著者
前川 直哉
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.5-23, 2007

This paper elucidates historical changes in the images of homoeroticism between male students in the Meiji Era and examines the factors behind this change.<BR><BR>During the Meiji Era, intellectuals subscribed to a morality that prohibited homosexuality. However, some male students, known as <I>kouha</I> (solid students), shared common values that placed a positive value on homoeroticism between male students. They loathed falling victim to womenʼs charms, and aspired to develop ideal relations between themselves and other elite male students.<BR><BR>In the 1900s, the number of girls attending school increased markedly, and the presence of female students increased. These women came to be seen as suitable love or marriage partners for male students. In modern Japan,the emergence of female students helped to form the ideology of romantic love and a new positive image composed of love, marriage, and family.<BR><BR>These changes brought about by the emergence of female students had an impact on the images of homoeroticism between male students. After the 1900s, a form of homoeroticism called "love between men" became popular among the <I>nampa</I> (soft students), and the <I>kouha</I> students lost their monopoly on homoeroticism. However, "love between men" was just a substitute for love between men and women. On the other hand,the kouha students strengthened their belief that they should avoid falling in love, as they thought it was too feminine. Therefore, they called close relations between men "friendships between men," avoiding the use of the word "love." In this way, homoeroticism between male students was separated into "love between men," as an imitation, and "friendship between men." Homoeroticism between male students was transformed into a form adapted to heterosexism.
著者
前川 直哉
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.5-23, 2007-11-30 (Released:2015-07-14)
参考文献数
39

This paper elucidates historical changes in the images of homoeroticism between male students in the Meiji Era and examines the factors behind this change.During the Meiji Era, intellectuals subscribed to a morality that prohibited homosexuality. However, some male students, known as kouha (solid students), shared common values that placed a positive value on homoeroticism between male students. They loathed falling victim to womenʼs charms, and aspired to develop ideal relations between themselves and other elite male students.In the 1900s, the number of girls attending school increased markedly, and the presence of female students increased. These women came to be seen as suitable love or marriage partners for male students. In modern Japan,the emergence of female students helped to form the ideology of romantic love and a new positive image composed of love, marriage, and family.These changes brought about by the emergence of female students had an impact on the images of homoeroticism between male students. After the 1900s, a form of homoeroticism called “love between men” became popular among the nampa (soft students), and the kouha students lost their monopoly on homoeroticism. However, “love between men” was just a substitute for love between men and women. On the other hand,the kouha students strengthened their belief that they should avoid falling in love, as they thought it was too feminine. Therefore, they called close relations between men “friendships between men,” avoiding the use of the word “love.” In this way, homoeroticism between male students was separated into “love between men,” as an imitation, and “friendship between men.” Homoeroticism between male students was transformed into a form adapted to heterosexism.
著者
韓 東賢
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.96, pp.109-129, 2015-05-29 (Released:2016-07-19)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1

ヤング(Young 訳書,2007)は,欧米におけるポスト工業化社会への変化が,同化と結合を基調とする「包摂型社会」から分離と排除を基調とする「排除型社会」への移行でもあったと指摘する。一方,敗戦後,米軍の占領期を経て厳格なエスニック・ネイションとして再出発した日本では多文化主義的な社会統合政策が取られたことはなく,そのような意味での「包摂型社会」になったことはないと言えよう。にもかかわらず,日本でも1990年代から徐々に始まっていたヤングのいう意味での「排除型社会」化の進行は見られる。つまり,「包摂型社会」を中途半端にしか経由せず,そのためそこでの同化主義への処方箋である多文化主義も経由せずに,にもかかわらず「バックラッシュ」が来ている,というかたちで,だ。 本稿ではこうした流れを,朝鮮学校の制度的位置づけ,処遇問題からあとづけていく。そこから見えてきたものは次の3 点であると言える。①仮に戦後の日本がヤングのいう意味での包摂型社会だったとしても,その基調は同化と結合ではなく,「排除/同化」――排除と同化の二者択一を迫るもの――であった。②2000年代には,このような「排除/同化」の基調を引き継ぎながら,にもかかわらず,「多文化主義へのバックラッシュ」としての排除を露骨化,先鋭化させた排除型社会になった。③そのような「排除/同化」,また2000年代以降の排除の露骨化,先鋭化において,朝鮮学校の処遇はつねにその先鞭,象徴だった。
著者
舞田 敏彦
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.165-184[含 英語文要旨], 2008

