著者
岡部 祐介 友添 秀則 春日 芳美
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.129-142, 2012 (Released:2012-06-02)
参考文献数
72

Konjo is the willpower necessary to endure suffering, and for making an effort, having become a word in daily use in society, as well as in sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the opportunity and the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo in Japanese society in the 1960s. Our study focused on three points: 1) Clarifying how the meaning of the word konjo changed in the 1960s, from its dictionary definition and usage in newspaper articles. 2) Clarifying the situation in which konjo became popular through the Tokyo Olympic Games, and its spread to the sports community and to society. 3) Considering the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo, and to propose a hypothesis that could account for it.   Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The meaning of konjo evolved from a negative context of “a fundamental character and mindset with which a person is born” to a positive context of “a strong, resilient character that cannot be suppressed” and “a strong motivation to accomplish an aim” at the beginning of the 1960s. 2) Konjo was considered to the spiritual keynote for athletes at the Tokyo Olympic Games. Hirobumi Daimatsu's “konjo theory” had the persuasive reason by winning “Oriental Witches” championship at the Tokyo Olympics. In view of these factors, we considered that konjo was interpreted as a popularized moral virtue by society, and impacted on both education and popular culture. 3) We considered that the concept of konjo became transformed and was used to promote competitiveness in sports at the Tokyo Olympics as part of the strategy for “character building”. It also played a role in bolstering human resources that played a key role in economic development during the 1960s, and thus was of strategic value. The considerations listed above show that the Tokyo Olympic Games played an important role in the transformation of the concept of konjo in the 1960s.
著者
友添 秀則 梅垣 明美
出版者
日本体育科教育学会
雑誌
体育科教育学研究 (ISSN:13428039)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.1-10, 2007-03-15 (Released:2012-09-24)
参考文献数
55

In Japan, the suicide by bullying took place m ostly continuously in the elementary school, the junior high school, and the high school in 2006. Now, children are in the situation which is in the crisis concerned with character. In such a situation, it is thought that physical education should pursue the character building for the purpose of formation of sociality or morality.The purpose of this paper is to examine critically the prec e dence research on the character building in physical education. And it is to clarify the result and problem of the character building theory in physical education through the critical examination of the precedence research.This study will give the effective suggestions for building the character building theory in future physical education.The results were summarized as follows.1) It is necessary to build clearly the explicit concept of the “character building” in physical education.2) The study on the “character building” in physical education must be added comprehensive analysis and examination from the relation with ideal changes of school physical education of Japan and the national curriculum for school physical education of Japan.3) The study on the character building in physical education needs to be considered, clarifying related structure with sports culture.4) The study on the character building in physical education needs to be considered from the position of creating new society, having the viewpoint of social criticism.
著者
大峰 光博 友添 秀則 長島 和幸
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.13011, (Released:2013-07-08)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
2 1

In baseball games, there are instances where a pitcher deliberately targets a batsman of the opposing team with a pitch in order to retaliate against a previous strike on their own player by the opposing team. The present study focusing on major league baseball aimed to clarify the nature of the responsibility sensed a pitcher who finds himself in a similar position after a batsman on his team has taken an intentional hit from the opposing team's pitcher in order to analyze the structure of the pitcher's dilemma. We looked at the situation not only from the viewpoint in which the pitcher's responsibility is considered an obligation, as proposed by Takikawa, but also from the obligations concept proposed by Sandel. We found that there is a responsibility to comply with the official baseball rules to discourage any retaliatory hit on a batsman in order to avoid any intentional injury to a member of the opponent's team. On the other hand, responsibility for an intentional hit on a batman can be considered an obligation in order to implement an unwritten rule that condones such retaliatory action. Therefore the structure of the responsibility is considered to be an obligation that generates a dilemma for the pitcher and promotes conflict. On this basis, the difficulty of resolving the problem related to a retaliatory hit was highlighted. Furthermore, the possibility of analysis in accordance with the responsibility concept for ethical issues in sport was suggested. We discuss the concept of responsibility as an obligation that presents a conflict, and consider which course of action should have priority in such cases.
著者
岡部 祐介 友添 秀則 春日 芳美
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1203240225, (Released:2012-04-03)
参考文献数
40

