著者
前田 奎 大山卞 圭悟 関 慶太郎 水島 淳 広瀬 健一 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18002, (Released:2019-01-21)
参考文献数
38

The purpose of this study was to investigate, using path analysis, causal relationships among motion factors for achieving a high release velocity in the male discus throw. The throwing motions of 61 male discus throwers were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis. Variables such as release velocity, velocities gained by each body segment, body segment velocity, body angle and angular velocity were obtained. The path model indicating the causal relationships among these factors was constructed by path analysis. The main results were as follows: Influences of velocities gained by each body segment on release velocity were largest for the arm, followed in order by the trunk and legs. Motion factors such as weight shift, acquisition of the velocity of the center of gravity, sweeping the legs, rotations of the hip and shoulder, twisting and untwisting of the trunk, acquisition of the velocity of the right knee and extension of the left knee had direct or indirect influences on the velocities gained by each body segment. Motion factors in the path model revealed causal relationships along the time sequence of the throwing motion. In addition, the path model in this study indicated the cause and effect structure of the throwing motion by which Japanese male discus throwers were able to achieve a high release velocity. The results of this study can be utilized for technical coaching of the discus throw based on causal relationships.
著者
戸邉 直人 苅山 靖 林 陵平 木越 清信 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18044, (Released:2019-10-28)
参考文献数
42

In the take-off motion of the high jump, huge power exerted by the lower limb is required in a very short time. Consequently, to achieve the take-off motion, improvement of power exertion ability is important, and most high jumpers work to achieve this. However, the components of the kinetics that contribute to high jump performance are unknown. This study investigated lower limb joint kinetics during the take-off phase of the high jump and the relationships between kinetic variables and performance. Seven male high jumpers were investigated. Their take-off motions were filmed using an infrared camera (Vicon Motion System, 250 Hz), and the ground reaction force was recorded using a force platform (Kistler, 9287C, 1000Hz). The coefficients of correlation between the vertical velocity of the center of gravity of the whole body (CG) at the moment of take-off and kinetic variables were calculated. The following results were obtained: 1. The muscles involved in hip extension play a primary role in shock absorption at the moment of touchdown. Furthermore, the muscles involved in hip abduction, knee extension and ankle plantarflexion play a significant role in lifting the body in addition to the above functions. 2. The concentric power produced by hip abductors during the take-off motion may increase vertical velocity of the CG at the moment of take-off. 3. As it has been reported that single leg exercises impact the function of hip abductors, such exercises may improve take-off motion in the high jump. These results illustrate the characteristics of take-off motion in the high jump, and these may be studied further to plan effective training aimed at improving performance.
著者
木越 清信 尾縣 貢 田内 健二 大山 卞 圭悟 高松 薫
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.167-178, 2003-04-01 (Released:2010-12-10)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2 3

本研究の目的は, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動中における座位姿勢の変化が下肢筋群の筋活動および最大パワーに及ぼす影響を明らかにすることであった.被験者には, 大学陸上競技部に所属する男性10名 (21.5±1.9yrs, 178.8±4.7cm, 71.0±5.6kg) を用い, シートの高さを変化させた3種類 (High, MiddleおよびLow) の試技条件下で, それぞれ5秒間のペダリング運動を体重×0.1kpの負荷で行わせた.主な結果は以下の通りである.1.3回転の最大パワーは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.2.骨盤傾斜角度は, HighおよびMiddleがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.3.膝関節最大伸展角度および屈曲角度は, High, MiddleおよびLowの川頁に有意に高値を示した.4.脊柱起立筋および大腿二頭筋におけるmEMGは, HighがLowと比較して有意に高値を示した.5.Highにおいては, 3回転の最大パワーと大殿筋におけるmEMGとの間に有意な正の相関関係が認められた.また, 3回転の最大パワーと大腿二頭筋および外側広筋におけるmEMGとの間に正の相関傾向が認められた.以上の結果から, 5秒間の全力ペダリング運動において, シート高の変化による座位姿勢変化は下肢筋群, 特に股関節伸展筋群の筋張力および最大パワーに影響を及ぼす可能性があることが示唆された.
著者
内藤 景 苅山 靖 宮代 賢治 山元 康平 尾縣 貢 谷川 聡
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.523-538, 2013 (Released:2013-12-07)
参考文献数
32