Children's academic achievements differ by social class. Today, many researchers investigate schools that effectively reduce these differences. They have pointed out that in schools that are successful in this endeavor, there are many practices aimed at raising the academic achievements of children from lower classes. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the effects of these practices from the viewpoint of added value. This study aims to compare the actual achievement levels of children of each region with those estimated based on their socio-economic conditions and to clarify the educational conditions in the regions in which the actual levels are higher than expectations. For my method, I analyzed the data of academic achievement tests. I clarified children's achievement levels in 49 cities and wards in the Tokyo metropolitan area and in school districts in Adachi Ward (73 primary school districts, 38 junior high school districts). I examined the relations between the achievement levels and the socio-economic conditions of each region. Using this data, I estimated achievement levels using regression analysis. Regions were then divided into types by comparing the expected levels and actual ones. I named regions whose achievement levels were higher than expected "Effort types." The opposites are named, "Problem types." I then investigated the differences of educational conditions between these two types. It was found that in Effort types, the numbers of children per school, class and teacher are relatively small. School size, class size and teacher's burden are small in these regions. In Problem types, they are relatively large. These differences are significant in the data from school districts in Adachi Ward. Based on the findings, I concluded as follows: 1. The influence of social background on children's academic achievement can be reduced by the improvement of educational conditions such as reducing class size, which is the task of educational administrations. 2. The improvement of educational conditions is less effective for raising the absolute level of academic achievement. It is effective for the reduction of the social determinants of children's academic abilities. 3. Evaluations of schools from the viewpoint of added value are needed.
著者
間山 広朗
出版者
東洋館
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, pp.145-163, 2002
被引用文献数
11

"Ijime suicide (or suicide caused by bullying) has been one of the most serious problems in Japanese primary and secondary schools since the late 1970s. The problem has been widely studied in Japan. Generally speaking, the prevailing view is that though bullying has always existed, the situation of children committing suicide because of bullying is getting worse. Against this prevailing view, some scholars in the field of the sociology of education claim that "ijime suicides" existed in the past, and bullying condition may not be getting worse, but what has happened is that people have become more sensitive. In other words, they refer to the social condition itself. However, if we strictly observe the methodological standard of social constructionism, the bracketing of the ontological status of "social problems, " we must conclude that they are making an error of "ontological gerrymandering." We may have a tendency to regard ijime as bullying. However, according to Jeff Coulter, To claim that 'X' is the same action as 'Y' can mean creating a connection between them rather than simply recording a pre-existing relationship. We may misunderstand the property of our description. According to Peter Winch, the human activity we study is carried on according to rules. Therefore, we need to study the rulefollowing discourse of "ijime suicide" carefully. I would claim that "ijime suicide" does not exist until people learn of this term and the discourse. This is not an empirical, but rather a conceptual problem. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to solve this problems and explain "ijime suicide" itself analytically by focusing on the discourse involved, and then to indicate the possibility that a discursive reformation can dissolve "ijime suicide."""
著者
矢野 眞和
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, pp.65-81, 2012-06-15 (Released:2013-06-17)
参考文献数
9

