著者
Hirofumi Zempo Mitsuaki Isobe Hisashi Naito
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.25-31, 2017-01-25 (Released:2017-01-21)
参考文献数
91
被引用文献数
1

The mechanism which causes sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass and strength with aging, remains unclear. Muscle mass is controlled by the net balance between protein synthesis and breakdown; however, net balance differences in the basal state do not contribute to sarcopenia. On the other hand, anabolic resistance, a reduction in muscle protein synthesis in response to protein intake, does seem to be involved in sarcopenia. Muscles which are subject to anabolic resistance do not show incremental blood flow volume during the fed-state. Because the vascular system transports amino acids and other nutrients that are essential for muscle protein synthesis, blood flow volume may be a regulator of anabolic resistance. There is some evidence of a link between blood flow and muscle protein metabolism. In addition, a combination of resistance training and amino acid supplementation promotes a positive net protein balance. Resistance training improves, and detraining reduces blood flow volume; therefore, blood flow volume may be involved as a background mechanism for sarcopenia. Moreover, previous studies have shown that sodium nitroprusside, a vasodilatory nitric oxide donor, enhances muscle protein synthesis. Conversely, angiotensin II, a major vasoconstrictive peptide, induces skeletal muscle protein breakdown. In this review, we discuss a possible role for blood flow in skeletal muscle protein metabolism in elderly adults. The regulation of blood flow may prove to be a beneficial treatment for sarcopenia.
著者
Hiromi Yano Michael J. Kremenik Masataka Uchida Eri Oyanagi
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.153-159, 2018-05-25 (Released:2018-05-16)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
2

In understanding the relationship between exercise and immunity, the “open window theory” is a well-known theory stating that immediately after high intensity exercise, temporary immunosuppression occurs, which increases the risk of infections such as upper respiratory tract infections. Why does such a phenomenon occur? Does immunosuppression after severe exercise have physiological significance? In this paper, we propose a theory of super homeostasis. In other words, we verify that the open window theory is an important biological reaction when trying to understand the reason why we do exercise, more than it is the indispensable physiological response to the whole body.
著者
Naoya Takei Kenya Takahashi Katsuyuki Kakinoki Hideo Hatta
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.5, pp.253-259, 2018-09-25 (Released:2018-09-25)
参考文献数
26

Over the past few decades, several studies have been conducted on the relationships between peak blood lactate concentration (PBLC) and exercise performance. However, it is still controversial whether PBLC has a correlation with exercise performance, and if it can be a reliable indicator for energy metabolism during short-term high-intensity exercise. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to establish a new reliable indicator. PBLC isn’t able to reflect individual differences in kinetics of post-exercise blood lactate concentration (e.g. different time point of PBLC). Thus, to reflect the individual differences, we focused on the rate of increase in post-exercise blood lactate concentration (RIBLC). Twenty-two male university track athletes were divided into a sprinter group (S: n = 14) and middle- to long-distance runner group (ML: n = 8). 400-m (meter) time trials and blood samplings were conducted to measure exercise performance (average running velocity) and blood lactate concentration. In the present study, PBLC had no significant correlations with average running velocity in both S and ML. The present study supports previous studies that reported no correlations between PBLC and exercise performance. In contrast, significant correlations between RIBLC and average running velocity were observed in both S and ML (r = 0.69, p < 0.001 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01, respectively). RIBLC was significantly higher in ML than S (p < 0.05). It is assumed that RIBLC indicates lactate transport capacity and plays an important role in 400-m sprinting. Based on these results, RIBLC could be a new indicator for energy metabolism during short-term high-intensity exercise.
著者
市橋 則明 吉田 正樹
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.5, pp.461-464, 1993-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
7 4

