著者
伊藤 翔 唐沢 康暉 星野 太佑 藤井 雅史 衛藤 樹 鶴 純也 柏戸 千絵子 黒田 真也
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.3, pp.223-227, 2019-06-01 (Released:2019-05-18)
参考文献数
20

We clarify the effect of combination of low-carbohydrate diet and resistance exercise training on physical characteristics and plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones in humans. Intervention of low-carbohydrate diet and resistance exercise training were performed on 7 healthy men and 3 women (age 39.6 ± 7.0 year; BMI 25.1 ± 3.6 kg/m2) for 8 - 12 weeks. Physical characteristics and 106 test items including and blood concentrations of metabolites and hormones were measured before and after the intervention. The effects of intervention were analyzed by a paired t-test, in which multiple testing was corrected by the method of Storey (significant variation q <0.1). In both men and women, carbohydrate and energy intake per day were low, and protein intake per day was almost the same as the recommended dietary allowance. Because carbohydrate intake were limited (174 kcal), resulting in reduction of total energy (1186 kcal). After the intervention, body weight, BMI (Body Mass Index), fat mass, body fat, muscle mass and body water content significantly decreased, while muscle mass per body mass significantly increased. Glycine, 3-methyl histidine, inorganic phosphorous, urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen per creatinine, were significantly increased, while HbA1c, white blood cell count, β-aminoisobutyric acid, adrenalin, free T4, blood ammonia, γGTP, cholinesterase, and leptin were decreased.
著者
田中 喜代次 中田 由夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.3, pp.209-212, 2017-06-01 (Released:2017-05-17)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
1

Most people who go to fitness clubs or sports gyms for weight control, and many co-medicals and physicians believe that an increase in muscle mass and/or basal metabolic rate (BMR) is possible through a combination of regular exercise and optimal protein intake during weight loss. This seems a myth, and the reasons are discussed in this article. First, muscle mass is quite difficult to quantify. The limitations of body composition measurement should be well understood. Second, increasing muscle mass during weight loss is difficult. This might be attained through strict implementation of a protein-rich, low-carbohydrate diet; high-intensity resistance training; and aerobic exercise for a long duration. However, such a strict regimen is not feasible for most people. Finally, a 1-kg increase in muscle mass corresponds to an increase of only 13 kcal of BMR per day. Thus, an increase in muscle mass of 1 kg is difficult to achieve, while the gained BMR is approximately equivalent to a decrease of 13.5 kcal of BMR according to a 3-kg decrease of adipose tissue. Weight loss, unless through an extremely sophisticated weight control program, contributes to a decrease in BMR. However, it is an accomplished fact that women with significantly less muscle mass and lower BMR live longer than men with more muscle mass and higher BMR, regardless of ethnicity. Maintaining activities of daily living and daily activity function might be more essential.
著者
設楽 佳世 袴田 智子 大西 貴弘 池田 達昭
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.5, pp.369-382, 2017-10-01 (Released:2017-09-29)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
2

