著者
豊嶋 陵司 田内 健二 遠藤 俊典 礒 繁雄 桜井 伸二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.14062, (Released:2015-04-30)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
3 1

The purpose of this study was to clarify the biomechanical factors that influence intra-individual variations in step frequency (SF) and length (SL) during sprint running. One male sprinter participated as a study subject, and performed a 60-m sprint at maximal effort. Experiments were conducted 5 times, with a total number of 14 trials. The ground reaction force and positions of markers attached to the joints were recorded using force plates and a motion capture system. Trials were divided into SF type and SL type depending on the SF/SL ratio, and the kinematic variables and ground reaction force were compared. The main results were as follows.   1)  There were no significant differences in sprint velocity and stance time between the SF type and the SL type.   2)  The flight time of the SL type was longer than that of the SF type.   3)  Vertical components of the ground reaction force and impulse during the stance phase were larger for the SL type than for the SF type.   4)  The thigh angle of the swing leg was larger for the SL type than for the SF type during almost all phases.   5)  The hip joint of the swing leg was flexed to a greater degree during the stance phase and first half of the flight phase for the SL type than for the SF type.   6)  There were no marked differences in the segment and joint angular velocities between the SF type and the SL type.   These results indicate that changes in step frequency and step length with flight time are due to an increase or decrease of vertical impulse. Moreover, it was revealed that vertical impulse is influenced by the thigh angle of the swing leg during the stance phase, rather than by the angular velocity of the swing leg.
著者
尾縣 貢 木越 清信 遠藤 俊典 森 健一
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.1, pp.117-124, 2015

Purpose of this study was to examine the recovery process of delayed onset muscle soreness, jump performance, force to contact with the ground and lower limbs movement after intensive jump exercise (IJE), and the relationships between muscle soreness, changes of jump performance and lower limbs movement. Nine males who have experience in special jump exercise participated in this study voluntarily. For the measurement, subjective investigation of the muscle soreness, drop jump performance using a 30 cm high box [jump height, contact time and drop jump index (jump height / contact time)], ground reaction force and movements of lower limbs. This measurement was carried out before IJE (Pre), and at 4 hours (P4), 24 hours (P24) and 72 hours (P72) after IJE. Main results are as follows ; at the time of P24 when intense muscle soreness appeared, significant jump height decreases and contact time increases were shown, and the jump index decreased markedly. This decrease of performance correlated to the change of knee and ankle joint movements during the eccentric phase. At P4, for a subject who felt strong muscle soreness, the decrease of jump height and jump index were considerable. At P72, most subjects recovered to the levels of jump height and contact time to the Pre level. The findings reveal that the jump performances are related to the degree of delayed onset muscle soreness.
著者
豊嶋 陵司 田内 健二 遠藤 俊典 礒 繁雄 桜井 伸二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.197-208, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
5 1

The purpose of this study was to clarify the biomechanical factors that influence intra-individual variations in step frequency (SF) and length (SL) during sprint running. One male sprinter participated as a study subject, and performed a 60-m sprint at maximal effort. Experiments were conducted 5 times, with a total number of 14 trials. The ground reaction force and positions of markers attached to the joints were recorded using force plates and a motion capture system. Trials were divided into SF type and SL type depending on the SF/SL ratio, and the kinematic variables and ground reaction force were compared. The main results were as follows.   1)  There were no significant differences in sprint velocity and stance time between the SF type and the SL type.   2)  The flight time of the SL type was longer than that of the SF type.   3)  Vertical components of the ground reaction force and impulse during the stance phase were larger for the SL type than for the SF type.   4)  The thigh angle of the swing leg was larger for the SL type than for the SF type during almost all phases.   5)  The hip joint of the swing leg was flexed to a greater degree during the stance phase and first half of the flight phase for the SL type than for the SF type.   6)  There were no marked differences in the segment and joint angular velocities between the SF type and the SL type.   These results indicate that changes in step frequency and step length with flight time are due to an increase or decrease of vertical impulse. Moreover, it was revealed that vertical impulse is influenced by the thigh angle of the swing leg during the stance phase, rather than by the angular velocity of the swing leg.
著者
遠藤 俊典 田内 健二 木越 清信 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.149-159, 2007-03-10 (Released:2007-06-21)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
15 8

A study was conducted to investigate the age-related development of rebound and counter movement jumping ability. A total of 1137 boys (6 yr: 59, 7 yr: 82, 8 yr: 69, 9 yr: 142, 10 yr: 105, 11 yr: 169, 12 yr: 103, 13 yr: 110, 14 yr: 77, 15 yr: 66, 16 yr: 73, and 17 and 18 yr: 82) conducted counter movement jumping (CMJ) as a non-ballistic movement and five-repeated rebound jumping (5RJ) as a ballistic movement. Jumping ability was assessed using CMJ jumping height and the value obtained by dividing jumping height by the ground contact time in 5RJ (RJ-index). CMJ jumping height and the RJ-index in 5RJ increased in accordance with growth. Development of the RJ-index in 5RJ depended on the increase in jumping height, because ground contact time did not change even though jumping height increased with growth. There was a significant correlation between CMJ jumping height and RJ-index in 5RJ (r=0.765, p<0.001, r2=0.585). Division of jumping ability types was based on±1SD of the residual. These types were as follows: CMJ ability corresponded to RJ ability (CMJ=RJ: n=810), RJ ability was superior to CMJ ability (Good RJ: n=165) and RJ ability was inferior to CMJ ability (Poor RJ: n=162). The number of Good RJ and Poor RJ types increased between the ages of 9-13 years, which is the onset of the growth spurt. These results suggest that CMJ jumping height and RJ-index in 5RJ increase in accordance with growth, but the processes of age-related development of both types of jumping ability do not necessarily correspond to each other, and developmental differences between individuals tend to increase at the onset of the growth spurt.