著者
Shinnosuke Hada Sungdo Kim Kei Kawaguchi Kazuo Kaneko Muneaki Ishijima Yoshimasa Tomita Kazuo Isayama
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.4, pp.255-260, 2022-07-25 (Released:2022-07-12)
参考文献数
15

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport with a high incidence of concussions, including knockouts (KO) due to direct attacks to the head. Once a concussion occurs in a fighter, the rate of concussion recurrence increases. Therefore, participation in matches may be weakened to head impacts as fighters experience repeated concussions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the occurrence of concussions in male mixed martial arts athletes during the most recent match and their past match records. The analysis included 104 male fighters who competed in elite-level professional MMA competitions. In the most current match, 44 fighters experienced a concussion and 60 fighters did not. Previous KO losses (mean, 2.9) were significantly higher in the fighters who had experienced a concussion compared to fighters who had not (p < 0.0001). Concussion rates (65.0%) were significantly higher in fighters with three or more previous KO losses compared with the rates for fighters with less than 3 previous KO losses (p = 0.03). The odds ratio for the occurrence of concussions in fighters with a history of KO losses was 2.3 times that of fighters without a history of KO losses (p = 0.004). Fighters who had competed in more than 30 matches had a significantly higher incidence of concussions (60.8%) than fighters who had competed in less than 30 matches (37.0%) (p = 0.04). The occurrence of concussions in male MMA fighters is related to the number of previous KO losses and the number of matches.
著者
Shigenobu Shibata Yu Tahara
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.65-72, 2014-03-25 (Released:2014-03-20)
参考文献数
99
被引用文献数
3 6

In mammals, the circadian clock organizes physiological processes, including sleep/wake patterns, hormonal secretion, and metabolism, and regulates athletic performance. The circadian system is responsive to environmental changes such as light/dark cycles, food intake, and exercise. In this review, we will focus on the central and peripheral circadian molecular clock system, discussing how circadian rhythm affects athletic performance and muscle metabolism, and how exercise entrains the circadian rhythm. Importance of exercise training in rescuing circadian deficit–induced metabolic disorder is also discussed. The interaction of the circadian clock and exercise, called “chrono-exercise,” is poised to become an important research field of chronobiology.
著者
Hirofumi Zempo Mitsuaki Isobe Hisashi Naito
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.25-31, 2017-01-25 (Released:2017-01-21)
参考文献数
91
被引用文献数
9

The mechanism which causes sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass and strength with aging, remains unclear. Muscle mass is controlled by the net balance between protein synthesis and breakdown; however, net balance differences in the basal state do not contribute to sarcopenia. On the other hand, anabolic resistance, a reduction in muscle protein synthesis in response to protein intake, does seem to be involved in sarcopenia. Muscles which are subject to anabolic resistance do not show incremental blood flow volume during the fed-state. Because the vascular system transports amino acids and other nutrients that are essential for muscle protein synthesis, blood flow volume may be a regulator of anabolic resistance. There is some evidence of a link between blood flow and muscle protein metabolism. In addition, a combination of resistance training and amino acid supplementation promotes a positive net protein balance. Resistance training improves, and detraining reduces blood flow volume; therefore, blood flow volume may be involved as a background mechanism for sarcopenia. Moreover, previous studies have shown that sodium nitroprusside, a vasodilatory nitric oxide donor, enhances muscle protein synthesis. Conversely, angiotensin II, a major vasoconstrictive peptide, induces skeletal muscle protein breakdown. In this review, we discuss a possible role for blood flow in skeletal muscle protein metabolism in elderly adults. The regulation of blood flow may prove to be a beneficial treatment for sarcopenia.
著者
Hiromi Yano Michael J. Kremenik Masataka Uchida Eri Oyanagi
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.153-159, 2018-05-25 (Released:2018-05-16)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
2

In understanding the relationship between exercise and immunity, the “open window theory” is a well-known theory stating that immediately after high intensity exercise, temporary immunosuppression occurs, which increases the risk of infections such as upper respiratory tract infections. Why does such a phenomenon occur? Does immunosuppression after severe exercise have physiological significance? In this paper, we propose a theory of super homeostasis. In other words, we verify that the open window theory is an important biological reaction when trying to understand the reason why we do exercise, more than it is the indispensable physiological response to the whole body.
著者
市橋 則明 吉田 正樹
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.5, pp.461-464, 1993-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
7 4