The objectives of this study were 1) to quantify the differences in body densities and percent body fat using various methods for evaluating body composition (e.g., underwater weighing (UWW), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), skinfold caliper (SKF) measurement, ultrasound (US), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), and 2) to examine the relationship between trends of the differences in body density and percent body fat obtained by these methods and characteristics of morphology and body composition. To this end, the body compositions of 73 healthy male adults were measured using UWW, ADP, SKF, US, and BIA. Twenty-seven of these 73 subjects underwent further measurement using DXA. Differences in body densities determined with ADP, SKF, and US were compared with those measured using UWW as a reference, and the differences in percent body fat estimated with UWW, ADP, SKF, US and BIA were compared with those measured by DXA as a reference. The results of this study indicate that 1) ADP is useful as a method for evaluating body density, as the results differed insignificantly from the reference method and showed no systematic errors due to differences in morphological characteristics and body composition, and 2) UWW measurements exhibited the smallest difference in percent body fat from the reference method, however, more than in any other method, there were systematic errors due to differences in morphological characteristics and body composition, specifically, trunk composition.
著者
向本 敬洋 韓 一栄 大野 誠
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.3, pp.349-364, 2008-06-01 (Released:2008-08-13)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) of low intensity and slow-movement repetitive resistance exercise in moderately trained young men. Seven healthy trained young men (age=22±3 yr ; height=172.5±4.0 cm ; weight=69.5±8.3 kg ; VO2max=47.3±6.0 ml/kg/min) performed the following three exercise patterns on separate days : 1) high-intensity (80% one-repetition maximum : 1RM) and regular-movement repetitive exercise (1 second each of concentric and eccentric action, termed high and regular exercise (HRE) ; 2) low-intensity (50%1RM), regular-movement repetitive exercise (same movement speed as for HRE but termed low and regular exercise (LRE); and 3) low-intensity (50%1RM), slow-movement repetitive exercise (4 sec each of concentric and eccentric action, termed low and slow exercise (LSE). These three exercise patterns consisted of three sets of four exercises performed to maximum repetition. All subjects completed the three exercise sessions in a randomized and counterbalanced fashion. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored during the exercise sessions and for 90 min afterwards. EPOC over 90 min was thus observed after completing the three exercise patterns. However, there were no significant differences in EPOC among the three exercise patterns. The results of this study suggest that low-intensity and slow-movement repetitive resistance exercise with maintaining muscular tension (LSE) is likely to increase EPOC to the same extent as HRE and LRE exercise patterns.
著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 小池 関也 阿江 通良
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.225-232, 2010 (Released:2010-05-27)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on mechanical work of the lower limb joints during baseball pitching in a simulated game. One male college baseball pitcher threw 15 pitches in an inning for 9 innings (135 pitches) in an indoor pitcher's mound with two force platforms. Rest time between innings was 6 minutes. Three-dimensional positions of 47 reflective markers attached to subject were tracked by an optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion System 612, Vicon Motion Systems) with eight cameras (250Hz). For subject 75 fastball pitches (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th innings) were chosen for analysis.As the main results, the hip joint extension absolute and negative work of the stride leg decreased with increasing the number of pitches. The ankle joint extension absolute and negative work of the stride leg increased with increasing the number of pitches. These results suggest that the hip joint extension torque of the stride leg was needed to maintain for higher performance in baseball pitching.

12 0 0 0 OA 熱中症の疫学

著者
中井 誠一
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.1, pp.77, 2015 (Released:2015-01-25)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
1
著者
菊地 潤 中村 泉 樫村 修生
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.353-364, 2009-06-01 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
24

The present study examined the relationship between rate of abnormal menstrual cycles in women who participated in competitive sports and long-term fertility. Longitudinal menstrual data were collected over 25 years from 33 women who graduated from physical education collegesThe results were as follows:1)Among the 33 women surveyed, the number of pregnancies for each woman ranged from zero to eight; the total number of pregnancies was 85 (mean 2.6). Sixty-five (76.5%) of the 85 pregnancies were carried out to delivery times.2)The rate of spontaneous abortion was 15.3%. Four (12.1%) of the 33 women were infertile.3)In women with fertility-related problems such as infertility, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and stillbirth, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles tended to be higher with increase of the fertility-related problems.4)In women with a high rate of abnormal menstrual cycles during college, the rate continued to be high after graduation.5)In women without fertility-related problems, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles during college varied widely. Also, the rate of abnormal menstruation decreased less than 30% after graduation, excluding one woman. Conversely, in women with fertility-related problems, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles was higher than in women without fertility problems both during college and after graduation.6)Changes in menstrual cycle length with age were more different than an individual. In women with fertility-related problems, abnormal menstrual cycles were observed between the ages of 18 and 42, and abnormal cycles were both longer and shorter than normal cycles.The results indicated that, in women who participated in competitive sports during their youth, abnormal menstrual cycles may remain long after retirement from sports. In addition, problems such as infertility and spontaneous abortion were observed to be associated with higher rates of abnormal menstrual cycles.
著者
西脇 雅人 松本 直幸
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.3, pp.237-243, 2018-06-01 (Released:2018-05-16)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1