A study was conducted to determine the minimum quantity of leg exercise required to prevent disuse atrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle during bed rest. The subjects were 10 normal young university students with a mean age of 21.1 years. First, analysis of rectified filtered electromyography (RFEMG) was performed on the rectus femoris and vastus medialis during walking with cadences of 100 steps/min and 150 steps/min. Then, the effects of straight leg raising (SLR), patella setting (PS), knee extension-flexion in a supine position (KEF) and knee extension in a sitting position (KE) were analysed for each muscle using the same method. Based on the value of RFEMG for each muscle during walking, the repetition number for each exercise was calculated. For the rectus femoris, the repetition number for each exercise corresponding to 10000 steps with a cadence of 100 steps/min was 289 for SLR, 466 for PS, 1255 for LEF and 1663 for KE. For the vastus medialis, the corresponding numbers were 1223, 381, 6367 and 2170, respectively. When the cadence increased to 150 steps/min, the repetition number of each exercise for each muscle also increased. These results indicate that high repetition exercise is recommendable to prevent disuse atrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Therefore, the activity of patients should be increased to stimulate weakened muscles such as the quadriceps femoris during hospitalization.
著者
大森 肇 渡邉 彰人 大山 卞圭悟 佃 文子 高橋 英幸 久米 俊郎 白木 仁 岡田 守彦 板井 悠二 勝田 茂
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.3, pp.385-392, 2000-06-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
15

本研究では1週間に1日という低頻度で5週間のみの筋力トレーニングを行った結果, 筋力の増加がみられた.また筋力トレーニングによって獲得された筋力は17週間の脱トレーニング後でも維持されていることが示唆された.さらに再トレーニング脚と対照トレーニング脚を比較した結果から, 再トレーニングによる筋力増加応答の増強 (Nerve-Muscle Memory) が観察された.これらの現象がiEMGの変化様相と一致していたことから, これらの背景にあるメカニズムが神経系の要因 (運動単位動員の変化ならびにインパルス発射頻度の変化) によるものであると考えられた.
著者
Kaito Iwayama Kumpei Tokuyama
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.307-316, 2012-07-25 (Released:2012-09-11)
参考文献数
56

Indirect calorimetry with a room-size respiratory chamber provides an ideal setting to monitor energy metabolism for a prolonged period. During the last 10 years, experiments with this method have raised interesting observations such as: 1) exercise intensity has no effect on 24 h fat oxidation, 2) exercise has little, if any, effect on 24 h fat oxidation, and 3) exercise before breakfast increases 24 h fat oxidation. To some of the scientific community and general public, the first two statements may be unacceptable. But it can be factually explained that the impact of exercise on energy metabolism is not confined to the period of physical activity itself, and that fat oxidation remains elevated during the post-exercise period. The third observation seems to be insignificant, but contradicts the second one. It is premature to conclude that exercise has no effect on 24 h fat oxidation.
著者
小川 新吉 古田 善伯 山本 恵三 永井 信雄
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.45-55, 1973-06-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 1

