著者
長野 真弓 白山 正人 平野 裕一 宮下 充正
出版者
日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科學 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.436-446, 1992-08-01
被引用文献数
3

トレーニングを行っていない健康な成人男性9名を被検者として, 運動処方の有効な指標となっている換気性閾値(ventilatory threshold : VT)強度の運動がその後の過剰酸素消費量(excess postexercise O_2 consumption : EPOC)に及ぼす影響を調べた. 被検者は, 早朝空腹時に快適なソファーで30分間座位安静を保った後, VT強度で自転車エルゴメーター駆動を1時間行った. 運動終了後はソファーで12時間座位安静を保ち続けた. また, 運動終了後24時間目にも前日と同じ要領で座位安静をとった. その間, 採気・心拍数の測定を行い、運動が終了して2, 7, 12時間後には高糖食を摂取させた. この測定の他に, コントロールとして, 運動を行う代わりにソファーで1時間座位安静を保ち, その後も12時間にわたって座位安静を保つ非運動実験を行った. 運動(座位安静)前の安静値と運動(座位安静)後の値を比較したところ, EPOCは食事あるいは運動の影響を受けて, 有意に変動することがわかった. また, VT強度の運動を1時間行うと, EPOCは少なくとも12時間にわたって運動を行わない場合より増加し, 脂質代謝も少なくとも24時間にわたって高まることが示唆された. さらに, 運動後12時間で, 運動中の消費エネルギー(約550kcal)の22%(約120kcal)のエネルギーが過剰に消費されることがわかった. 以上のことから, この結果は運動に対する動機づけやウエイトコントロールなど, 運動処方の場で有効に活用できると考えられた.
著者
松尾 知之 平野 裕一 川村 卓
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.343-362, 2010 (Released:2010-12-28)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
4

The purposes of this study were to elicit experiential knowledge from expert baseball pitchers and baseball coaches, to elucidate key coaching points related to movement in baseball pitching, to classify them into categories, and to investigate any commonality among them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four former Japanese professional baseball pitchers and seven expert high-performance (national level) Japanese baseball coaches. Each interviewee was requested to comment on the pitching of 25 amateur baseball pitchers (11 junior high school, 8 high school, and 6 collegiate baseball pitchers), which had been videotaped beforehand. The comments were recorded, dictated literally, and divided into segments on the basis of meaning unit. Based on the properties of the various meaning units, some were gathered and classified into categories. For this process, we conducted a member check and triangulation to improve reliability and validity. We extracted 3283 units and classified them into 14 general categories and 71 specific categories. The most frequent category was “trunk open and quick turn during the stride and arm cocking phases”. However, this accounted for only 5.5% of the total meaning units. The next most frequent categories were “weighting on the pivot foot in the balanced position and during the stride phase” (4.7%) and “the throwing arm movement during the stride phase” (4.6%). The contents of all categories covered various aspects of movement. Among the relatively frequent categories, a few elicited the same opinion among the interviewees, but some had different opinions even about the same pitcher. These results suggest that there is a diversity of coaching points among coaches, and that it is important to know the categories that are determinative and those that should be chosen selectively.
著者
松尾 知之 平野 裕一 川村 卓
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.195-210, 2013 (Released:2013-06-08)
参考文献数
18

Expert players and/or expert coaches have a large stock of experiential knowledge, including knowledge of movement-related causality. We attempted to extract experiential knowledge of movement-related causality in baseball pitching from expert players and coaches with sufficient creditability. Verbal data collected in a previous study (Matsuo et al. 2010) using semi-structured interviews with four former professional baseball pitchers and seven expert baseball coaches were used for this study. The data had been categorized on the basis of a wide variety of coaching points. A matrix of co-occurrence based on the verbal data was used to calculate the strength of association between pairs of categories. In the process of the calculation, we employed the matrix calculation utilized in the Dematel method to count indirect associations. The distances among categories, calculated on the basis of co-occurrence probability, were used to assess the creditability of the verbal data. The categories were mapped into three-dimensional space using the least squares method, based on the distances. The associations of categories were extracted as highly trustworthy when the root mean squared error between the original distances and the mapped distances was below 10%. Among the extracted associations, the direction of causality was added to the associations that expressed the causality explicitly among the verbal data. The major selected causalities were as follows:1)  Moving forward before placing weight on the pivot foot sufficiently opens the trunk earlier and leads to insufficient weight being placed on the stride foot.2)  An inadequate take-back action, especially excessive horizontal abduction and elbow extension, limits the flexible arm movement around throwing-side ear and leads to lower shoulder abduction. In addition, it makes the trunk open earlier.3)  Excessive lead elbow extension during the stride phase makes the trunk open earlier. How the lead-arm is pulled towards the trunk also affects trunk rotation.4)  Bending the neck at any point leads to inadequate trunk rotation.