A study was conducted to determine the minimum quantity of leg exercise required to prevent disuse atrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle during bed rest. The subjects were 10 normal young university students with a mean age of 21.1 years. First, analysis of rectified filtered electromyography (RFEMG) was performed on the rectus femoris and vastus medialis during walking with cadences of 100 steps/min and 150 steps/min. Then, the effects of straight leg raising (SLR), patella setting (PS), knee extension-flexion in a supine position (KEF) and knee extension in a sitting position (KE) were analysed for each muscle using the same method. Based on the value of RFEMG for each muscle during walking, the repetition number for each exercise was calculated. For the rectus femoris, the repetition number for each exercise corresponding to 10000 steps with a cadence of 100 steps/min was 289 for SLR, 466 for PS, 1255 for LEF and 1663 for KE. For the vastus medialis, the corresponding numbers were 1223, 381, 6367 and 2170, respectively. When the cadence increased to 150 steps/min, the repetition number of each exercise for each muscle also increased. These results indicate that high repetition exercise is recommendable to prevent disuse atrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Therefore, the activity of patients should be increased to stimulate weakened muscles such as the quadriceps femoris during hospitalization.
著者
水田 拓道 植屋 清見 日丸 哲也 永田 晟 山本 高司
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.101-107, 1975-09-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
8

目的に応じたサウナ入浴をするための一つの条件として, サウナ入浴時間が生体におよぼす影響というかたちで, 主に運動機能的な面からサウナ入浴前後, および入浴中の変化について比較検討した。本実験の結果からサウナの効果的利用法について次のような示唆が得られた。1.アンケート調査の結果, サウナ入浴時間においては5分単位の入浴を繰返している者が最とも多く60%余りをしめていた。また, 95%の者がなんらかの形で冷水浴を併用していた。2.全身反応時間, 膝蓋腱反射閾値, 垂直跳びにおけるジャンプパワー等, 筋神経系の関係する機能においては, 5分入浴, 1分冷水浴で3回繰返し入浴法が, 入浴前に比べてよい成績を示し効果的であることがわかった。このことから, 経験的に得た5分単位の入浴法が, 疲労回復, 気分転換等に効果的であることが裏付けられた。3.血圧, 心拍数, 皮膚温の変化には設定パターンによる著明な差異は認められなかった。しかし, いずれのパターンにおいても循環機能への有効な剌激として考察され, 長期にわたる利用によって環境温の変化に対する適応能を高める効果が期待される。4.サウナ入浴中の酸素摂取量は安静時に比して, パターン (1) が23.2%, パターン (2) が31.6%れぞれ増加した。エネルギー代謝促進の面からは少し長い入浴時間が必要と考えられる。
著者
Naoya Takei Kenya Takahashi Katsuyuki Kakinoki Hideo Hatta
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.5, pp.253-259, 2018-09-25 (Released:2018-09-25)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

Over the past few decades, several studies have been conducted on the relationships between peak blood lactate concentration (PBLC) and exercise performance. However, it is still controversial whether PBLC has a correlation with exercise performance, and if it can be a reliable indicator for energy metabolism during short-term high-intensity exercise. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to establish a new reliable indicator. PBLC isn’t able to reflect individual differences in kinetics of post-exercise blood lactate concentration (e.g. different time point of PBLC). Thus, to reflect the individual differences, we focused on the rate of increase in post-exercise blood lactate concentration (RIBLC). Twenty-two male university track athletes were divided into a sprinter group (S: n = 14) and middle- to long-distance runner group (ML: n = 8). 400-m (meter) time trials and blood samplings were conducted to measure exercise performance (average running velocity) and blood lactate concentration. In the present study, PBLC had no significant correlations with average running velocity in both S and ML. The present study supports previous studies that reported no correlations between PBLC and exercise performance. In contrast, significant correlations between RIBLC and average running velocity were observed in both S and ML (r = 0.69, p < 0.001 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01, respectively). RIBLC was significantly higher in ML than S (p < 0.05). It is assumed that RIBLC indicates lactate transport capacity and plays an important role in 400-m sprinting. Based on these results, RIBLC could be a new indicator for energy metabolism during short-term high-intensity exercise.
著者
Taichi Yamaguchi Kojiro Ishii
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.121-129, 2014-03-25 (Released:2014-03-20)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
13 16