巨大な体格, 豪力の持ち主であると考えられている現役上位力士) (関取) の形態, 機能の測定および調査を行ない, 種々なる検討を試みた。形態的な測定1.関取の平均身長は180.2cmと, 日本人としてはずばぬけて大柄な集団であるが, スポーツ選手の大型化を考えるとき, 特筆すべき特徴とは考えられない。2.体重は平均122.2kgと超重量級で, ローレル指数も平均210.5と異常に近い充実度を示し, この超肥満体に力士の特徴がみられる。身体の軟組織に富む周囲径, 特に腰囲は, 114.9cm, 臀囲は115.7cmと著しく大きく, 皮脂厚 (3部位の合計) も109.9mmと驚くべき肥厚を示し, 力士の体型の特徴は皮脂厚の異常なまでの発達にあることがわかる。機能の測定3.背筋力の平均は181kg, 握力左右平均47.9kgと予想したほど大きくなく, オリンピックの重量挙や投擲選手以下である。筋力の測定方法等に問題があるにしても, 筋力は形態に比べ予想外に発達していないと考えられる。5.垂直とび47.9cm, サイド・ステップ35.1回, 腕立屈伸21.4回と, 体重が負荷となるテストでは体重の影響が問題となり, スポーツ選手としては著しく小さい。6.しかし, 身体の柔軟性や全身反応時間等は肥満体にもかかわらず, さして劣っていない。7.被検力士の平均肺活量は4918.6mlで, 巨体の割には小さい。8.ステップ・テストの評点は平均49.4, 体重増が負担となり, 同年令成人より著しく劣っている。総体して, 形態の発達に比べて, 呼吸循環器系機能の発達が明らかにアンバランスになっていると考えられる。力士の発育・発連9.一部関取の形態につき, 過去4年間の測定結果を追跡調査した結果では, 身長の伸びはほとんどみられないが, 体重, 胸囲の発達は著しく, 特に体重では6~29kgの著明な増大がみられた。10.上位と下位の力士を比較すると, 上位力士は形態, 特に体重, 周囲径が優れており, 機能面では上位と下位の間にそれほど著明な差違は認められない。したがって, 相撲競技では, 形態の大小が勝負に大きく関与していると考えられる。11.以上の結果を総括してみると, 力士は形態の発達には著しい特徴が認められるが, 機能面では, 他種目の一流スポーツ選手と比較し, 伸びが著しく劣っている。これらについては, 伝統的な練習方法や稽古, 生活様式等に考慮すべき問題があると考えられる。謝辞: 本研究は文部省の特定科学研究費, IBP.HA班の研究助成金をえて実施されたことを銘記しておく。なお, 本研究について, 多大の理解と好意を賜った日本相撲協会の武蔵川理事長, 故秀の山監事, さらに直接御協力を願った各部屋の親方, 責任者, 関取衆に感謝の意を表するものである。
著者
平井 雄介 田畑 泉
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.5, pp.495-502, 1996-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
2 3

This study examined the effects of (1) an intermittent training using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer and (2) resistance training using free weight on the maximal oxygen deficit and VO2max. For the first 6 weeks, six subjects trained using an intermittent training protocol five days per week. The exhaustive intermittent training consisted of seven to eight sets of 20 s exercise at anintensity of about 170% of VO2max with a 10 s rest between each bout. After the training, the maximal oxygen deficit increased significantly from 64.3±5.0 ml⋅kg-1 to 75.1±5.7 ml⋅kg-1 (p<0.01), while VO2max increased from 52.0±2.7 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1 to 57.6±2.9 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1 (p<0.05) . For the following 6 weeks, the subjects used the same intermittent training for 3 days per week and a resistance training for the other 3 days per week. The resistance training consisted of (1) 4 sets of 12 bouts of squat and leg curl exercise at 12 repetition maximum (RM) . (2) 2 sets of maximal bouts of the same exercise with a load of 90%, 80%, and 70% of 1 RM. After the training period, the maximal oxygen deficit increased further to the value of 86.8±5.9 ml⋅kg-1which was significantly higher than the value attained at the end of the intermittent training. On the other hand, VO2max did not increase significantly from the value observed at the end of the 6 weeks of intermittent training. Body weight was not significantly changed throughout the 12-week training period. Maximal circumference of the thigh did not changed during the first 6-week of the intermittent training period (pre-training: 57.1±1.2 cm, after 6-week training: 57.3±1.1 cm), while it increased significantly after the last 6-week combined training (59.0±0.8 cm, p<0.05) . In conclusion, this study showed that (1) high intensity intermittent training improves both the anaerobic and aerobic energy supplying systems, (2) additional resistance training with the intermittent training further increases the anaerobic energy supplying system, probably through increased muscle mass.
著者
Kenta Yamamoto
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.1-5, 2017-01-25 (Released:2017-01-21)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
1 3

Most Japanese people have had their flexibility tested in childhood physical education classes. Recent studies may provide a retrospective answer as to why those measurements may be important. Flexibility is one of the components of physical fitness along with cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength. Although flexibility was originally assumed to correlate with other aspects of physical fitness, recent studies demonstrate that a less flexible body indicates arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness has been identified as an independent risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, there is a possibility that flexibility is a novel fitness indicator related to cardiovascular disease, which can be easily evaluated over all ages and in any area (e.g., medical check-up). Now, flexibility may no longer be simply viewed as important just for optimizing functional movement in daily life and/or reducing the risk of injury. This article reviews the recent findings on the relationship between flexibility and arterial stiffness, emphasizing “flexibility and arterial stiffness”, “genetics and flexibility”, “stretching and arterial stiffness”, and “flexibility and blood pressure”.
著者
木越 清信 尾縣 貢 田内 健二 大山 卞 圭悟 高松 薫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.167-178, 2003-04-01 (Released:2010-12-10)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2 3

