著者
木下 昭
出版者
京都大学
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.208-234, 2015-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to analyze memoirs of Japanese teachers deployed to the Philippines in the Asia Pacific War. The Japanese military tried to teach Filipinos the Japanese language in order to make them accept the legitimacy of the Japanese invasion. Education was the basis of the occupation policy, with about 180 teachers being deployed all over the Philippines. Their students were not only children but also bureaucrats, police officers, and Filipino Japaneselanguage teachers. After American forces came back to the archipelago, however, the Japaneselanguage classes were gradually terminated and teachers struggled to survive in the mountain areas. Some survivors contributed articles about their war experiences to the journal Sampaguita after the war. This paper looks into their stories to understand what they thought about their work in the Philippines. Many of them gave themselves high marks for their education, even though they criticized the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. There are several reasons for their mindset, including the influence of US colonization policies and Japanese occupation policies on the Philippines, as well as teachersʼ occupational identity. The teachers are proud of having worked at schools, because they engaged in education their entire lives and maintained good relationships with former students after the war. They considered the friendships to be evidence of their educational achievement.
著者
木下 昭
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.2, pp.210-226, 2009-09-30 (Released:2017-10-31)

The purpose of this paper is to look into the relationship between international politics and Filipino studentswho studied in Japan during the 1930s. At that time, the Philippines was in the middle of a conflict betweentwo empires: Japan and the United States. In this context, Japan tried to use Filipino students as a meansto improve its soft power in the Philippines. In the first half of the decade, about 30 Filipinos were livingmainly in Tokyo, with the majority of them studying at medical schools, in particular The Jikei UniversitySchool of Medicine, Tokyo, which offered classes in English. But not all Japanese people welcomed Filipinoswith many heavily prejudiced against them. In the mid-30s Japan set up new institutions to attract moreinternational students but the number of Filipino students decreased gradually in the late 1930s becausethe fear of Japanese imperialism had spread in the Philippines. This paper contextualizes these historicaldevelopments to show the deep connections between foreign students and the international politics ofimperialism adopted by Japan in its attempts to obtain hegemony before the Pacific War.