Konjo is the willpower necessary to endure suffering, and for making an effort, having become a word in daily use in society, as well as in sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the opportunity and the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo in Japanese society in the 1960s. Our study focused on three points: 1) Clarifying how the meaning of the word konjo changed in the 1960s, from its dictionary definition and usage in newspaper articles. 2) Clarifying the situation in which konjo became popular through the Tokyo Olympic Games, and its spread to the sports community and to society. 3) Considering the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo, and to propose a hypothesis that could account for it. Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The meaning of konjo evolved from a negative context of “a fundamental character and mindset with which a person is born” to a positive context of “a strong, resilient character that cannot be suppressed” and “a strong motivation to accomplish an aim” at the beginning of the 1960s. 2) Konjo was considered to the spiritual keynote for athletes at the Tokyo Olympic Games. Hirobumi Daimatsu's “konjo theory” had the persuasive reason by winning “Oriental Witches” championship at the Tokyo Olympics. In view of these factors, we considered that konjo was interpreted as a popularized moral virtue by society, and impacted on both education and popular culture. 3) We considered that the concept of konjo became transformed and was used to promote competitiveness in sports at the Tokyo Olympics as part of the strategy for “character building”. It also played a role in bolstering human resources that played a key role in economic development during the 1960s, and thus was of strategic value. The considerations listed above show that the Tokyo Olympic Games played an important role in the transformation of the concept of konjo in the 1960s.
著者
和田 哲也 友添 秀則
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育學研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.5, pp.337-348, 1994-01-01

The purpose of the present study was to clarify the activity of kenjyutsu, the traditional physical culture in Japan, practiced as a match or sport in the latter period of Edo era. The object of this study was Sekiguchi-school of Takeda family that was transmitted in the Yoshino River area in the province of Awa (Tokushima prefecture) . The authors investigated the actual condition and character of kenjyutsu in those days using the historical materials of "nogeiko" (the outdoor meet of kenjyutsu) of the school. The findings of this study were summarized as follows : 1) The "taryu-jiai", in which kenjyutsu had come to be practiced as a match in the latter period of Edo era, was carried mainly by the common people rather than the people in the class of samurai and was activated all over the country. 2) "Nogeiko" of Sekiguchi-school of Takeda family was intended to open to the public from the beginning, and it was planned elaborately and practiced systematically. Almost all of the matches in the "nogeiko" were practiced by one person against one, though these were practiced with some formations supposing an actual battle, and there were "metsuke"(referee) who judged victory or defeat. 3) These matches were practiced under the free and large-hearted atmosphere beeing unbound to the ethical idea of Confucianism, and this "nogeiko" had a character of an amusement or pleasure of the common people. 4) This case means that kenjyutsu was practiced as an activity of a match or sport, whose style agreed with several melkmarls pointed by Guttmann, in the province far from the governmental center of this country. This is assumed not to be particular in the area of Tokushima prefecture but to be general in the localities of this country in those days. 5) Practice of kenjyutsu as a match or sport like this and accumulation of the experience,which became a basic condition to accept modern sports since Meiji era in japan, seems to make the rapid diffusion of it easily.
著者
春日 芳美 友添 秀則
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.177-189, 2012 (Released:2012-06-02)
参考文献数
56
被引用文献数
1

This study was conduct to understand how women's physical education was promoted during the development of Japan, focusing especially on the Taisho era (1912-1926). First, I reviewed critical opinions about physical education for women prevalent during this period, in order to reveal details of difficulties in promoting it. Secondly, through collection of relevant documents, I examined the measures for promotion of women's physical education that had been discussed during this period. Thirdly, I reviewed the criticism of these promotion measures, in order to reveal the tendencies and problems prevalent at the time.   On the basis of these reviews, I consider that the main reasons why the promotion of women's physical education was not successful in the Taisho era were: 1) women's physical education was not consistent with the traditional social norm of the time, 2) theoretical studies of physical education had not yet been developed, and 3) people at that timetended to regard ‘unhealthy-looking’ women as beautiful (for example in the works of Takehisa Yumeji). Since it was difficult to solve these problems, some advocates tried to promote women's physical education by emphasizing the beneficial effects of gymnastics rather than conducting theoretical studies. This was promoted by proactively creating a new concept of women's physical education such as appreciation for ‘health and beauty’. The measures for promotion of physical education for women in the Taisho era placed emphasis on advertising physical education more effectively rather than improving it qualitatively. The promotion of women's physical education in this manner was criticized by other advocates of physical education, and I consider that this was one reason why the quality of women's physical education remained low.
著者
大峰 光博 友添 秀則 長島 和幸
出版者
日本体育・スポーツ哲学会
雑誌
体育・スポーツ哲学研究 (ISSN:09155104)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.7-19, 2013 (Released:2014-04-16)
参考文献数
78
被引用文献数
1 1 1