本研究の目的は, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動中における座位姿勢の変化が下肢筋群の筋活動および最大パワーに及ぼす影響を明らかにすることであった.被験者には, 大学陸上競技部に所属する男性10名 (21.5±1.9yrs, 178.8±4.7cm, 71.0±5.6kg) を用い, シートの高さを変化させた3種類 (High, MiddleおよびLow) の試技条件下で, それぞれ5秒間のペダリング運動を体重×0.1kpの負荷で行わせた.主な結果は以下の通りである.1.3回転の最大パワーは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.2.骨盤傾斜角度は, HighおよびMiddleがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.3.膝関節最大伸展角度および屈曲角度は, High, MiddleおよびLowの川頁に有意に高値を示した.4.脊柱起立筋および大腿二頭筋におけるmEMGは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.5.Highにおいては, 3回転の最大パワーと大殿筋におけるmEMGとの間に有意な正の相関関係が認められた.また, 3回転の最大パワーと大腿二頭筋および外側広筋におけるmEMGとの間に正の相関傾向が認められた.以上の結果から, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動において, シート高の変化による座位姿勢変化は下肢筋群, 特に股関節伸展筋群の筋張力および最大パワーに影響を及ぼす可能性があることが示唆された.
著者
真鍋 芳明 横澤 俊治 尾縣 貢
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.3, pp.321-336, 2004-06-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
7 2

The purpose of this study was to compare hip and knee joint extension torque and the activity of eight muscles around the hip and knee joints during three squat exercises with different movements.Ten male athletes performed three different squats (Normal squat : NS, Knee push squat : KPS, Hip drive squat : HDS) . KPS is the type of squat which emphasizes knee joint movement without moving the hip joint position back and forth. On the other hand, HDS is the type of squat which emphasizes hip joint movement, while keeping the knee joint position fixed. Kinematic and kinetic variables such as angle, angular velocity, net torque and power of the joints of the lower extremity were calculated during the descending and ascending phase of each squat. At the same time, surface electrodes were placed on eight muscles of the lower extremity, and %iEMG was also calculated during the same phases.During the descending phase, Elector spinae muscle activity and hip joint extension torque was significantly greater for HDS than KPS. Rectus femoris and Vastus lateralis muscle activity was significantly greater for KPS than HDS. In addition, KPS showed significantly greater knee joint extension torque than HDS and NS. At the ascending phase, Elector spinae, Glueus maximus and Biceps femoris muscle activity, and hip joint extension torque was significantly greater for HDS than KPS and NS. Rectus femoris muscle activity and knee joint extension torque was significantly greater for KPS than HDS and NS.These results suggest that HDS is effective for selectively training the hip extensor, and KPS is effective for training the Rectus femoris muscle.
著者
久野 譜也 村上 晴香 馬場 紫乃 金 俊東 上岡 方士
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.Supplement, pp.17-29, 2003-08-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
9 6