Previous studies have indicated that dynamic stretching acutely improves explosive performance, and dynamic stretching is now incorporated into warm-up protocols prior to sports activities that require explosive performance. The optimal protocol for dynamic stretching, however, has not been clarified. The purpose of this review is to clarify the optimal protocols for velocity and volume (i.e., repetition or distance x set) in dynamic stretching to improve explosive performance by systematic investigation. For velocity, the rate of change in explosive performance when dynamic stretching was performed “as fast as possible” (7.6 ± 3.8%) was significantly (P < 0.01) greater compared to when dynamic stretching was performed “without setting the velocity” (1.1 ± 5.3%). This finding suggested that dynamic stretching should be performed “as fast as possible”. As for volume, the repetition of dynamic stretching was significantly (P < 0.01) negatively correlated with the rate of change in explosive performance only when dynamic stretching was performed without setting the velocity. The distance of dynamic stretching was also significantly (P < 0.05) negatively correlated with the rate of change in explosive performance. These findings suggest that explosive performance might become impaired as the volume of dynamic stretching increases. By combining simple regression analysis of the repetition or the distance of dynamic stretching and the rate of change in explosive performance with a systematic investigation, it was found that the optimal “repetition” or “distance” x “set” of dynamic stretching was “10-15 repetitions” or “10 yards-20 meters” x “1-2 sets”, respectively.
著者
Yumiko Takahashi Yutaka Matsunaga Yuki Tamura Eiki Urushibata Shin Terada Hideo Hatta
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.5, pp.531-537, 2014-11-25 (Released:2014-12-05)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
4 6

Previous studies suggested that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) administration enhances glucose uptake, one of the rate-limiting factors for glycogen synthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of post-exercise taurine administration on glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle in ICR mice. In experiment 1, we orally administered either taurine (0.5 mg/g body weight) solution or physiological saline immediately after treadmill running at 25 m/min for 90 min. The serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentration at 60 min after the exercise was significantly higher in the taurine-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). At 120 min after the exercise, the tibialis anterior muscle glycogen concentration in the taurine-treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, we orally administered either glucose (1 mg/g body weight) solution or glucose solution containing taurine immediately after and at 60 min after the exercise. The area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose concentration from 0 to 60 min after the exercise was significantly smaller in the taurine-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Our results show that post-exercise taurine administration enhances glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle. Higher skeletal muscle glycogen concentration by taurine administration may be partly due to the acceleration of glucose uptake. In addition, as the elevation of blood FFA level leads to an increase in fat oxidation, it is possible that a higher serum FFA concentration by taurine treatment is related to the sparing of carbohydrate for glycogen repletion.
著者
Keishi Soga Keita Kamijo Hiroaki Masaki
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.57-67, 2016-03-25 (Released:2016-03-18)
参考文献数
78
被引用文献数
4 5

An increasing number of studies have examined the effects of acute aerobic exercise on executive function (i.e., higher-order cognitive abilities involved in goal-directed behaviors) in healthy children. More recently, studies have begun to extend these empirical findings to children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we review what is known about the effects of acute exercise on executive function in children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. Overall, moderate acute aerobic exercise can transiently improve executive function in children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. Further, these effects of acute exercise may differ depending on type of exercise, participant characteristics (e.g., fitness levels, executive function capacity, type of neurodevelopmental disorder), and timing of cognitive task administration (i.e., after versus during exercise). Despite the increasing number of findings, it is still premature to suggest effective exercise types and/or intensity levels to produce improvements in executive function in children. Further studies are needed to address this issue. Finally, future research directions are discussed in more detail.
著者
大森 肇 渡邉 彰人 大山 卞圭悟 佃 文子 高橋 英幸 久米 俊郎 白木 仁 岡田 守彦 板井 悠二 勝田 茂
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.3, pp.385-392, 2000-06-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
15

本研究では1週間に1日という低頻度で5週間のみの筋力トレーニングを行った結果, 筋力の増加がみられた.また筋力トレーニングによって獲得された筋力は17週間の脱トレーニング後でも維持されていることが示唆された.さらに再トレーニング脚と対照トレーニング脚を比較した結果から, 再トレーニングによる筋力増加応答の増強 (Nerve-Muscle Memory) が観察された.これらの現象がiEMGの変化様相と一致していたことから, これらの背景にあるメカニズムが神経系の要因 (運動単位動員の変化ならびにインパルス発射頻度の変化) によるものであると考えられた.
著者
平井 雄介 田畑 泉
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.5, pp.495-502, 1996-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
2 6

