著者
山元 康平 宮代 賢治 内藤 景 木越 清信 谷川 聡 大山卞 圭悟 宮下 憲 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.159-173, 2014 (Released:2014-06-13)
参考文献数
39

This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between race pattern and performance in the men's 400-m race. Using several video cameras, 154 male 400-m sprinters (45-46 s: 26, 47 s: 35, 48 s: 58, 49 s: 35) in official competitions were videotaped at a sampling rate of 59.94 Hz from the start to the finish. The split time at every 50 m from the start was calculated using the Overlay method, which analyzes the split time by superimposing an image of the 400-m race onto an image of the hurdles in a 400-m hurdle race. Each segment was defined as follows: First segment, from the start to the 100-m mark; 2nd segment, from the 100-m mark to the 200-m mark; 3rd segment, from the 200-m mark to the 300-m mark; 4th segment, from the 300-m mark to the finish. The results of regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the 400-m race time and the all of the segment times (r=0.589-0.887, p<0.001), the ratio of the time for the 3rd segment (r=0.290, p<0.001) to that of the 4th segment (r=0.218, p<0.01), the rate of change in running speed from the 1st to the 2nd segments (r=−0.317, p<0.001), and that from the 2nd to the 3rd segments (r=−0.271, p<0.01). However, the relationship between the 400-m race time and the deceleration index (the slope of the linear relationship between running speed and the number of segments from the peak running speed to the finish) was not significant (r=0.154, p=0.056). These results suggest that it is important to maintain running speed in the 2nd and 3rd 100-m segments to achieve high performance in the 400-m sprint.
著者
狩野 豊 高橋 英幸 森丘 保典 秋間 広 宮下 憲 久野 譜也 勝田 茂
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育學研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.5, pp.352-359, 1997-01-10
被引用文献数
3

The relationship between the thigh muscle composition and the sprinting performance was investigated in 11 male adult sprinters (age/20.8±0.9 yrs, 100 m sprint time/11.20±0.33 sec). Axial images of the thigh muscle were taken by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at upper (70%) and middle (50%) position in femur. From these images, cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris, the hamstring and the adductor muscles were measured. The results of the regression analysis showed significant correlations between 100 m sprint time and both CSA of adductor and hamstring muscles at 70% position (r=-0.72 and r=-0.67, respectively). There were no significant correlations between 100 m sprint time and CSA of adductor or hamstring muscles at 50% position, and neither quadriceps femoris mudcles at 70 nor 50% positions. These results suggest that greater muscle volume of hamstring and adductor at upper position affect sprinting performance.
著者
阿江 通良 宮下 憲 飯干 明
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.105-113, 1988
被引用文献数
3

The purposes of this study were to analyze energy flows between lower limb segments during a cycle of sprinting and to clarify the characteristics of two different running motions, starting dash and sprinting at a constant speed, by comparing their energy flows. Three male sprinters dashed 20m and ran 100m giving their full effort. They were filmed at the 1-step and 5-step points after the start and at the 80m mark of the 100m sprint with a motion-picture camera. Ground reaction force data were simultaneously sampled at 500Hz. Digitized x and y coordinates of the body marks were smoothed by a digital filter cutting off at 8Hz for the start dash and 10Hz for sprinting. A 14-segment link modelling was used to compute linear and angular kinematics, joint forces, and net muscle moments. Joint force and muscle moment powers (abbreviated JP and MP) were computed as defined by Robertson and Winter (1980). Analysis and comparison of energy flow in a starting dash and sprinting at a constant speed revealed that: 1) Magnitude of energy flow by JP was much greater than that of MP in sprinting, while the difference in power level of JP and MP was less 1 step after the start. 2) In the early recovery period of sprinting, energy in the lower limb flowed from the trunk toward the foot, and it flowed in the reverse direction in the late recovery period. In the support period, the muscles at the ankle and knee joints absorbed most of the energy. Energy flowed from the trunk and thigh to the shank in the first half of the support period, and from the foot to the shank and from the trunk to the shank through the thigh in the second half. 3) In the recovery period of the starting dash energy flowed in the same manner as in sprinting. However, in the support period, the energy flowed from the foot to the thigh and the trunk. Notable was energy flow from the opposite thigh (i.e., the recovery thigh) to the trunk. From the viewpoint of energy flow patterns in the lower limb, a starting dash may be characterized as the running motion that accumulates as much mechanical energy in the trunk as possible through the generation of energy by the knee joint muscles and the transfer of energy to the trunk from the leg, especially the opposite leg at the support stage. Sprinting at constant speed may be characterized as the running motion to redistribute the energy between the body segments and the trunk with the minimum loss of energy.
著者
新井 宏昌 渡邉 信晃 高本 恵美 真鍋 芳明 前村 公彦 岩井 浩一 宮下 憲 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.4, pp.335-346, 2004-07-10 (Released:2017-09-27)