The purpose of this study was to clarify the step characteristics during the acceleration phase (0—30 m) of a 100-m sprint with reference to the step-type of sprinters. 59 male collegiate sprinters (season best time: 10.68±0.22 s) were recorded running in 100-m races using 10 high-speed video cameras (300 fps). The step variables, such as step-frequency (SF), step-length (SL), contact time, and flight time of each step in the acceleration phase (0—30 m) and maximum speed phase (30—60 m) were calculated. Cluster analysis was used to classify the subjects according to step-type as indicators for the ratio of SF and SL in the 30—60 m section. In addition, each of the step-type groups was divided into two sub-groups (good and poor sprinters) according to the mean speed in the 30—60 m section. The main results were as follows: (1) Sprinters were classifiable into 3 step-type groups; SL-type (n=22), SF-type (n=24), and Mid-type (n=13). (2) Among these groups, there were no differences in the 100-m race times and mean speeds during the 0—30, 30—60, and 60—100 m sections, although SL-type sprinters were taller and had a higher SLindex than SF-type sprinters. SF-type sprinters took a larger numbers of steps over the 100-m distance and showed a higher SFindex than SL-type and Mid-type sprinters. (3) In the 0—30 m and 30—60 m sections, the contact and flight times of SL-type sprinters were longer than those of SF-type sprinters. (4) In SL-type sprinters, the SF of good sprinters was higher than that of poor sprinters at the 5th step, and the SL of good sprinters was longer than that of poor sprinters from the 7th to 15th steps, and in the 30—60 m section. (5) SF-type sprinters showed no significant differences in the SL, but the SF of good sprinters was higher than that of poor sprinters from the 7th to 16th steps and in the 30—60 m section. These results indicate that there are differences in step characteristics during the acceleration phase according to step-type, and that the step characteristics during the acceleration phase may affect the acceleration ability needed to develop a maximum sprint speed. These findings could be useful for devising training methods for improvement of 100-m sprint performance according to step-type.
著者
眞鍋 芳明 桜井 健一 岩壁 達男 尾縣 貢
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.69-80, 2008 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
27

本研究の目的は, スクワットトレーニングにおける運動速度を含むトレーニングプロトコルの違いが筋断面積, 筋力および運動パフォーマンスに与える影響を検証することである. 被検者を高重量・低回数負荷で行うStrength群, 5秒間かけて下降および挙上を行うSlow群, そして軽重量を用いて全運動範囲において最大速度で行うSpeed群の3群に分け, 6~8週間のトレーニング前後に身体組成, 筋力および運動パフォーマンステストを実施した. その結果, Slow群においては筋肥大が確認されたものの, 運動パフォーマンスは向上せず, Strength群およびSpeed群においては, 身体組成においては変化が認められなかったが, 跳躍および30m疾走パフォーマンスの向上が認められた.
著者
真鍋 芳明 横澤 俊治 尾縣 貢
出版者
The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.3, pp.321-336, 2004-06-01 (Released:2010-09-30)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
6 2

The purpose of this study was to compare hip and knee joint extension torque and the activity of eight muscles around the hip and knee joints during three squat exercises with different movements.Ten male athletes performed three different squats (Normal squat : NS, Knee push squat : KPS, Hip drive squat : HDS) . KPS is the type of squat which emphasizes knee joint movement without moving the hip joint position back and forth. On the other hand, HDS is the type of squat which emphasizes hip joint movement, while keeping the knee joint position fixed. Kinematic and kinetic variables such as angle, angular velocity, net torque and power of the joints of the lower extremity were calculated during the descending and ascending phase of each squat. At the same time, surface electrodes were placed on eight muscles of the lower extremity, and %iEMG was also calculated during the same phases.During the descending phase, Elector spinae muscle activity and hip joint extension torque was significantly greater for HDS than KPS. Rectus femoris and Vastus lateralis muscle activity was significantly greater for KPS than HDS. In addition, KPS showed significantly greater knee joint extension torque than HDS and NS. At the ascending phase, Elector spinae, Glueus maximus and Biceps femoris muscle activity, and hip joint extension torque was significantly greater for HDS than KPS and NS. Rectus femoris muscle activity and knee joint extension torque was significantly greater for KPS than HDS and NS.These results suggest that HDS is effective for selectively training the hip extensor, and KPS is effective for training the Rectus femoris muscle.
著者
山元 康平 宮代 賢治 内藤 景 木越 清信 谷川 聡 大山卞 圭悟 宮下 憲 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.159-173, 2014 (Released:2014-06-13)
参考文献数
39