The ability to walk is just as important for the elderly as it is for young people. In fact, in the elderly, decreased mobility limits function in daily life and can lead to more serious situations (e.g., becoming bedridden) . The elderly population has increased over the last decade, and many researchers have studied the mobility of the elderly. However, the focus of most studies has been to facilitate recovery of bedridden individuals and prevent the elderly from becoming bedridden, and particularly to prevent fall-induced fractures, which often cause the elderly to become bedridden. However, about 70-80% of the elderly population do not require care, and it is necessary to conduct research on the maintenance of activities of daily living to make it possible for the elderly to work or volunteer. From this perspective, mobility is an important physical factor. Mobility is dependent on muscle activity and it has long been known that aging reduces muscle mass. Therefore, it is feasible to assume that reduced muscle mass leads to decreased ability to walk, and we have proven that there is a close correlation between the two. When presenting the idea of strength training to the elderly, it is appropriate to focus on the maintenance and improvement of mobility, not on the training itself. The results of our research can be summarized as follows:Muscle mass decreases with age, with the legs being affected to a greater degree than the arms. Moreover, muscle atrophy is dependent on weakening of muscle fibers, especially fast-twitch (Type II) fibers. Reduced lower limb muscle mass increases the risk of falling and can decrease walking ability to a degree that can affect daily living activities.In order to improve reduced muscle mass in aging, it is important to use an exercise program that is designed to strengthen fast-twitch fibers, which can be followed even by the elderly. Since walking therapy mostly mobilizes slow twitch fibers, it is not effective in preventing and improving muscle atrophy. It is important to have an exercise program that is designed to mobilize fast-twitch fibers.
著者
水田 拓道 植屋 清見 日丸 哲也 永田 晟 山本 高司
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.101-107, 1975-09-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
8

目的に応じたサウナ入浴をするための一つの条件として, サウナ入浴時間が生体におよぼす影響というかたちで, 主に運動機能的な面からサウナ入浴前後, および入浴中の変化について比較検討した。本実験の結果からサウナの効果的利用法について次のような示唆が得られた。1.アンケート調査の結果, サウナ入浴時間においては5分単位の入浴を繰返している者が最とも多く60%余りをしめていた。また, 95%の者がなんらかの形で冷水浴を併用していた。2.全身反応時間, 膝蓋腱反射閾値, 垂直跳びにおけるジャンプパワー等, 筋神経系の関係する機能においては, 5分入浴, 1分冷水浴で3回繰返し入浴法が, 入浴前に比べてよい成績を示し効果的であることがわかった。このことから, 経験的に得た5分単位の入浴法が, 疲労回復, 気分転換等に効果的であることが裏付けられた。3.血圧, 心拍数, 皮膚温の変化には設定パターンによる著明な差異は認められなかった。しかし, いずれのパターンにおいても循環機能への有効な剌激として考察され, 長期にわたる利用によって環境温の変化に対する適応能を高める効果が期待される。4.サウナ入浴中の酸素摂取量は安静時に比して, パターン (1) が23.2%, パターン (2) が31.6%れぞれ増加した。エネルギー代謝促進の面からは少し長い入浴時間が必要と考えられる。
著者
岩原 文彦 伊藤 雅充 浅見 俊雄
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.5, pp.499-511, 2003-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
1 3

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active recovery between two strenuous anaerobic exercises separated by a short time interval. Eight healthy adult male volunteers (age: 24.8±1.8 yrs, height: 170.6±2.5 cm, weight : 70.1 ±2.5 kg) underwent five exercise sessions. Each session consisted of a warm-up, the first anaerobic exercise test (40 sec of exhaustive cycle ergometer exercise), a 30 min inactive (seated) or active recovery period, and a second anaerobic exercise test. During the active recovery period, subjects executed one of four different intensity pedaling tests (60, 80, 100, 120% of predetermined lactate threshold intensity) for 10 min. There were no significant differences in mean power and peak blood lactate concentration among sessions during the first anaerobic exercise test. Significant differences were found in the blood lactate concentration among sessions during the second anaerobic exercise test, and significant differences were found in mean power for the second anaerobic exercise. Optimal intensity related to the blood lactate removal rate was 83.3±7.1%LT, and that related to the working capacity recovery rate was 68.3±11.8%LT.From these results, concerning blood lactate removal rate, it was suggested that between 80%LT and 100%LT was an effective intensity. As for performance, the effective intensity was less than 100%LT.
著者
小野 高志 藤井 均
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.87-94, 2013-02-01 (Released:2013-02-14)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
1