This retrospective observational study aimed to examine the effects of playing Pokémon GO on daily steps of male college students. Twenty-five Japanese male college students (20 ± 1 years) were assigned to Control group (C, n = 11) or Pokémon GO group (P, n = 14) based on their playing Pokémon GO or not. Daily step levels were obtained from the health care app of Apple iPhone from September 2016 to October 2016. In P group, the data for the 4 weeks to determine baseline values and for the 4 weeks of playing Pokémon GO were analyzed. The steps data of C group were also analyzed in the same period of the total 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in steps at baseline level between both groups. In addition, no significant time-course changes in steps were observed in C group. In contrast, steps in P group significantly increased from baseline 8,368 ± 544 steps/day to week 1 10,028 ± 617 steps/day (P < 0.01). The changes in steps from baseline to week 1 were significantly greater in P group than in C group (1,671 ± 345 vs. -81 ± 582, P < 0.01). However, the increased steps returned to baseline level by week 2, and the values did not increase again. Therefore, our findings indicate that playing Pokémon GO increases daily steps only during one week in Japanese male college students.
著者
宮下 浩二 小林 寛和 越田 専太郎 浦辺 幸夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.379-386, 2009-06-01 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
3 1

The purpose of this study was to identify the angles of the shoulder complex which consist of glenohumeral joint, scapulothracic joint, and thoracic joint at the maximum external rotation (MER) of the shoulder complex during throwing in baseball players, and to analyze the correlation of each angle.The subjects were 19 collegiate baseball players. Throwing motion data was collected by three high-speed cameras and the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of the shoulder complex were established by direct leaner translation method for the MER calculation. A 3D analysis was performed to obtain the external rotation (ER) angle of the glenohumeral joint, the posterior tilt angle of the scapula, and the extension angles of thoracic at MER of shoulder complex. The mean (±SD) value of the MER was 145.5±10.3°. The mean (±SD) values of the glenohumeral ER, the scapula posterior tilt angle and the thoracic extension angle at MER were 105.3±16.0°, 24.3±15.0°, and 9.1±7.2°respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate the MER angle to each joint angle. The final linear regression model included the posterior tilting angle of scapula ( r=0.56, p<0.05), and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint ( r=0.40, p<0.05). Significant negative correlation was observed between the posterior tilting angle of the scapula and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint ( r=-0.52, p<0.05). This finding suggested that scapula motion could be very important for the prevention of throwing injuries.
著者
市橋 則明 吉田 正樹
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.5, pp.461-464, 1993-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
5 4

A study was conducted to determine the minimum quantity of leg exercise required to prevent disuse atrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle during bed rest. The subjects were 10 normal young university students with a mean age of 21.1 years. First, analysis of rectified filtered electromyography (RFEMG) was performed on the rectus femoris and vastus medialis during walking with cadences of 100 steps/min and 150 steps/min. Then, the effects of straight leg raising (SLR), patella setting (PS), knee extension-flexion in a supine position (KEF) and knee extension in a sitting position (KE) were analysed for each muscle using the same method. Based on the value of RFEMG for each muscle during walking, the repetition number for each exercise was calculated. For the rectus femoris, the repetition number for each exercise corresponding to 10000 steps with a cadence of 100 steps/min was 289 for SLR, 466 for PS, 1255 for LEF and 1663 for KE. For the vastus medialis, the corresponding numbers were 1223, 381, 6367 and 2170, respectively. When the cadence increased to 150 steps/min, the repetition number of each exercise for each muscle also increased. These results indicate that high repetition exercise is recommendable to prevent disuse atrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Therefore, the activity of patients should be increased to stimulate weakened muscles such as the quadriceps femoris during hospitalization.
著者
紙上 敬太 西平 賀昭 東浦 拓郎
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.63-72, 2009-02-01 (Released:2009-05-01)
参考文献数
26