This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between race pattern and performance in the men's 400-m race. Using several video cameras, 154 male 400-m sprinters (45-46 s: 26, 47 s: 35, 48 s: 58, 49 s: 35) in official competitions were videotaped at a sampling rate of 59.94 Hz from the start to the finish. The split time at every 50 m from the start was calculated using the Overlay method, which analyzes the split time by superimposing an image of the 400-m race onto an image of the hurdles in a 400-m hurdle race. Each segment was defined as follows: First segment, from the start to the 100-m mark; 2nd segment, from the 100-m mark to the 200-m mark; 3rd segment, from the 200-m mark to the 300-m mark; 4th segment, from the 300-m mark to the finish. The results of regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the 400-m race time and the all of the segment times (r=0.589-0.887, p<0.001), the ratio of the time for the 3rd segment (r=0.290, p<0.001) to that of the 4th segment (r=0.218, p<0.01), the rate of change in running speed from the 1st to the 2nd segments (r=−0.317, p<0.001), and that from the 2nd to the 3rd segments (r=−0.271, p<0.01). However, the relationship between the 400-m race time and the deceleration index (the slope of the linear relationship between running speed and the number of segments from the peak running speed to the finish) was not significant (r=0.154, p=0.056). These results suggest that it is important to maintain running speed in the 2nd and 3rd 100-m segments to achieve high performance in the 400-m sprint.
著者
眞鍋 芳明 桜井 健一 岩壁 達男 尾縣 貢
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.69-80, 2008

<p>本研究の目的は, スクワットトレーニングにおける運動速度を含むトレーニングプロトコルの違いが筋断面積, 筋力および運動パフォーマンスに与える影響を検証することである. 被検者を高重量・低回数負荷で行うStrength群, 5秒間かけて下降および挙上を行うSlow群, そして軽重量を用いて全運動範囲において最大速度で行うSpeed群の3群に分け, 6~8週間のトレーニング前後に身体組成, 筋力および運動パフォーマンステストを実施した. その結果, Slow群においては筋肥大が確認されたものの, 運動パフォーマンスは向上せず, Strength群およびSpeed群においては, 身体組成においては変化が認められなかったが, 跳躍および30m疾走パフォーマンスの向上が認められた.</p>
著者
尾縣 貢 木越 清信 遠藤 俊典 森 健一
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.1, pp.117-124, 2015

Purpose of this study was to examine the recovery process of delayed onset muscle soreness, jump performance, force to contact with the ground and lower limbs movement after intensive jump exercise (IJE), and the relationships between muscle soreness, changes of jump performance and lower limbs movement. Nine males who have experience in special jump exercise participated in this study voluntarily. For the measurement, subjective investigation of the muscle soreness, drop jump performance using a 30 cm high box [jump height, contact time and drop jump index (jump height / contact time)], ground reaction force and movements of lower limbs. This measurement was carried out before IJE (Pre), and at 4 hours (P4), 24 hours (P24) and 72 hours (P72) after IJE. Main results are as follows ; at the time of P24 when intense muscle soreness appeared, significant jump height decreases and contact time increases were shown, and the jump index decreased markedly. This decrease of performance correlated to the change of knee and ankle joint movements during the eccentric phase. At P4, for a subject who felt strong muscle soreness, the decrease of jump height and jump index were considerable. At P72, most subjects recovered to the levels of jump height and contact time to the Pre level. The findings reveal that the jump performances are related to the degree of delayed onset muscle soreness.
著者
森 健一 吉岡 利貢 白松 宏輔 苅山 靖 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.5, pp.503-510, 2011 (Released:2011-11-15)
参考文献数
31

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of physiological factors which effect oxygen kinetics and energy system contribution on the power of Wingate test (WT), with focusing on the difference of aerobic capacity. Twenty three male track and field athletes (sprinters, long distance runners and decathletes) performed the WT on electromagnetic-braked cycle ergometer. The applied resistance was 7.5% of body weight, and the duration was 60 seconds. Moreover, aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) was determined by an incremental test, and anaerobic capacity (maximal accumulated oxygen deficit [MAOD]) was determined by a supramaximal constant load test. The oxygen uptake during each test was recorded by a breath-by-breath method. The participants were divided into two group which was high VO2max group (High group; n = 11) and low VO2max group (Low group; n = 12). In the results, although the VO2max was significantly higher in the High group, the MAOD was not significantly different between two groups. The oxygen uptake during WT was significantly higher in the High group, and the accumulated oxygen deficit during WT was significantly higher in the Low group. The aerobic contribution was significantly higher in the High group than in the Low group. In contrast, the anaerobic contribution was significantly higher in the Low group than in the High group. These results suggest that by the difference of aerobic capacity, aerobic and anaerobic energy supply contribution was different in WT.
著者
新井 宏昌 渡邉 信晃 高本 恵美 真鍋 芳明 前村 公彦 岩井 浩一 宮下 憲 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.4, pp.335-346, 2004-07-10 (Released:2017-09-27)

