著者
伊藤 正子
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.3, pp.294-313, 2010-12-31 (Released:2017-10-31)

This paper aims to examine how reconciliation is developed through apologies towards damages by war, comparing the actions of nation-state, damaged areas and NGOs concerning the Vietnam War. The second aim is to consider official and non-official memories about Vietnam War both in the damaged country and the country that caused damages, further investigating the relationship between a variety of memories and political systems. During the Vietnam War, South Korea sent the second largest group of armed forces, but recently the Korean’s memories as heroic stories have been confused since Han-kyoreh magazine reported that Korean troops conducted mass killings. After 30 years, an ex-service Korean’s group visited the Ha My hamlet, Quang Nam Province, where slaughters occurred in 1968. They built a monument for the victims. But when it was completed, the group felt shocked about a poem on the massacre on the monument. After going back to Korea, they demanded revisions. The Vietnamese government, which was asked for revisions by the Korean Embassy, put pressure on the villagers, who finally covered the inscription. Vietnamese policy is to seal the past and look to the future as at present, the most important issue for the government is to procure development funds from other countries, and to maintain the legitimacy of the Communist Party through economic development. Therefore, the memories of the Ha My, whose villagers did not necessarily contribute to the Revolution, could not become an official memory. Further, those memories are not connected with nationalism. This point is the most different when comparing with the case between Korea or China and Japan. After the report by the Han-kyoreh, one Korean NGO started volunteer activities for Vietnamese survivors. Through those activities, some survivors have been healed, and for the sake of the Korean NGO, the memory of Ha My, which can never become official memory, is preserved in Vietnam.
著者
清水 太郎
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.3, pp.334-363, 2010-12-31 (Released:2017-10-31)

Diplomatic relationships with China had been the most crucial issue to Korean and Vietnamese Dynasties throughout history. Korean diplomacy has been well documented, yet the nature of Vietnamese activities are little known, even basic facts such as members of the missions, timing of departure/return, and their tasks in China. Since Korean and Vietnamese missions used Chinese characters as their official letters, there were cultural exchanges among them, especially poem recitation, in the capitals of Chinese Dynasties as a by-product of their diplomacy toward China. It has been found that around 20 cases of such exchanges had taken place from 14th through to 18th centuries. Relationships between Korea/Vietnam and China showed occasional changes, reflecting the times. This paper discusses the cultural and historical significance of the exchanges of Korean and Vietnamese diplomatic missions that occurred in Beijing, a foreign capital.
著者
矢野 暢
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.5-31, 1978 (Released:2018-06-02)

This article aims at throwing into relief views of "Nanyo" (Southeast Asia) in Japan during the Taisho period (1912-1926). There has until now been a consensus among scholars that the idea of "Nanshin" (advance to the South) existed only in the Meiji and Showa periods. In this article, the author wishes to challenge this stereotype view on the "Nanshin" theory.  It is easy to verify that "Nanyo" was discussed more often and energetically by Japanese people in the Taisho period than in the previous (Meiji) period. More importantly, the basic conditions that made possible the creation of the "Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere" scheme were laid during the Taisho period. Hence, the conclusion of this essay is that the discussions made in the Taisho period were vital in paving the way for Japan's advance to the South in the Showa period, and, therefore, the significance of the Taisho period should not be underestimated.
著者
中村 昇平
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.204-240, 2021-01-31 (Released:2021-01-29)
参考文献数
89

The fall of Suharto’s authoritarian regime and the subsequent dissolution of vertical political patronage led to an upsurge of mass mobilization based on religion and/or ethnicity. In Jakarta, newly emerged vigilante groups that initially sought to represent small-scale neighborhood communities rapidly grew in size by receiving endorsements from local political authorities as well as by gaining extensive popular support. Despite their persistent association with violence and illicitness in popular discourse, some of those vigilante groups quickly increased their membership to hundreds of thousands. Highlighting the activities of the Forum Betawi Rempug (FBR), one of the biggest of these groups, this paper explains the causes, processes, and consequences of its expansion.The nature of the Betawi ethnic identity that has been constructed over decades, as well as an alternative mode of populist discourse that became prevalent in Jakarta during the last couple of decades, were the key background conditions through which such groups expanded in both size and geographic reach. These conditions also led to a loosely disciplined and highly autonomous organizational structure.An explanation of this process calls for a radical revision of the conventional model of ethnic mobilization that takes for granted disciplined organization and hierarchical control. In contemporary Jakarta, successful mass mobilization is not the sheer result of people’s response to populist calls. Attention must be paid to the logic of the mobilized in order to explain why vigilante organizations have been able to gain popular support despite their notorious reputation. This paper investigates the perspectives of the mobilized by focusing on neighborhood-level activities of the FBR. In so doing, it exemplifies how some residents perceive the FBR as a provider of potential socioeconomic resources for the enhancement of their life environment.
著者
大泉 さやか
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.148-184, 2019 (Released:2019-01-31)
参考文献数
82

