著者
伊藤 翔 唐沢 康暉 星野 太佑 藤井 雅史 衛藤 樹 鶴 純也 柏戸 千絵子 黒田 真也
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.3, pp.223-227, 2019-06-01 (Released:2019-05-18)
参考文献数
20

We clarify the effect of combination of low-carbohydrate diet and resistance exercise training on physical characteristics and plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones in humans. Intervention of low-carbohydrate diet and resistance exercise training were performed on 7 healthy men and 3 women (age 39.6 ± 7.0 year; BMI 25.1 ± 3.6 kg/m2) for 8 - 12 weeks. Physical characteristics and 106 test items including and blood concentrations of metabolites and hormones were measured before and after the intervention. The effects of intervention were analyzed by a paired t-test, in which multiple testing was corrected by the method of Storey (significant variation q <0.1). In both men and women, carbohydrate and energy intake per day were low, and protein intake per day was almost the same as the recommended dietary allowance. Because carbohydrate intake were limited (174 kcal), resulting in reduction of total energy (1186 kcal). After the intervention, body weight, BMI (Body Mass Index), fat mass, body fat, muscle mass and body water content significantly decreased, while muscle mass per body mass significantly increased. Glycine, 3-methyl histidine, inorganic phosphorous, urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen per creatinine, were significantly increased, while HbA1c, white blood cell count, β-aminoisobutyric acid, adrenalin, free T4, blood ammonia, γGTP, cholinesterase, and leptin were decreased.
著者
田中 喜代次 中田 由夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.3, pp.209-212, 2017-06-01 (Released:2017-05-17)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
1

Most people who go to fitness clubs or sports gyms for weight control, and many co-medicals and physicians believe that an increase in muscle mass and/or basal metabolic rate (BMR) is possible through a combination of regular exercise and optimal protein intake during weight loss. This seems a myth, and the reasons are discussed in this article. First, muscle mass is quite difficult to quantify. The limitations of body composition measurement should be well understood. Second, increasing muscle mass during weight loss is difficult. This might be attained through strict implementation of a protein-rich, low-carbohydrate diet; high-intensity resistance training; and aerobic exercise for a long duration. However, such a strict regimen is not feasible for most people. Finally, a 1-kg increase in muscle mass corresponds to an increase of only 13 kcal of BMR per day. Thus, an increase in muscle mass of 1 kg is difficult to achieve, while the gained BMR is approximately equivalent to a decrease of 13.5 kcal of BMR according to a 3-kg decrease of adipose tissue. Weight loss, unless through an extremely sophisticated weight control program, contributes to a decrease in BMR. However, it is an accomplished fact that women with significantly less muscle mass and lower BMR live longer than men with more muscle mass and higher BMR, regardless of ethnicity. Maintaining activities of daily living and daily activity function might be more essential.
著者
星 秋夫 稲葉 裕
出版者
日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科學 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.1, pp.85-92, 2002-02-01
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
12 4

本研究では近年13年間 (1986~1998) における学校管理下での体育・スポーツ活動中における外因性死亡の発生状況について検討し, 以下のような結果を得た.<BR>1) 過去13年間における外因性死亡事故の発生は295件, 年平均22.7件であり, 全体の約52%が外傷によるものであった.いずれの外因においても女子より男子での死亡件数が多かった.<BR>2) 外傷, 熱中症はそれぞれ進学するにしたがって増加するが, 溺水は各学校で同様に発生した.高校において, 外傷と熱中症の発生は高学年時よりも低学年時で高い傾向にあった.<BR>3) 外傷, 熱中症においては大部分が運動部活動時に発生したが, 溺水では大部分が体育授業時に発生した.<BR>4) 外傷の発生は柔道が最も多く, 以下ラグビー, 野球等であった.溺水は水泳であり, 熱中症は野球, サッカー, 柔道等であった.また, 外傷による死因は約74%が頭部外傷による死亡であった.<BR>5) ICD-10による分類において, 外傷で最も多かったのは投げられ, 投げ出されまたは落下する物体による打撲 (W20) 54件であり, 以下スポーツ用具との衝突または打撲 (W21) 33件, 他人との衝突 (W51) 20件等であった.溺水では水泳プール内での溺死および溺水 (W67) 49件等, 熱中症は自然の過度の高温への暴露 (X30) 69件であった.<BR>6) 外傷による死因で最も多い柔道における外因の大部分はW20であった.また, ラグビー, アメリカンフットボールの大半はW51, 野球, サッカーの大半はW21であった.<BR>以上のことから, 発生事例の多い運動種目においては発生防止に対して十分に注意を払うとともに, 基礎練習の充実等, 予防策を講ずる必要がある.
著者
設楽 佳世 袴田 智子 大西 貴弘 池田 達昭
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.5, pp.369-382, 2017-10-01 (Released:2017-09-29)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
2