A study was conducted to investigate the changes in anthropometric factors, physical fitness, and sprint ability and motion during the preparatory and competitive periods in two Japanese female elite sprinters. The measurements were carried out from the preparatory period to the competitive period three times. The main results were as follows : 1) In both athletes, sprint speed decreased after the preparatory period and increased in the competitive period. 2) High-intensity sprint training during the competitive period led to hypertrophy of the psoas major muscle and improvement of anaerobic power of the upper limbs. 3) During the competitive period in both athletes, the knee continued to flex after contacting, and took off while maintaining a minimal angle. These results suggest that the performance of elite sprinters changes through each training period, and is influenced by a combination of anthropometric factors, physical fitness and sprint motion.
著者
森 健一 吉岡 利貢 苅山 靖 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.275-284, 2012 (Released:2012-06-02)
参考文献数
37

The purpose of this study was to verify the applicability of the Wingate test (WT) for evaluation of anaerobic capacity and performance in sprinters, based on the relationships among the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) during cycling, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD-WT), and output power during the WT.   Eight 400-m sprinters (SP group; 49.29±1.56 s) and six decathletes (DC group; 50.29±1.27 s) participated. They performed the WT on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. The applied resistance was 7.5% of body weight, and the duration was 60 s. Moreover, anaerobic capacity (MAOD) was determined using a supramaximal constant load test. The oxygen uptake during each test was recorded using the breath-by-breath method.   The results were as follows: 1) There was no significant difference between MAOD during cycling and AOD-WT, and a significant correlation between these parameters was evident. 2) In the SP group, there were significant correlations between 400-m performance and MAOD during cycling, and the mean power at 30 s in the WT. However, no significant correlations were observed in the DC group.   These results suggest that in sprinters, the applicability of the WT for evaluation of anaerobic capacity and sprint performance differs between cycling exercise and running exercise.
著者
尾縣 貢 安井 年文 大山〓 圭悟 山崎 一彦 苅部 俊二 高本 恵美 伊藤 穣 森田 正利 関岡 康雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.3, pp.422-432, 2000-05-10 (Released:2017-09-27)

A study was conducted to examine the relationship between the physical characteristics and race patterns of 400-m running in three elite 400-m runners.The experiments were composed of a physical fitness test and an analysis of 400-m race patterns.Maximal O_2 intake, maximal anaerobic power, isokinetic muscular endurance and isokinetic maximum muscular power were evaluated in a laboratory.Final 400-m races in the Japan Championship and the National Sports Festival were filmed using video cameras, and analyzed to calculate the changes in running speed during the 400-m distance.In accordance with the race analysis results, the three 400-m runners were divided into two types.One was the "even pace"type, which showed a tendency to maintain a higher running speed until the finish of the race.The other was the "first half"type, which showed the highest speed from the start until the 190-m point.The even pace type had a higher maximal O_2 intake and isokinetic muscular endurance of the lower limbs.The first half type was a good record holder over 100-m and 200-m distances.These results indicate that physical characteristics influence the race pattern of 400-m running.
著者
白木 駿佑 尾縣 貢 木越 清信
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.433-440, 2018-06-10 (Released:2018-06-20)
参考文献数
17

This study investigated the relationship between exercise intensity and energy contribution in shortduration intensive exercise. Two competitive university sprinters performed 30-s pedaling tests at 4 high intensity levels, following a submaximal test to determine the energy contribution during the 30-s pedaling tests by using the linear regression between exercise power and O2 demand. The energy contribution in each subject was almost constant during the 30-s pedaling tests at the 4 high intensity levels. Furthermore, O2 uptake and peak blood lactate concentration increased with increasing O2 demand in each subject. These results suggest that the energy contribution during short-duration intensive exercise at different high intensity levels is almost constant and that aerobic and anaerobic energy increase with increasing exercise intensity in each individual.
著者
梶谷 亮輔 前村 公彦 山元 康平 関 慶太郎 尾縣 貢 木越 清信
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.139-149, 2018-06-10 (Released:2018-06-20)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1

The aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and utility of a method for evaluating the characteristics of the counter movement jump. Fifty-two male track and field athletes (sprinters or decathletes) jumped from a 30-cm platform and consciously changed their counter movement times. This study determined the counter movement time required to achieve the highest jump. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The waveform between the counter movement time and jumping height was an inverted U-shape. 2. It is normally accepted that the optimum counter movement time is determined via the jump test. 3. There was a significant correlation between the first test and the re-test in terms of the counter movement time. 4. Participants were classified into 5 groups based on their optimum counter movement times and highest jumping heights. These results suggest that the newly developed jumping test discussed in this study is a valid method for evaluating the characteristics of counter movement.