This study examined the effects of (1) an intermittent training using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer and (2) resistance training using free weight on the maximal oxygen deficit and VO2max. For the first 6 weeks, six subjects trained using an intermittent training protocol five days per week. The exhaustive intermittent training consisted of seven to eight sets of 20 s exercise at anintensity of about 170% of VO2max with a 10 s rest between each bout. After the training, the maximal oxygen deficit increased significantly from 64.3±5.0 ml⋅kg-1 to 75.1±5.7 ml⋅kg-1 (p<0.01), while VO2max increased from 52.0±2.7 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1 to 57.6±2.9 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1 (p<0.05) . For the following 6 weeks, the subjects used the same intermittent training for 3 days per week and a resistance training for the other 3 days per week. The resistance training consisted of (1) 4 sets of 12 bouts of squat and leg curl exercise at 12 repetition maximum (RM) . (2) 2 sets of maximal bouts of the same exercise with a load of 90%, 80%, and 70% of 1 RM. After the training period, the maximal oxygen deficit increased further to the value of 86.8±5.9 ml⋅kg-1which was significantly higher than the value attained at the end of the intermittent training. On the other hand, VO2max did not increase significantly from the value observed at the end of the 6 weeks of intermittent training. Body weight was not significantly changed throughout the 12-week training period. Maximal circumference of the thigh did not changed during the first 6-week of the intermittent training period (pre-training: 57.1±1.2 cm, after 6-week training: 57.3±1.1 cm), while it increased significantly after the last 6-week combined training (59.0±0.8 cm, p<0.05) . In conclusion, this study showed that (1) high intensity intermittent training improves both the anaerobic and aerobic energy supplying systems, (2) additional resistance training with the intermittent training further increases the anaerobic energy supplying system, probably through increased muscle mass.
著者
Kaito Iwayama Kumpei Tokuyama
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.307-316, 2012-07-25 (Released:2012-09-11)
参考文献数
56

Indirect calorimetry with a room-size respiratory chamber provides an ideal setting to monitor energy metabolism for a prolonged period. During the last 10 years, experiments with this method have raised interesting observations such as: 1) exercise intensity has no effect on 24 h fat oxidation, 2) exercise has little, if any, effect on 24 h fat oxidation, and 3) exercise before breakfast increases 24 h fat oxidation. To some of the scientific community and general public, the first two statements may be unacceptable. But it can be factually explained that the impact of exercise on energy metabolism is not confined to the period of physical activity itself, and that fat oxidation remains elevated during the post-exercise period. The third observation seems to be insignificant, but contradicts the second one. It is premature to conclude that exercise has no effect on 24 h fat oxidation.
著者
中條 雅彦 牛 凱軍 門間 陽樹 小林 順敏 関 磊 佐藤 美加 郭 輝 大友 篤 崔 宇飛 只浦 寛子 斎藤 辰典 永富 良一
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.4, pp.383-389, 2014-08-01 (Released:2014-07-26)
参考文献数
40

Coffee administration has been shown to increase maximum voluntary contraction and muscular endurance. However, no study has addressed the association between daily consumption of coffee with muscular function. This cross sectional study aimed to investigate the association between frequency of coffee consumption (CC) in daily life and muscle strength among a population of working adult men. This cross sectional study included men (n = 516, mean age: 47.1) who participated in an annual health examination conducted in Sendai. The monthly frequency of coffee consumed was reported by a brief-type self-administered dietary history questionnaire. Leg extension power (LEP) was measured as an index of muscle strength. Subjects were divided into tertile levels according to CC. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relation between the tertile levels of CC and LEP. After adjustment for potential confounders (including all lifestyle factors), the adjusted means (95% confidence interval) of LEP across the tertiles of CC were 17.4 (16.6 - 18.1) for the lowest tertile, 17.9 (17.4 - 18.5) for the mid tertile, and 18.9 (18.3 - 19.5) for the highest tertile (p for trend = 0.007). Higher frequency of monthly coffee consumption was associated with higher muscle strength.
著者
Masato Nishiwaki Naoyuki Matsumoto
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.187-195, 2015-05-25 (Released:2015-05-28)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
2 2