A study was conducted to investigate the changes in anthropometric factors, physical fitness, and sprint ability and motion during the preparatory and competitive periods in two Japanese female elite sprinters. The measurements were carried out from the preparatory period to the competitive period three times. The main results were as follows : 1) In both athletes, sprint speed decreased after the preparatory period and increased in the competitive period. 2) High-intensity sprint training during the competitive period led to hypertrophy of the psoas major muscle and improvement of anaerobic power of the upper limbs. 3) During the competitive period in both athletes, the knee continued to flex after contacting, and took off while maintaining a minimal angle. These results suggest that the performance of elite sprinters changes through each training period, and is influenced by a combination of anthropometric factors, physical fitness and sprint motion.
著者
渡邉 信晃 榎本 好孝 大山〓 圭悟 狩野 豊 安井 年文 宮下 憲 久野 譜也 勝田 茂
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.4, pp.520-529, 2000-07-10 (Released:2017-09-27)
被引用文献数
5 3

The purposes of this study were 1)to investigate the relationship between sprint running performance and isokinetic hip strength, and 2)to clarify the muscles that are important in sprinting from the standpoint of isokinetic strength and muscle cross-sectional area(CSA).Sixteen male(100m sprinting time 10.99±0.46s)and 12 female(12.50±0.44s)subjects ran 60m and their sprinting speed was measured from 30 to 60m.Isokinetic strength of hip and knee flexion and extension(Nm)were mesured at 60, 180 and 300 deg/s.Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)was used to determine the muscle cross-sectional area of the thigh(upper, middle and lower femur)and trunk.In females, there were no significant correlations between sprinting speed and isokinetic strength.In males, there were significant correlations between sprinting speed and hip strength(absolute value)at all angular velocities(r=0.51-0.75, p<0.05-0.01), except for hip extension at 300 deg/s.Extension at 60 deg/s was significant(r=0.64, p<0.01)only in the male knee.In males, there were significant correlations between the peak torque of hip extension and muscle CSAs of the hamstring and adductor(r=0.50-0.63, p<0.05-0.01), as well as between the peak torque of hip flexion and muscle CSAs of the psoas major and adductor(r=0.59-0.83, p<0.05-0.001).These results suggest that sprint running performance in males is influenced by the strength of hip flexion and extension.In addition, the muscle volume of the hamstring, adductor and psoas major muscles appears to play an important roles during sprint running in males.
著者
阿江 通良 村木 征人 宮下 憲 伊藤 信之 森田 正利
出版者
日本体育協会
雑誌
日本体育協会スポーツ医・科学研究報告書
巻号頁・発行日
pp.37-45, 1989

平成元年度日本体育協会スポーツ医・科学研究報告No.VII「スプリントアシスティッド・トレーニングに関する研究」(第2報)より
著者
宮下 憲
巻号頁・発行日
2013

科学研究費助成事業(科学研究費補助金)研究成果報告書:基盤研究(A)2009-2012
著者
渡邉 信晃 榎本 靖士 大山 卞 圭悟 宮下 憲 尾懸 貢 勝田 茂
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育學研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.4, pp.405-419, 2003-07-10
被引用文献数
4

本研究は,スプリント走時の下肢の動作および関節トルク発揮と等速性最大筋力との関係を明らかにし,スプリント走のトレーニングを考える上での基礎資料を得ることを目的とした。本研究から得られた知見は以下の通りである。(1)疾走速度と疾走時の下肢の動作および関節トルクとの間で有意な相関関係が認められたのは,支持期の膝関節最大伸展速度(負の相関),回復期の股関節屈曲トルクおよび伸展トルク(正の相関),支持期の膝関節伸展トルクおよび足関節底屈トルク(正の相関)であった。(2)疾走時の下肢関節トルクと下肢の等速性最大筋力との間でいくつかの有意な相関関係が認められたが,,中でもパフォーマンスに影響すると考えられる関係は,回復期の股関節進展トルクと短縮性股関節屈曲筋力(30,180および300deg/s),回復期の膝関節屈曲トルクと膝関節屈曲筋力(短縮性:180deg/s,伸張性:30,180および300deg/s),支持期の足関節底屈トルクと短縮性底屈筋力(180および300deg/s)であった。特に,支持期の膝関節および足関節では,等速性最大筋力が大きいことで支持期の関節トルクを介して関節の角度変位を小さくし,効率的なキック動作を引き出している可能性が示唆された。(3)疾走速度と下肢の等速性最大筋力との間で有意な正の相関関係が認められたのは,股関節屈曲筋力(短縮性:30,180および300deg/s,伸張性:30deg/s),短縮性股関節伸展筋力(180deg/s),短縮性および伸張性膝関節屈曲筋力(180deg/s),短縮性膝関節伸展筋力(180deg/s)であった。以上の結果から,回復期の股関節や,支持期の膝関節および足関節における関節トルクの発揮と,それに引き続き生じる動作には,等速性最大筋力が大きく関わっていることが明らかとなった。従って,スプリント走のパフォーマンス向上において,回復期の股関節や,支持期の膝関節および足関節動作は,それぞれの間接での等速性最大筋力のトレーニングによって改善される可能性が示唆された。