The interactive effects of exercise intensity and physical activity level on the brain and cognition of young adults were investigated using the electromyographic reaction time (EMG-RT), the P3, and the NoGo P3, as well as the contingent negative variation (CNV) of event-related brain potentials. Participants (n=26 : 24.0 ± 0.7 years) were divided on the basis of their regular physical activity level into active and inactive groups. Then, they performed a Go/NoGo reaction time task in the no exercise, control condition ; as well as after light, moderate, and hard cycling exercises. Results indicated that increases in P3 and NoGo P3 amplitude following moderate exercise were larger in the inactive group, suggesting that inactive individuals were more sensitive to exercise intensity than active individuals. Active individuals might be better able to sustain their attention during the Go/NoGo reaction time task, despite the exercise intensity. These findings are suggestive of a differential effect of exercise intensity on cognitive function that might be dependent on the level of regular physical activity. The effects of exercise intensity on EMG-RTs were observed across groups. However, the P3 latency was not affected by exercise intensity. These contradictory results are possible related to the nature of the cognitive task, such as its difficulty. Moreover, increases in CNV amplitudes following moderate exercise were larger than in other exercise conditions across groups, suggesting that motor preparation process is also facilitated by moderate, acute exercise. These findings provide additional evidence for the beneficial effects of acute aerobic exercise on the brain and cognition of young adults.
著者
木越 清信 尾縣 貢 田内 健二 大山 卞 圭悟 高松 薫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.167-178, 2003-04-01 (Released:2010-12-10)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2 3

本研究の目的は, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動中における座位姿勢の変化が下肢筋群の筋活動および最大パワーに及ぼす影響を明らかにすることであった.被験者には, 大学陸上競技部に所属する男性10名 (21.5±1.9yrs, 178.8±4.7cm, 71.0±5.6kg) を用い, シートの高さを変化させた3種類 (High, MiddleおよびLow) の試技条件下で, それぞれ5秒間のペダリング運動を体重×0.1kpの負荷で行わせた.主な結果は以下の通りである.1.3回転の最大パワーは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.2.骨盤傾斜角度は, HighおよびMiddleがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.3.膝関節最大伸展角度および屈曲角度は, High, MiddleおよびLowの川頁に有意に高値を示した.4.脊柱起立筋および大腿二頭筋におけるmEMGは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.5.Highにおいては, 3回転の最大パワーと大殿筋におけるmEMGとの間に有意な正の相関関係が認められた.また, 3回転の最大パワーと大腿二頭筋および外側広筋におけるmEMGとの間に正の相関傾向が認められた.以上の結果から, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動において, シート高の変化による座位姿勢変化は下肢筋群, 特に股関節伸展筋群の筋張力および最大パワーに影響を及ぼす可能性があることが示唆された.
著者
久木留 毅 相澤 勝治 岡田 藍 徳山 薫平 河野 一郎
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.4, pp.429-436, 2007-08-01 (Released:2007-09-14)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
3 3

[Objective] This study examined the effects of resting metabolic rate (RMR), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) during acute weight loss in elite male wrestlers.[Methods] Subjects were elite male wrestlers (n=6), who were instructed to reduce the body weight in seven days. RMR, SMR, and DIT were measured by indirect calorimetry in normal training phase and after rapid weight loss. Body composition and energy intake were also measured.[Results] Energy intake significantly decreased in rapid weight loss phase (P<0.05). After the rapid weight reduction, percent reduction of body weight (-4.4%), fat mass (-17.5%), and total body water (-3.2%) significant compare with that of normal training phase (P<0.05). RMR(-15.2%), and SMR (-11.8%) significantly decreased during acute weight loss (P<0.05). DIT(-89.4%) tended to be decrease during acute weight loss.[Conclusion] The present study suggests that rapid weight loss in elite male wrestlers causes decreases in RMR and SMR.