- 教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
- vol.39, pp.113-126,en307, 1984-09-30 (Released:2011-03-18)
The extra-school education by such as juku or private instructor is an important element in contemporary Japanese educational system. Those extraschool educations (abbreviated as ESE) are considered as producing undesirable effects on the public education, but there is a popular belief that the opportunity of educational attainment is enhanced by taking advantage of the ESE.In this paper we attempt to evaluate the extent to which this belief can be sustained on empirical grounds, especially the effect of parental socio-economic status on the difference of opportunity in senior high school entrance through the ESE investment during junior high school age. Samples are collected from graduates in 1982 of nine junior high schools in Sapporo. Questionaires were mailed to 2588 samples and returned from 470 male and 443 female respondents.Key variables in the analysis are family background factors (socioeconomic status of parents), amount of the ESE investment on jukti and private instructor, achievement test score (in terms of standardized score) at the age of seventh grade, change in the score from that time to the age of ninth grade, and ranking of senior high schools (trade school, for some respondents) which the respondents entered after the graduation.The analysis shows:(1) For male students, the ESE investment is positively correlated with parental socio-economic status, but no effect of the investment is found on either the change in the standardized score or the ranking of senior high school.(2) For female students, though the investment increases slightly the ranking of senior high: school through the change in the standardized score, the investment itself is not affected by parental socio-economic status.(3) Hence, for both male and female students, there is no causal chain from parental socio-economic status to the senior high school ranking through the ESE investment.(4) There are, however, for both male and female students, strong effects of parental socio-economic status on the senior high school ranking, directly, and indirectly through the test score at freshman age or the change in the score.