In this study, we focus on arguing about whether retaliatory-hit-batsman is right or wrong, elicit issues which should be solved by reviewing each theorist's theory which is different from each view and aim to provide a new viewpoint for the argument by addressing these issues. As a first issue, we suggest whether retaliatory-hit-batsman which is performed against the intentional hit by the opponent's pitch is appropriate for the justifiable defense or not. We discuss the issue in accordance with the finding based on the fields of legality and legal philosophy in which there are accumulated discussions about the justifiable defense. As a result, “imminent and unlawful infringement” is suggested as a condition which necessitates the use of justifiable defense and it was concluded that because it's too difficult to consider the retaliatory hit batsman which is performed against the intentional hit by the opponent's pitch as the justifiable defense, it's not justified from the viewpoint of justifiable defense.As a second issue, we question whether priority should be given to the external principles (the agreement of participants) or internal principles (the excellence) of the game. We address the issue by reference to Rawls and MacIntyre's theories. The result here are as follows: with the Rawls' stance of liberalism, agreement is acquired with the external principles, and on the other hand, with the MacIntyre's stance which is communitarianism with which the concept of “good” has the priority, internal principles (the excellence) should be given the priority. Furthermore, sustaining the game might be more difficult if the agreement is considered as the more important matter than the excellence. Therefore, even if there is the agreement of participants for retaliatory-hit-batsman, when the excellence of the game is undermined, we suggest that retaliatory-hit-batsman is not permitted.
著者
小野 雄大 友添 秀則 根本 想
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.599-620, 2017 (Released:2017-12-19)
参考文献数
94

In recent years, the way university sports are conducted has been under discussion. In particular, there is some concern about the balance between studies and competitive activities, which is important when considering the future of university sports in Japan. As no previous research has focused on sports recommendation admissions to universities in Japan, the present study first attempted to clarify the way in which this system has developed.  The following findings were obtained:  1. In Japan, even before the recommendation admission system was officially approved, athletes had been given preferential treatment in entrance examinations, which was not disclosed to the public or stipulated in application guides.  2. Soon after the recommendation admission system was officially approved, campus disputes worsened, which caused the preferential admission treatment of athletes to be severely criticized, making it difficult to continue with the conventional system any longer. Accordingly, during the period from the late 1960s to the early 1970s, universities abolished the preferential treatment given to athletes in entrance examinations.  3. Since the recommendation admission system was officially approved in 1967, the faculties of physical education at private universities, among others, started to actively admit athletes based on recommendation. These physical education faculties selected students based on physical skill tests to secure competent athletes. Thus, by matching the admission policy of the faculty with the sporting abilities of athletes, universities were able to secure competent athletes without having to impose a special admission quota for athletes.  4. In the 1980s, private universities played a leading role in conducting entrance examinations with a special admission quota for athletes. Waseda University launched the Special Selection System for Physical Education Major, which introduced a special admission quota for athletes, specified the athletic events and performances, and made the selection process widely known to the public. In conducting this selection, however, the university faced a dilemma of whether or not to employ it as the system for strengthening their sports teams.  5. In 1987, the Ad Hoc Council on Education, an advisory body of the Japanese Government on education, recommended that assessment of sports activities be taken into consideration in entrance examinations. The 1989, the Guidelines for University Entrance Examination, revised in accordance with the Council's recommendation, listed “adequate assessment of activities in sports, culture, etc.” as a selection method for university admission for the first time.
著者
大峰 光博 友添 秀則 岡部 祐介
出版者
日本スポーツ教育学会
雑誌
スポーツ教育学研究 (ISSN:09118845)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.13-25, 2012-03-30 (Released:2013-10-11)
参考文献数
51

