07)
参考文献数
29

The overabundance of extracurricular sports activities in Japan has been called into question. Its symbol is the Nippon Junior High School Tournament held by Nippon Junior High School Physical Culture Association. How was this event established? The purpose of this study was to analyze the process by which the tournament was established and to examine the relationship between education and competition in school sports. Previous studies have sought the reasons for the establishment of the national championships with the relaxation of standards for external competitions in accordance with the demands of sports federations, and have viewed the process as one in which competition disparaged education. This approach assumes that education and competition have a dichotomous relationship that is mutually incompatible, and the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism has been viewed as a specific issue. However, this view does not allow us to understand why the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, which had been trying to suppress the national championships, turned around and held the Nippon Junior High School Tournament. In this study, we reviewed this issue from the perspective of the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, and clarified the active role it played in reorganizing the national championships in order to solve inherent educational problems, while competing with the sports federations that began holding the national championships. For the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, the process of establishing national championships was not a process in which athletic competition disparaged education, but one in which education was achieved through competition. How did it interpret the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism? The Junior High School Physical Culture Association did not abandon educative egalitarianism while finding significance in competitive elitism. Rather, it placed more emphasis on the former in order to justify the significance of competitive selection. The national championships must be open to all students equally, not just to a few elite athletes, and they were interpreted as meaningful because the winners were selected after all students had participated. In this way, the conflicts between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism were overcome, and as a result, the Nippon Junior High School Tournament was established. This was a historical turning point in the “overheating” of junior high school sports.
著者
谷中 拓哉 中里 浩介 藤田 善也 石毛 勇介
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18050, (Released:2019-03-18)
参考文献数
23

Cross-country skiers perform over a long distance using poles and skis. Physical fitness, in terms of factors such as VO2max and muscle strength, skiing technique and race strategy are important for winning competitions. To plan the race strategy, investigations of the course profile and race analysis are needed. The purposes of this study were to investigate cross-country skiing course profiles which were planned for the Winter Olympic Games at Peyongchang, and to analyze the men’s 15km+15km World Cup skiathlon race (SA) as a pre-competition event. A cross-country skier followed the classical and skating courses using a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) antenna. The antenna instantly measured the latitude, longitude and height of the skier on the courses. The coordinate values on a plane were calculated from latitude and longitude, after the inclination was then calculated from the coordinate values and height every 10 m. The overall finish time and transit time at 24 points for 12 skiers in SA were retrieved from the Official Home Page of the International Ski Federation (FIS), and the segment times among the various points were calculated. Three segment times formed a lap, and each segment speed was calculated by dividing the segment distance by the segment time. For the classical course profile, the distance was 3819 m and the maximum inclination was 18.6%. In contrast, for the skating course, the distance was 3777 m and the maximum inclination was 20.6%. No correlation was found between the overall finish time and the segment times for the classical course. This result was attributable to small variations in the lap times for the classical course because of the skiers’ use strategy, checking among competitors, and the mass-start. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between the overall finish time and the segment times on skating. In skating, the segment speeds from the final phase of the 2nd lap to the middle phase of the 3rd lap indicated deceleration relative to the 1st lap. These results suggest that gliding on a skating course in a short time is important for shortening the overall finish-time. Especially, it is important to minimize the deceleration of the 2nd and 3rd lap segment speed. The race pattern for the Olympic Games was similar to that of pre-competition, except for the time taken. These results indicate that pre-competition race analysis is useful for devising a strategy for target competition.
著者
永澤 健 白石 聖
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.423-433, 2011 (Released:2011-12-28)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
6 8