The objectives of this study were 1) to quantify the differences in body densities and percent body fat using various methods for evaluating body composition (e.g., underwater weighing (UWW), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), skinfold caliper (SKF) measurement, ultrasound (US), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), and 2) to examine the relationship between trends of the differences in body density and percent body fat obtained by these methods and characteristics of morphology and body composition. To this end, the body compositions of 73 healthy male adults were measured using UWW, ADP, SKF, US, and BIA. Twenty-seven of these 73 subjects underwent further measurement using DXA. Differences in body densities determined with ADP, SKF, and US were compared with those measured using UWW as a reference, and the differences in percent body fat estimated with UWW, ADP, SKF, US and BIA were compared with those measured by DXA as a reference. The results of this study indicate that 1) ADP is useful as a method for evaluating body density, as the results differed insignificantly from the reference method and showed no systematic errors due to differences in morphological characteristics and body composition, and 2) UWW measurements exhibited the smallest difference in percent body fat from the reference method, however, more than in any other method, there were systematic errors due to differences in morphological characteristics and body composition, specifically, trunk composition.
著者
向本 敬洋 韓 一栄 大野 誠
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.3, pp.349-364, 2008-06-01 (Released:2008-08-13)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) of low intensity and slow-movement repetitive resistance exercise in moderately trained young men. Seven healthy trained young men (age=22±3 yr ; height=172.5±4.0 cm ; weight=69.5±8.3 kg ; VO2max=47.3±6.0 ml/kg/min) performed the following three exercise patterns on separate days : 1) high-intensity (80% one-repetition maximum : 1RM) and regular-movement repetitive exercise (1 second each of concentric and eccentric action, termed high and regular exercise (HRE) ; 2) low-intensity (50%1RM), regular-movement repetitive exercise (same movement speed as for HRE but termed low and regular exercise (LRE); and 3) low-intensity (50%1RM), slow-movement repetitive exercise (4 sec each of concentric and eccentric action, termed low and slow exercise (LSE). These three exercise patterns consisted of three sets of four exercises performed to maximum repetition. All subjects completed the three exercise sessions in a randomized and counterbalanced fashion. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored during the exercise sessions and for 90 min afterwards. EPOC over 90 min was thus observed after completing the three exercise patterns. However, there were no significant differences in EPOC among the three exercise patterns. The results of this study suggest that low-intensity and slow-movement repetitive resistance exercise with maintaining muscular tension (LSE) is likely to increase EPOC to the same extent as HRE and LRE exercise patterns.
著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 小池 関也 阿江 通良
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.225-232, 2010 (Released:2010-05-27)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on mechanical work of the lower limb joints during baseball pitching in a simulated game. One male college baseball pitcher threw 15 pitches in an inning for 9 innings (135 pitches) in an indoor pitcher's mound with two force platforms. Rest time between innings was 6 minutes. Three-dimensional positions of 47 reflective markers attached to subject were tracked by an optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion System 612, Vicon Motion Systems) with eight cameras (250Hz). For subject 75 fastball pitches (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th innings) were chosen for analysis.As the main results, the hip joint extension absolute and negative work of the stride leg decreased with increasing the number of pitches. The ankle joint extension absolute and negative work of the stride leg increased with increasing the number of pitches. These results suggest that the hip joint extension torque of the stride leg was needed to maintain for higher performance in baseball pitching.