Hamstring muscles form a multi-articular muscle group that crosses the hip and knee joints. It has been said that the imbalance in the hamstrings:quadriceps strength ratio (H:Q ratio) due to weaker hamstring muscles results in an increased susceptibility to hamstring strains and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Four different hamstrings trainings, Hip Lift (HL), Single-leg Deadlift (DL), Leg Curl (LC), and Nordic Hamstrings (NH), were conducted and compared in the effect on conventional H:Q ratio. After the training of two months, significant increase of hip extension torque and H:Q ratios in the hip joint were found in the DL group, and significant increase of knee flexion torque and H:Q ratios in the knee joint were found in the LC group (P < 0.05). As a conclusion, DL and LC training could be practical for hamstrings injury prevention.
著者
Hiroaki Eshima
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.5, pp.199-204, 2020-09-25 (Released:2020-09-16)
参考文献数
42

Obesity and aging reduce skeletal muscle contractile function, which represents a reduction in muscle quality. Dysfunction of muscle contraction may contribute to a greater risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer; therefore, the synergistic effects of obesity and aging on muscle function may exacerbate morbidity and mortality. However, evidence directly examining the synergistic effects of obesity and aging on muscle contractile function is lacking and controversial. We recently demonstrated that diet-induced obesity significantly exacerbates contractile dysfunction in aged skeletal muscle. The focus of this review is the effects of obesity on muscle contractile dysfunction in skeletal muscle, particularly during aging.
著者
八十島 崇 木塚 朝博 埜口 博司 白木 仁 向井 直樹 宮永 豊
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.5, pp.491-498, 2003-10-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
1 1

The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of position (full can, empty can) and change of angle on the activity of shoulder muscles during scapular plane abduction ; and also to examine its application to exercises used for rehabilitation of shoulder muscles. Seven healthy subjects (23.4±1.4 yr) with normal shoulder function performed scapular plane abduction with external rotation (full can) and scapular plane abduction with internal rotation (empty can) . An electromyogram was recorded with a fine wire intramuscular electrode at the supraspinatus, deltoid anterior, middle, posterior and trapezius upper with bipolar surface. The EMG activity (RMS) of each muscle was normalized by the highest EMG activity (100%RMS) during a maximum manual muscle test for each muscle (%RMS) . The %RMS of each muscle remarkably increased with a change of the angle for empty can, whereas it showed a slight increase with a change of the angle for full can. This finding suggests that the position of full can and empty can in scapular plane abduction affects the function of shoulder muscles. In addition, full can exercise is recommended in order to improve function of the supraspinatus and the muscular activity balance between the supraspinatus and the deltoid. Empty can exercise is applied to sport-specific exercise for rehabilitation of shoulder muscles.
著者
Riho Komatsuzawa Teruo Miyazaki Hajime Ohmori Chitose Maruyama Stephen W. Schaffer Shigeru Murakami Takashi Ito
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.4, pp.165-171, 2020-07-25 (Released:2020-07-15)
参考文献数
28

The amount of taurine and taurine derivatives in the body is affected by various diseases and physiological events, such as exercise. However, there is little information about possible changes in taurine distribution within tissue. In the present study, we examined whether matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) can be used to determine the effect of exercise on the distribution and content of taurine and acetyltaurine, a taurine derivative present in skeletal muscle. Using 9-aminoacridine to detect the amino acids in tissue samples, the content of taurine and acetyltaurine in homogenates of skeletal muscle was measured by MALDI-IMS. While the intrinsic levels of taurine in skeletal muscle tissue were adequate to be detected by MALDI-IMS, that of acetyltaurine was not observed. Following 120-min of treadmill running (20m/min), taurine content of soleus and plantaris muscles significantly declined. In the gastrocnemius muscle, taurine content is higher in slow-twitch fiber than fast-twitch fiber. However, the taurine content was not significantly changed by treadmill running in both fast- and slow-twitch fiber of the gastrocnemius muscle. In conclusion, MALDI-IMS using 9-aminoacridine as a matrix could detect the distribution of taurine in skeletal muscle before and after exercise.
著者
森 茂美 太田 善博
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.Supplement, pp.61-69, 1985-12-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
25