This review summarizes recent findings regarding the status of physical activity and introduces effective methods of intervention. Data from our serial cross-sectional study between 2003 and 2012 suggested that the decline in step counts over the last decade is mainly related to a reduction in non-exercise activity associated with the increased use of cell phones or computers and with playing video games. We then examined the effects of lifestyle interventions using an activity monitor with computerized game functions or an activity monitor and Twitter on physical activity and body composition. These findings suggested that lifestyle interventions using both of these strategies increases daily physical activity and reduces body fat more effectively than using an activity monitor alone. In addition, changes in physical activity and in body fat were significantly correlated. We also applied a randomized intervention to examine an effective method of increasing physical activity levels among college physical education students using a pedometer. We found that using a pedometer and inducing friendly competition or encouragement from peers increased step counts more effectively during soccer classes. These findings therefore have important implications for ensuring compliance with the Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion 2013 and Active Guide.
著者
Keiko Unno
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.117-122, 2016-05-25 (Released:2016-05-14)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
4 8

Since aging is the most important risk factor for dementia, measures to slow the onset of brain aging are an important strategy for preventing dementia. Accumulation of oxidative damage is considered to be a major cause of aging. Catechins in green tea (GTCs) have powerful antioxidative activity. Ingestion of GTCs suppressed oxidative damage, brain atrophy and cognitive decline in aged mice. Age-related cognitive decline was significantly suppressed in mice when middle-aged mice started to drink green tea catechins. Middle-aged people are thus expected to be able to suppress brain aging by ingestion of GTCs. In addition, numerous people are stressed under various conditions. Brain aging was accelerated and lifespan shortened in experimental animals that were chronically and psychosocially stressed. Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, suppressed stress-induced aging. However, the anti-stress effect of theanine is blocked by catechins and caffeine that are main components in green tea. Daily drinking of several cups of green tea is considered to suppress brain aging. In addition, theanine-rich green tea or green tea with a lowered level of caffeine is expected to suppress stress and stress-induced aging.
著者
永澤 健 根本 勇 中村 夏実 岩竹 淳 黒田 善雄
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.1, pp.89-96, 2001-02-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
2 2

本研究は, クレアチン (Cr) ローディングがローイングパフォーマンスに及ぼす影響について検討することを目的とした.被検者は, 20名の国内トップレベルの男子学生ボート競技選手とし, ローイングエルゴメータにより, 実際の競技会をシミュレートした2000mローイングおよび最大努力の20秒ローイングを摂取前後に実施した.被検者を無作為にクレアチン (CRE) 群10名とプラセボ (PLA) 群10名に分け, 二重盲検法により1日20g (59×4/日) のCrあるいはプラセボを6日間摂取させた.その結果, 2000mローイングのタイムはCRE群において407.9±5.3秒から404.7±5.4秒へと有意な向上 (p<0.01) を示し, 一方, PLA群に有意な変化を認めなかった.最大努力の20秒ローイング時の発揮パワーは, Cr摂取によりに有意な変化を示さなかった.以上のことから, 高度にトレーニングされた男子ボート競技選手において, Crローディングは, 最大努力の20秒ローイングに効果がないものの, 2000mローイングのパフォーマンス向上に有効であることが示唆された.
著者
小川 新吉 古田 善伯 山本 恵三 永井 信雄
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.45-55, 1973-06-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 1