In this study, we examined the effects of static stretching (SST) for different durations on muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) and muscle blood flow (BFmus) in the stretched muscles during and after SST. Nine healthy male subjects received passive SST of the wrist flexors. SST was performed for 10, 30, and 60 s. The StO2 and BFmus in the forearm flexor muscles were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. BFmus was determined from the rate of increase in total hemoglobin during venous occlusion. StO2 decreased immediately at the start of stretching, and thereafter kept decreasing until the end of SST. StO2 replenished rapidly after completion of SST and remained above the resting level during the recovery period. For all 3 durations of SST, the peak value of StO2 during the recovery period after SST showed a significant increase above the resting value (p<0.01) (10-s SST: 72.5±2.8%, 30-s SST: 72.5±1.8%, 60-s SST: 73.0±2.2%). There was no significant difference in the increase in the peak values of StO2 after SST among the 3 SST durations. For all durations of SST, BFmus after SST increased significantly above the resting level (p<0.01) (10-s SST: 2.6±1.2 fold, 30-s SST: 2.8±1.6 fold, 60-s SST: 2.9±1.0 fold), but there was no significant difference in the increase of BFmus after SST among the 3 SST durations. These results show that SST of wrist flexors for 10 s, 30 s, and 60 s induced an increase in StO2 and BFmus after SST, but the increase in StO2 and BFmus was not affected by SST duration.
著者
和田 正信 三島 隆章 山田 崇史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.3, pp.229-239, 2006 (Released:2008-01-25)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
4 3

Repeated intense skeletal muscle contraction leads to a progressive loss of force-generating capacity. This decline in function is generally referred to as muscular fatigue. Since the work of Fletcher and Hopkins (1907), it has been known that fatigued muscles accumulate lactic acid. Intracellular acidosis due to lactic acid accumulation has been regarded as the most important cause of fatigue during intense exercise. Recent challenges to the traditional view, however, have suggested that lactic acid plays a role in muscle contraction distinct from that implied by earlier studies. This brief review presents (1) a short history of our understanding about lactic acid that explains the early acceptance of a causal relationship between lactic acid and fatigue, (2) evidence to show the temperature dependence of acidosis-induced changes and the beneficial effect of acidosis, and (3) a proposal that lactate production retards, not causes, acidosis. These findings require us to reevaluate our notions of lactic acid, acidosis and muscular fatigue.
著者
大峰 光博 友添 秀則 長島 和幸
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.13011, (Released:2013-07-08)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
3 1

In baseball games, there are instances where a pitcher deliberately targets a batsman of the opposing team with a pitch in order to retaliate against a previous strike on their own player by the opposing team. The present study focusing on major league baseball aimed to clarify the nature of the responsibility sensed a pitcher who finds himself in a similar position after a batsman on his team has taken an intentional hit from the opposing team's pitcher in order to analyze the structure of the pitcher's dilemma. We looked at the situation not only from the viewpoint in which the pitcher's responsibility is considered an obligation, as proposed by Takikawa, but also from the obligations concept proposed by Sandel. We found that there is a responsibility to comply with the official baseball rules to discourage any retaliatory hit on a batsman in order to avoid any intentional injury to a member of the opponent's team. On the other hand, responsibility for an intentional hit on a batman can be considered an obligation in order to implement an unwritten rule that condones such retaliatory action. Therefore the structure of the responsibility is considered to be an obligation that generates a dilemma for the pitcher and promotes conflict. On this basis, the difficulty of resolving the problem related to a retaliatory hit was highlighted. Furthermore, the possibility of analysis in accordance with the responsibility concept for ethical issues in sport was suggested. We discuss the concept of responsibility as an obligation that presents a conflict, and consider which course of action should have priority in such cases.
著者
鈴木 秀人
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.409-427, 2021 (Released:2021-06-16)
参考文献数
37