In December 2016, the element titled “Practices related to the Viet beliefs in the Mother Goddesses of Three Realms” was inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Under Vietnam’s socialist government, rituals and festivals related to the beliefs in Mother Goddesses had been prohibited as superstition before the Doi Moi period. Even though these beliefs and related practices were reevaluated and revived as a beautiful tradition, especially after the 1990s, there has been constant debate over whether beliefs in Mother Goddesses can be categorized as superstition. The question here is why Vietnam’s government applied for the inscription of this element while it had not yet concluded the debate. In this article, by considering this question we examine how Vietnam’s government intends to increase control over this element through naming, protecting, and avoiding its transformation. We also demonstrate that the framework for the heritagization of this element has been changed from theaterization to purization as beliefs, so that the government can criticize and prevent stage adaptation or theaterized rituals as an unintended transformation of heritage.
著者
上野 益三
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.2, pp.52-66, 1964-12-19 (Released:2019-07-05)

The present article is an outline of biological studies of inland waters in Southeast Asia with especial reference to those conditions which limit the adequacy of our knowledge thereof. The most detailed limnological knowledge was obtained by the German Limnological Sunda Expedition, 1928-29,which was undertaken by Thienemann and Ruttner in the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. In countries both insular and continental other than those islands, despite the work of many biologists and limnologists our knowledge is still inadequate even for the taxonomy and biogeography of animals and plants in inland waters. Detailed knowledge is lacking with regard to the composition and structure of various biotic communities in inland waters as well as the physical and chemical nature of those waters as environments for aquatic life. Concerning the zoogeography of inland waters in Southeast Asia, the writer has referred to Brehm's work on the freshwater Calanoida as an example. The occurrence of Parabathynella malaya in the subterranean water of Malaya is striking, because this is the only record of this group of Crustacea of the archaic type outside Europe and Japan. Kobayashi's chemical investigations of the river waters of Thailand are a most important contribution to regional limnology in Asia. His work was done at 30 stations which cover all the river systems throughout the country, including two lakes, Lakes Nong Han and Talesaab. The biotic communities of various types of inland waters have been fairly well dealt with by Johnson in Malaya : these are noteworthy for the inhabitants found in peaty black waters, in waters rich in lime, and in torrents at both low and high levels. The effects of human activities upon inland water animal and plant life are also remarkable in many parts of Malaya. Production biological studies, which are one of the important research projects in present-day limnology, have been almost neglected in Southeast Asia. In such a situation, Ruttner's plankton studies in the lakes of Indonesia (published in 1953) is especially important. He has shown that the volume of the standing crop of plankton produced at any given moment below a given surface unit of a tropical lake is nearly the same as that of a temperate lake. For biologists and limnologists who have had experience of studies only in the temperate zone, tropical inland waters are extremely attractive as they offer great opportunities for the study of many important biological phenomena. It is our hope that Japanese biologists and limnologists will have opportunities to work on inland waters in Southeast Asia using the methods of present-day limnology, and enjoying international co-operation with the biologists and limnologists in those countries.
著者
岡本 正明
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.217-239, 2018 (Released:2018-02-09)
参考文献数
54

Palm oil production has been rapidly increasing in Malaysia and Indonesia because of the strong demand for the cheap and versatile commodity. This increase has become a threat for countries and producers of other vegetable oils, such as France, which produces rapeseed oil, and the United States, which produces soybean oil. Therefore, those countries and producers have tried to impose limits on the import of palm oil, and environmental NGOs—mainly from Western countries—have conducted a series of negative campaigns against palm oil since the late 1990s. The most effective and continuously raised issue is the environmental one. However, the first negative campaign was not about the environment but about health. That campaign originated with US soybean producers in the early 1980s. To counter that campaign, the Malaysian government and palm oil producers started a positive one. This paper shows how this “oil war” between US soybean producers and the Malaysian government and palm oil producers started, developed, and ended; and how the Malaysian side created a strategy to fight the war, utilizing scientific data as well as academic networks and pro-small peasant discourse. This experience has become a lesson for Malaysian actors in dealing with the negative campaign about the environmental unfriendliness of palm oil since the late 1990s.
著者
青木 葉子
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.4, pp.397-418, 2006-03-31 (Released:2017-10-31)

Three dominant changes have occurred in the study of the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia after the fall of Soeharto. First, the study of Indonesian Chinese was freed from the threat of SARA censorship (Suku, Agama, Ras, dan Antar Golongan, or ethnic, religious, racial, and class relations), which was removed after Soeharto. Second, ethnic Chinese studies have accelerated. Many seminars and discussions are now held and many books about the ethnic Chinese have been published in Indonesia. Some aim to abolish inequalities and discriminatory measures and claim justice. Although changes have been made in the law, anti-Chinese hostility still exists in society. Other studies analyze the discourses of Dutch colonialism and Indonesian nationalism and reconsider the Chinese role in nation building, so as to rewrite Indonesian history, which has largely ignored the ethnic Chinese. Third, foreign researchers are shifting their attention from political issues, such as assimilation, national integration, and political identity to subjects reflecting the changing role of the ethnic Chinese in East and Southeast Asia in an era of globalization and rapid economic growth. In this paper I will focus on such changes by reviewing studies done during the New Order regime and the subsequent period of Reformasi.
著者
李 美智
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.3, pp.265-293, 2010-12-31 (Released:2017-10-31)