巨大な体格, 豪力の持ち主であると考えられている現役上位力士) (関取) の形態, 機能の測定および調査を行ない, 種々なる検討を試みた。形態的な測定1.関取の平均身長は180.2cmと, 日本人としてはずばぬけて大柄な集団であるが, スポーツ選手の大型化を考えるとき, 特筆すべき特徴とは考えられない。2.体重は平均122.2kgと超重量級で, ローレル指数も平均210.5と異常に近い充実度を示し, この超肥満体に力士の特徴がみられる。身体の軟組織に富む周囲径, 特に腰囲は, 114.9cm, 臀囲は115.7cmと著しく大きく, 皮脂厚 (3部位の合計) も109.9mmと驚くべき肥厚を示し, 力士の体型の特徴は皮脂厚の異常なまでの発達にあることがわかる。機能の測定3.背筋力の平均は181kg, 握力左右平均47.9kgと予想したほど大きくなく, オリンピックの重量挙や投擲選手以下である。筋力の測定方法等に問題があるにしても, 筋力は形態に比べ予想外に発達していないと考えられる。5.垂直とび47.9cm, サイド・ステップ35.1回, 腕立屈伸21.4回と, 体重が負荷となるテストでは体重の影響が問題となり, スポーツ選手としては著しく小さい。6.しかし, 身体の柔軟性や全身反応時間等は肥満体にもかかわらず, さして劣っていない。7.被検力士の平均肺活量は4918.6mlで, 巨体の割には小さい。8.ステップ・テストの評点は平均49.4, 体重増が負担となり, 同年令成人より著しく劣っている。総体して, 形態の発達に比べて, 呼吸循環器系機能の発達が明らかにアンバランスになっていると考えられる。力士の発育・発連9.一部関取の形態につき, 過去4年間の測定結果を追跡調査した結果では, 身長の伸びはほとんどみられないが, 体重, 胸囲の発達は著しく, 特に体重では6~29kgの著明な増大がみられた。10.上位と下位の力士を比較すると, 上位力士は形態, 特に体重, 周囲径が優れており, 機能面では上位と下位の間にそれほど著明な差違は認められない。したがって, 相撲競技では, 形態の大小が勝負に大きく関与していると考えられる。11.以上の結果を総括してみると, 力士は形態の発達には著しい特徴が認められるが, 機能面では, 他種目の一流スポーツ選手と比較し, 伸びが著しく劣っている。これらについては, 伝統的な練習方法や稽古, 生活様式等に考慮すべき問題があると考えられる。謝辞: 本研究は文部省の特定科学研究費, IBP.HA班の研究助成金をえて実施されたことを銘記しておく。なお, 本研究について, 多大の理解と好意を賜った日本相撲協会の武蔵川理事長, 故秀の山監事, さらに直接御協力を願った各部屋の親方, 責任者, 関取衆に感謝の意を表するものである。
著者
Kenta Yamamoto
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.1-5, 2017-01-25 (Released:2017-01-21)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
1 8

Most Japanese people have had their flexibility tested in childhood physical education classes. Recent studies may provide a retrospective answer as to why those measurements may be important. Flexibility is one of the components of physical fitness along with cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength. Although flexibility was originally assumed to correlate with other aspects of physical fitness, recent studies demonstrate that a less flexible body indicates arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness has been identified as an independent risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, there is a possibility that flexibility is a novel fitness indicator related to cardiovascular disease, which can be easily evaluated over all ages and in any area (e.g., medical check-up). Now, flexibility may no longer be simply viewed as important just for optimizing functional movement in daily life and/or reducing the risk of injury. This article reviews the recent findings on the relationship between flexibility and arterial stiffness, emphasizing “flexibility and arterial stiffness”, “genetics and flexibility”, “stretching and arterial stiffness”, and “flexibility and blood pressure”.
著者
木越 清信 尾縣 貢 田内 健二 大山 卞 圭悟 高松 薫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.167-178, 2003-04-01 (Released:2010-12-10)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2 3

本研究の目的は, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動中における座位姿勢の変化が下肢筋群の筋活動および最大パワーに及ぼす影響を明らかにすることであった.被験者には, 大学陸上競技部に所属する男性10名 (21.5±1.9yrs, 178.8±4.7cm, 71.0±5.6kg) を用い, シートの高さを変化させた3種類 (High, MiddleおよびLow) の試技条件下で, それぞれ5秒間のペダリング運動を体重×0.1kpの負荷で行わせた.主な結果は以下の通りである.1.3回転の最大パワーは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.2.骨盤傾斜角度は, HighおよびMiddleがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.3.膝関節最大伸展角度および屈曲角度は, High, MiddleおよびLowの川頁に有意に高値を示した.4.脊柱起立筋および大腿二頭筋におけるmEMGは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.5.Highにおいては, 3回転の最大パワーと大殿筋におけるmEMGとの間に有意な正の相関関係が認められた.また, 3回転の最大パワーと大腿二頭筋および外側広筋におけるmEMGとの間に正の相関傾向が認められた.以上の結果から, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動において, シート高の変化による座位姿勢変化は下肢筋群, 特に股関節伸展筋群の筋張力および最大パワーに影響を及ぼす可能性があることが示唆された.