12 0 0 0 OA 熱中症の疫学

著者
中井 誠一
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.1, pp.77, 2015 (Released:2015-01-25)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
1
著者
菊地 潤 中村 泉 樫村 修生
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.353-364, 2009-06-01 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
24

The present study examined the relationship between rate of abnormal menstrual cycles in women who participated in competitive sports and long-term fertility. Longitudinal menstrual data were collected over 25 years from 33 women who graduated from physical education collegesThe results were as follows:1)Among the 33 women surveyed, the number of pregnancies for each woman ranged from zero to eight; the total number of pregnancies was 85 (mean 2.6). Sixty-five (76.5%) of the 85 pregnancies were carried out to delivery times.2)The rate of spontaneous abortion was 15.3%. Four (12.1%) of the 33 women were infertile.3)In women with fertility-related problems such as infertility, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and stillbirth, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles tended to be higher with increase of the fertility-related problems.4)In women with a high rate of abnormal menstrual cycles during college, the rate continued to be high after graduation.5)In women without fertility-related problems, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles during college varied widely. Also, the rate of abnormal menstruation decreased less than 30% after graduation, excluding one woman. Conversely, in women with fertility-related problems, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles was higher than in women without fertility problems both during college and after graduation.6)Changes in menstrual cycle length with age were more different than an individual. In women with fertility-related problems, abnormal menstrual cycles were observed between the ages of 18 and 42, and abnormal cycles were both longer and shorter than normal cycles.The results indicated that, in women who participated in competitive sports during their youth, abnormal menstrual cycles may remain long after retirement from sports. In addition, problems such as infertility and spontaneous abortion were observed to be associated with higher rates of abnormal menstrual cycles.
著者
西脇 雅人 松本 直幸
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.3, pp.237-243, 2018-06-01 (Released:2018-05-16)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1

This retrospective observational study aimed to examine the effects of playing Pokémon GO on daily steps of male college students. Twenty-five Japanese male college students (20 ± 1 years) were assigned to Control group (C, n = 11) or Pokémon GO group (P, n = 14) based on their playing Pokémon GO or not. Daily step levels were obtained from the health care app of Apple iPhone from September 2016 to October 2016. In P group, the data for the 4 weeks to determine baseline values and for the 4 weeks of playing Pokémon GO were analyzed. The steps data of C group were also analyzed in the same period of the total 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in steps at baseline level between both groups. In addition, no significant time-course changes in steps were observed in C group. In contrast, steps in P group significantly increased from baseline 8,368 ± 544 steps/day to week 1 10,028 ± 617 steps/day (P < 0.01). The changes in steps from baseline to week 1 were significantly greater in P group than in C group (1,671 ± 345 vs. -81 ± 582, P < 0.01). However, the increased steps returned to baseline level by week 2, and the values did not increase again. Therefore, our findings indicate that playing Pokémon GO increases daily steps only during one week in Japanese male college students.
著者
宮下 浩二 小林 寛和 越田 専太郎 浦辺 幸夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.379-386, 2009-06-01 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
3 1

The purpose of this study was to identify the angles of the shoulder complex which consist of glenohumeral joint, scapulothracic joint, and thoracic joint at the maximum external rotation (MER) of the shoulder complex during throwing in baseball players, and to analyze the correlation of each angle.The subjects were 19 collegiate baseball players. Throwing motion data was collected by three high-speed cameras and the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of the shoulder complex were established by direct leaner translation method for the MER calculation. A 3D analysis was performed to obtain the external rotation (ER) angle of the glenohumeral joint, the posterior tilt angle of the scapula, and the extension angles of thoracic at MER of shoulder complex. The mean (±SD) value of the MER was 145.5±10.3°. The mean (±SD) values of the glenohumeral ER, the scapula posterior tilt angle and the thoracic extension angle at MER were 105.3±16.0°, 24.3±15.0°, and 9.1±7.2°respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate the MER angle to each joint angle. The final linear regression model included the posterior tilting angle of scapula ( r=0.56, p<0.05), and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint ( r=0.40, p<0.05). Significant negative correlation was observed between the posterior tilting angle of the scapula and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint ( r=-0.52, p<0.05). This finding suggested that scapula motion could be very important for the prevention of throwing injuries.