Since 2000, the popularity of South Korean popular culture known as Korean Wave or Hallyu has increased significantly in Southeast Asia. The Korean Government now recognizes cultural industries as one of the top key industries of the nation. The purpose of this paper is to review the cultural export promotion policies of the South Korean Government which are the basic backgrounds of the spread of Korean Wave, and to investigate how Korean Wave is being accepted and developed in Southeast Asia by drawing on the examples of Vietnam and Thailand. Among many genres, such as music and film, this paper focuses on Korean TV dramas as they are the most important driving force in the Korean Wave industries. By examining push and pull factors in both importing and exporting countries, it indicates that in Vietnam and Thailand, the carefully-planned strategic economic support of the Korean government for these industries and the rapid expansion of multi-channel TV and multi-media industries, which are in want of attractive content, are the most important factors that have contributed to the Hallyu expansion.
著者
井口 由布 ラシド アブドゥル
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.2, pp.166-189, 2020-01-31 (Released:2020-01-31)
参考文献数
60

This study situates “female genital mutilation (FGM)” in Malaysia in the politics of the female body and sexuality in post-colonial societies. There has been a global dispute over “FGM,” centering on the opposition between human rights and the protection of local culture. In order to overcome the deadlock, in the 1990s several studies started to view the dispute as the politics of discourse in the Foucaultian sense. Some of them argued that the female body was restructured as an object of reproductive health in the system of state medicine. Considering the studies mentioned above, this paper argues how the discourses on “FGM” (either in favor or against) promote the domination of the female body and sexuality in Malaysia. This study shows that the medical scientific perspective was predominant in religious as well as academic discourses. This might indicate the medical control of sexuality and the female body through the construction of discourses concerning “FGM” in Malaysia. In contrast to the religious and academic discourses, rural people in Malaysia view “FGM” as an unconscious practice deeply embedded in their communities. They do not know about the existence of the practice in African countries. This shows that there is a huge gap between academic discourses and local discourses on “FGM” in Malaysia.
著者
友杉 孝
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.315-332, 1980 (Released:2018-06-02)

Every seven years the Onbashira Matsuri (pillar festival) is held at Suwa shrine. The main event is the dragging of the Onbashira , a great log weighing 11 tons, from a mountain some 15 kilometres away to the shrine. The dragging of the Onbashira by thousands of people is a powerful attraction both to tourists and local people alike.  The festival is divided into two parts, first, called Maebiki , being the procession from the mountain to the village, and the second, Satobiki , the journey from the village to the shrine. Between the two parts there is a month's intermission, Maebiki taking place in April and Satobiki in May. The former is characterized by its masculinity, as young men proudly ride the Onbashira as it is dragged through the crowd. Satobiki , on the other hand, involves gay processions, with groups of masked people and a feudal lord's procession adding to the cheerful atmosphere.  During Satobiki people are freed from their everyday activities and jobs, so that they may enjoy along with visitors all there is to see. The social norm is reversed at this time as economy gives way to extravagance. With the planting of the Onbashira in a ritual performed by priests, the festival ends and everyone returns home and resumes normal life. They have, however, been vitalized by the excitement of the festival. In consequence, the Onbashira Matsuri can be interpreted as a renovation of life through a pillar which is believed to be the symbol of a supernatural power.
著者
菅谷 成子
出版者
京都大学東南アジア地域研究研究所
雑誌
東南アジア研究 (ISSN:05638682)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.4, pp.374-396, 2006-03-31 (Released:2017-10-31)

About forty years ago, Edgar Wickberg, in his pioneering and seminal work on the nineteenth-century Philippines, established how the Chinese had emerged as a commercially powerful foreign group in a Spanish colonial setting, while the Chinese mestizos had risen as a “special kind of Filipino” to support Philippine national awakening toward the turn of the century. Recently, scholars such as Richard T. Chu have questioned the identity of the Chinese mestizo as a “special kind of Filipino.” Chu argues that Chinese mestizos at the turn of the century had multiple, fluid, and ambiguous identities and cannot be said to have had a simple Filipino identity. He concludes that the Filipino identity as a nation was only established definitely after 1910. This paper identifies some of the particular historical factors that brought about the social rise of the Chinese mestizo as an uniquely Spanish colonial being distinct from the “chhut-sì-á” or “tsut-sia” of later years. This paper also shows that the “Chinese mestizos” Wickberg had in mind were not the same “Chinese mestizos” that Chu deals in his recent works, and suggests that the study of overseas Chinese or Chinese overseas can be relevant to Southeast Asian Studies only when it is placed in a historical context and perspective.