Hirobumi Daimatsu was a legendary sports coach in Japan, especially after coaching the Japanese women’s national volleyball team (“the Oriental Witches”) that won the World Championship in 1962 and the gold medal in the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games. He was famous for his extreme training methods and had a great influence on coaching methodologies for Japanese sports as a whole. Although many studies have examined his way of thinking from various perspectives, the relationship between his war experiences and his approach to coaching has not been analyzed sufficiently. The present study aimed to examine how Daimatsu’s first-hand war experiences (“keiken”) developed into his coaching beliefs (“taiken”), focusing specifically on a theory created by Yoshida that war veterans’ understanding of their experiences had been changing over time from when they re-entered society and grew older. Yoshida made this transformation clear by referring to 5 periods since the end of the Second World War in 1945. Firstly, many demobilized soldiers including Daimatsu had to face civilians who hated the Japanese military just after defeat. They lost their morale, from 1945 to around 1950 could not talk about the military or the War. Secondly, even after former professional officers and wartime politicians had been rehabilitated, the veterans themselves still found it difficult to positively address some topics related to the War in the 1950s. Thirdly, the generation that had experienced the War who shouldered the responsibility of reconstruction from the destruction and devastation gradually gained confidence and became able to talk about their wartime experiences. Some of them discovered a positive meaning in their own experiences on the battlefield from the late 1950s to the late 1960s. Daimatsu was a typical example of the third period because he spoke clearly about the positive meaning of his war experiences. Penultimately, in the 1970s and 1980s, that generation of Japanese became able to accept the responsibility for the War, especially in Asia, and to gradually acknowledge the negative aspects of their experiences. Finally, in the 1990s, a small number of survivors chose to disclose tragic stories that had not come to light previously. Thus, Daimatsu was only one of a generation that had experienced the War and who became recognized as a spokesman for many of that generation who held common feelings.
著者
木下 秀明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.1, pp.33-48, 2006 (Released:2008-01-25)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1 1 1

This paper attempts to clarify the process of change from Gekiken and Kenjutsu to Kendo at the beginning of the 20th Century. The former two terms were widely used to mean swordsmanship with a bamboo sword. However, only the latter term is currently employed, despite the fact that it had been scarcely used at the time of the former two. At the end of the 19th Century, Gekiken was disliked by intellectuals because it marked a change from a real martial art to competition with a bamboo sword, and Kendo began to find favor instead of Gekiken even though the principle of Kendo had not been properly defined. In 1908, Shizuo Sakaguchi, a student, suggested that the concept of Kendo should consist of not only Kenjutsu training but also the mental discipline that is required for swordsmanship. However, his ideas did not gain immediate acceptance. In 1909, the Tokyo Higher Normal School changed the term Gekiken to Kendo, thus following the mainstream trend of adopting Kendo without any set idea of its content. Although in 1911 the Ministry of Education permitted Gekiken to be taught in secondary schools, the School intended to retain the term Kendo as a descriptor, and therefore it became necessary to properly define its content. Accordingly, Michiaki Nagai, the only professor of gymnastics at the School, emphasized the mental aspects of Kendo, as the suffix “-do” means “the way” for perfection of swordsmanship, as opposed to Gekiken and Kenjutsu, as the terms mean literally “hitting with” and “handling” a sword. The first special school for swordsmanship instructors was set up by the Ministry in 1911, and thereafter use of the term Kendo spread to all schools. The final aspect of this change of thought was the adoption of the term Budo instead of Bujutsu, meaning “martial art”, by the Great Japan Martial Virtue Association in 1919.
著者
村越 真
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.177-191, 2010 (Released:2010-07-20)
参考文献数
29

The 2007 statistics from 11 prefectural police departments in central Honshu (the largest island in Japan) regarding incidents in mountain areas were subjected to detailed analysis to assess the risk levels associated with mountain activities. These statistics were also compared with published statistics on mountain incidents that form the current basis for analysis of mountain incidents. The results of this analysis were: 1) The highest incidence rate is in the 50-69 age group for men, and the 40-59 age group for women. 2) A high percentage of incidents among people over the age of 40 and people getting lost reflected characteristic of incidents among people who were picking wild vegetables. 3) Incidents that were not officially classified as “getting lost”, but began when someone got lost their way, had a high risk of fatal injury. 4) Incidents that involved people getting lost were due not only to poor navigation skills but also to poor planning, a lack of general knowledge about mountain areas, and low basic skill levels. The importance of detailed analysis of mountain incidents for promotion of mountain safety is discussed.