ネコの脳幹内には, 既に2つの歩行中枢が同定されている.その1つは視床下核歩行誘発野 (SLR) であり, もう1つは中脳歩行誘発野 (MLR) である.解剖学的に, SLRおよびMLRはそれぞれ外側視床下部および楔状核に相当する.SLRは歩行運動の“発動的”側面を制御していると考えられる.一方, MLRは四肢間協調のような“自動運動的”側面を制御していると考えられる.上丘前縁と乳頭体後縁を結ぶ面で脳幹を切断した除脳ネコ (precollicular-postmammillaly decerebrate cat) において, MLRに連続微小刺激を加えると, 流れベルト上で歩行運動が誘発される.これら2つの歩行中枢に加えて, 最近, 姿勢筋の筋緊張 (postural muscle tone) を“セット”したり“リセット”したりする橋中心部の神経機構が同定されている.正中線上の橋中心被蓋野背側部および腹側部に連続微小刺激を加えると, 同一標本においてpostural muscle toneは, それぞれ長時間抑制および増強した.MLRと背側部を同時刺激すると, MLRの刺激で誘発された歩行のパターンは協調のとれた四足歩行から後肢のステッピングへと変化し, さらにステッピングから歩行運動の完全な抑制へと変化した.その際, postural muscle toneはかなり減弱していた.それと対照的に, MLRと腹側部を同時刺激すると, 歩行パターンは完全な抑制から後肢のステッピングへ, ステッピングから歩行へ, さらに歩行からギャロップへと変化した.その際, 姿勢筋の筋緊張レベルは段階的に増大していた.腹側部により強い単独刺激を加えると, 伸筋の筋緊張の著明な増強を伴なった痙性歩行運動が誘発された.中枢無傷ネコが自発歩行をしている際に橋中心被蓋野の背側部に刺激を加えると, 一連の姿勢変化が誘発された.刺激の開始から数秒後, ネコは歩行を停止し, そのままの状態で直立姿勢を維持した.この刺激を持続するとネコは坐り込み, 次に床の上に腹這いになった.刺激停止後も数分間にわたりネコはその最終姿勢を維持し続けた.橋中心被蓋野の腹側部に刺激を加えると, ほとんど正反対の一連の姿勢変化が誘発された.刺激の開始から数秒後, ネコは腹這いの姿勢からお坐りの姿勢をとり, さらにこの刺激を持続すると歩きはじめた.刺激によってネコは常に覚醒反応 (aler-ted) を示し, また歩行の開始に先行してその頭部を挙上し, 周辺を見まわして相対的位置関係を測るような反応 (oriented) を示した.これらの成績はすべて“歩行”制御系および“姿勢”制御系が脳幹および脊髄内において共通の神経機構を共有していることを示唆する.本諭文においては姿勢および歩行運動の“発動的”および“自動運動的”制御面との関連において, これら橋中心被蓋野のもつ機能を考察した.この内容は特定研究 (1) 「発育期の体力に関する基礎的研究」代表, 小野三嗣教授の研究集会に際して発表した研究成果の要旨をまとめたものである (課題番号: 57123109.58124037, 59127034, 分担課題: 姿勢保持能力と脳幹神経機構) .
著者
富沢 政信 鳥山 貞宜 古矢 仁 小野 忠彦
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.96-100, 1971-06-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
15

The Kyudo (Japanese archery) is a most popular sport among Japanese as the Judo and Japanese fencing. Even some their athletes had complains of neck pain, joint pain and back pain, the investigations in the orthopaedic aspect were rare as compared with the Judo and Japanese fencing.The orthopaedical questionnaire were made to one hundred twenty-two athletes from eighteen to seventy-eight years old, average forty-three old, and the analysis by roentgenological and clinical findings were made to thirty athletes who were had severe troubles.The results were as follows :1) Because of most disorders were localized about the upper-extremity as main action were using of arm muscles, there were discovered the osteoarthritis and osteochondro-matosis of the elbow joint, periarthritis of the shoulder joint, atrophy of the deltoid and supra-infraspinatus muscles, injury of the hand and back pain.2) To prevent these disorders, we emphasized the necessity of warming-up and other systematic exercise as usually.3) We had obtained the conclusion that the periodical examination was most important for early diagnosis and procedures of over ten years experienced athletes.