In basketball, there is one of the intentional rules violations, which is called “foul game”. “Foul game” is the action that a defense player toward the end of a close game will intentionally foul players in possession of the ball in order to stop the clock. Although the dispute has so far been made from a viewpoint whether to be an act morally permitted to “foul game” or not, it has not resulted in the conclusion. The purpose of this study was to examine the point on right or wrong of “foul game” in basketball between Fraleigh and Simon who are regarded as renowned scholars in sport ethics with a fresh eye.There are three points in the controversy between Fraleigh and Simon.1. Role of the penalty for intentional fouls2. Importance of restorative skills3. Agreement of participants for intentional foulsIn this study, the three points at issue were examined by considering the contents of “official basketball rule” published in Japan Basketball Association. Especially, we analyzed the transition of the provisions of “intentional foul” and “unsportsmanlike foul” which have specified “foul game”. The results here are as follows.1.The role of the penalty for intentional fouls has shifted from the sanction for prohibited acts to the price for options.2.The importance of restorative skills by the free throw accompanying “foul game” has become more significant skills for which participants are asked in a game.3.The agreement of participants for intentional foul in “foul game” has moved turned to be acceptable.As we can see above, it has been evaluated as an act by which a “foul game“ is allowed in “official basketball rule”.
著者
小野 雄大 友添 秀則 根本 想
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.599-620, 2017

In recent years, the way university sports are conducted has been under discussion. In particular, there is some concern about the balance between studies and competitive activities, which is important when considering the future of university sports in Japan. As no previous research has focused on sports recommendation admissions to universities in Japan, the present study first attempted to clarify the way in which this system has developed.<br>  The following findings were obtained:<br>  1.&nbsp;In Japan, even before the recommendation admission system was officially approved, athletes had been given preferential treatment in entrance examinations, which was not disclosed to the public or stipulated in application guides.<br>  2.&nbsp;Soon after the recommendation admission system was officially approved, campus disputes worsened, which caused the preferential admission treatment of athletes to be severely criticized, making it difficult to continue with the conventional system any longer. Accordingly, during the period from the late 1960s to the early 1970s, universities abolished the preferential treatment given to athletes in entrance examinations.<br>  3.&nbsp;Since the recommendation admission system was officially approved in 1967, the faculties of physical education at private universities, among others, started to actively admit athletes based on recommendation. These physical education faculties selected students based on physical skill tests to secure competent athletes. Thus, by matching the admission policy of the faculty with the sporting abilities of athletes, universities were able to secure competent athletes without having to impose a special admission quota for athletes.<br>  4.&nbsp;In the 1980s, private universities played a leading role in conducting entrance examinations with a special admission quota for athletes. Waseda University launched the Special Selection System for Physical Education Major, which introduced a special admission quota for athletes, specified the athletic events and performances, and made the selection process widely known to the public. In conducting this selection, however, the university faced a dilemma of whether or not to employ it as the system for strengthening their sports teams.<br>  5.&nbsp;In 1987, the Ad Hoc Council on Education, an advisory body of the Japanese Government on education, recommended that assessment of sports activities be taken into consideration in entrance examinations. The 1989, the Guidelines for University Entrance Examination, revised in accordance with the Council's recommendation, listed &ldquo;adequate assessment of activities in sports, culture, etc.&rdquo; as a selection method for university admission for the first time.<br>
著者
岡部 祐介 友添 秀則 吉永 武史 稲葉 佳奈子
出版者
日本スポーツ教育学会
雑誌
スポーツ教育学研究 (ISSN:09118845)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.13-23, 2010-10-30 (Released:2013-07-20)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to clarify a contemporary meaning of discourse concerning the suicide of Kokichi Tsuburaya who was a marathon runner in the Olympic games in Tokyo, 1964.Tsuburaya's death was continually talked about in the newspaper and magazines, and discourse related to the suicide of Tsuburaya was reproduced.It was pointed out that the nation and the Self Defense Forces had caused “pressure” for Tsuburaya. In worldwide competitions including the Olympic games, contemporary athletes receive “pressure” as Tsuburaya.However, the difference with the generation of Tsuburaya's was clearly shown, and the conversion of the “ethos of sports” was pointed out. As a result of Tsuburaya's death it brought meaning as follows:Through Tsuburaya's, it was recognized that athletes undertake an excessive expectation from those around them, and social pressures over winning or defeat. It is thought that the death of Tsuburaya made clear the problem of identity loss for athletes. In addition, “recognition that modern athletes represent the nation”and “preferable attitude to competitive sport” is recognized. A definite link can be made between the “ethos of sport” and “Tsuburaya” which reproduces a (standard) discourse.
著者
小野 雄大 友添 秀則 根本 想
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.17015, (Released:2017-09-27)
参考文献数
94

In recent years, the way university sports are conducted has been under discussion. In particular, there is some concern about the balance between studies and competitive activities, which is important when considering the future of university sports in Japan. As no previous research has focused on sports recommendation admissions to universities in Japan, the present study first attempted to clarify the way in which this system has developed.  The following findings were obtained:  1. In Japan, even before the recommendation admission system was officially approved, athletes had been given preferential treatment in entrance examinations, which was not disclosed to the public or stipulated in application guides.  2. Soon after the recommendation admission system was officially approved, campus disputes worsened, which caused the preferential admission treatment of athletes to be severely criticized, making it difficult to continue with the conventional system any longer. Accordingly, during the period from the late 1960s to the early 1970s, universities abolished the preferential treatment given to athletes in entrance examinations.  3. Since the recommendation admission system was officially approved in 1967, the faculties of physical education at private universities, among others, started to actively admit athletes based on recommendation. These physical education faculties selected students based on physical skill tests to secure competent athletes. Thus, by matching the admission policy of the faculty with the sporting abilities of athletes, universities were able to secure competent athletes without having to impose a special admission quota for athletes.  4. In the 1980s, private universities played a leading role in conducting entrance examinations with a special admission quota for athletes. Waseda University launched the Special Selection System for Physical Education Major, which introduced a special admission quota for athletes, specified the athletic events and performances, and made the selection process widely known to the public. In conducting this selection, however, the university faced a dilemma of whether or not to employ it as the system for strengthening their sports teams.  5. In 1987, the Ad Hoc Council on Education, an advisory body of the Japanese Government on education, recommended that assessment of sports activities be taken into consideration in entrance examinations. The 1989, the Guidelines for University Entrance Examination, revised in accordance with the Council's recommendation, listed “adequate assessment of activities in sports, culture, etc.” as a selection method for university admission for the first time.
著者
大峰 光博 友添 秀則 岡部 祐介
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Education
雑誌
スポーツ教育学研究 (ISSN:09118845)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.13-25, 2012

In basketball, there is one of the intentional rules violations, which is called "foul game". "Foul game" is the action that a defense player toward the end of a close game will intentionally foul players in possession of the ball in order to stop the clock. Although the dispute has so far been made from a viewpoint whether to be an act morally permitted to "foul game" or not, it has not resulted in the conclusion. The purpose of this study was to examine the point on right or wrong of "foul game" in basketball between Fraleigh and Simon who are regarded as renowned scholars in sport ethics with a fresh eye.<br>There are three points in the controversy between Fraleigh and Simon.<br>1. Role of the penalty for intentional fouls<br>2. Importance of restorative skills<br>3. Agreement of participants for intentional fouls<br>In this study, the three points at issue were examined by considering the contents of "official basketball rule" published in Japan Basketball Association. Especially, we analyzed the transition of the provisions of "intentional foul" and "unsportsmanlike foul" which have specified "foul game". The results here are as follows.<br>1.The role of the penalty for intentional fouls has shifted from the sanction for prohibited acts to the price for options.<br>2.The importance of restorative skills by the free throw accompanying "foul game" has become more significant skills for which participants are asked in a game.<br>3.The agreement of participants for intentional foul in "foul game" has moved turned to be acceptable.<br>As we can see above, it has been evaluated as an act by which a "foul game" is allowed in "official basketball rule".
著者
大峰 光博 友添 秀則 長島 和幸
出版者
Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.473-482, 2013
被引用文献数
1

In baseball games, there are instances where a pitcher deliberately targets a batsman of the opposing team with a pitch in order to retaliate against a previous strike on their own player by the opposing team. The present study focusing on major league baseball aimed to clarify the nature of the responsibility sensed a pitcher who finds himself in a similar position after a batsman on his team has taken an intentional hit from the opposing team's pitcher in order to analyze the structure of the pitcher's dilemma. We looked at the situation not only from the viewpoint in which the pitcher's responsibility is considered an obligation, as proposed by Takikawa, but also from the obligations concept proposed by Sandel.<br>   We found that there is a responsibility to comply with the official baseball rules to discourage any retaliatory hit on a batsman in order to avoid any intentional injury to a member of the opponent's team. On the other hand, responsibility for an intentional hit on a batman can be considered an obligation in order to implement an unwritten rule that condones such retaliatory action. Therefore the structure of the responsibility is considered to be an obligation that generates a dilemma for the pitcher and promotes conflict. On this basis, the difficulty of resolving the problem related to a retaliatory hit was highlighted. Furthermore, the possibility of analysis in accordance with the responsibility concept for ethical issues in sport was suggested.<br>   We discuss the concept of responsibility as an obligation that presents a conflict, and consider which course of action should have priority in such cases.<br>