本稿では,「政策」という補助線を設けることによって,学力と責任の関係を考察する。はじめに,学力政策の基本的枠組みに基づいて,学力政策の特質を二つ指摘し,この特質と責任の関係を述べた。一つに,学力は,生徒と教師の相互行為から生産される共同生産物であり,製品のような製造物責任を問うことが難しい。いま一つの特質として,教育に投入される資源の性質に着目する必要があり,法的責任とは別に教育費の経済的責任が重要になる。 第二に,学力の生産関数を測定する困難性を整理した。この困難に早急な解決を図ろうとする政治勢力が重なると「もっともらしいけれども,危うい」政治ショーが起きやすくなる。 第三に,困難な学力問題を広く理解するためには,国民の意識ないし世論の動きを視野に入れる必要性があることを指摘し,私たちが実施した「教育と社会保障の意識調査」結果を報告した。わが国の生涯政策への関心・選好・税負担の意識には,強いシルバーポリティクス(年齢格差)が働いており,教育政策への関心は二次的,三次的な優先順位になっている。「教育劣位社会」とでもいうべき日本の現状を明らかにした。 最後に,わが国の生涯政策の経済的責任がねじれていることを踏まえて,学力政策とトータルの教育政策を議論する一つの道筋を提示した。
著者
浜井 浩一
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.143-162[含 英語文要旨], 2007

Although Japan traditionally enjoyed a reputation for being one of the most crime-free economically advanced countries in the world, since the late 1990s its crime rates have increased and clear up rate have dropped. It now appears that the Japanese public has lost confidence in the effectiveness of the criminal justice system and is more anxious about safety. The Japanese public now believes that young offenders are becoming increasingly violent and that more and more adolescents are committing serious offenses. This view stems from a belief that there has been a breakdown in family life and that as a consequence, young people have become more amoral. In response, the Japanese government is trying to overhaul the national education curriculum, with a major focus on imposing and improving public morality. However, a careful examination of crime statistics shows that the perception of ever-increasing youth crime is groundless. There has been no decline in the age of youngest offenders. On the contrary, the average age of young offenders has risen, partly because the job market for young people, especially those without skills and/or a high school diploma, has become tight. The delinquency rate in Japan used to peak at age of 15 and then drop sharply. Most juvenile delinquents had ceased to offend by the age of 20. There is a large gap between what the public believes about youth offenses and the reality. The measures adopted by the government to prevent youth offenses, mainly focusing on morality, are based on a kind of stereotypical young offender. If the government continues to ignore the real problem, i. e., the shrinking job market for unskilled young people, it will create a self-fulfilling prophecy of future violent offenses by young people.

39 0 0 0 OA 知の格差

著者
長谷川 哲也 内田 良
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.94, pp.259-280, 2014-05-31 (Released:2015-06-03)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

本研究の目的は,大学図書館の図書資料費に関して,大学間の格差の実態とその推移を明らかにすることである。資料の電子化という地殻変動のなかで,大学間の格差はどう変容してきたのか。図書館研究と高等教育研究はいずれもこの問題を等閑視してきただけに,格差の全体像を丁寧に検証することが求められる。 とくに高等教育の資源格差は,各大学の機能の相異として是認されうるため,本研究では4つの視点──大学間の不均等度,大学階層間の開き,時間軸上の変化(縦断的視点),大学本体との比較(横断的視点)──を用いて多角的に分析をおこなう。分析には『日本の図書館』の個票データを用いた。国立大学法人化以降(2004-2011年度)の図書費,雑誌費,電子ジャーナル費に関して,「大学間格差」(個別大学間の不均等度)を算出し,さらに「大学階層間格差」(群間の開き)を明らかにした。 主な知見は次のとおりである。第一に,電子ジャーナル費では大学間の不均等度は縮小しているものの,階層間格差はむしろ拡がっている。これまで電子ジャーナルの購読では階層間格差は小さくなると考えられてきただけに,重要な知見である。第二に,雑誌費では大学間の不均等度が高くなり,さらに階層間格差が拡大するという,深刻な事態が生じている。「電子化」の背後で進むこれら図書資料費の「格差化」にいかに向き合うかが,大学図書館の今後の課題である。
著者
佐川 佳之
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, pp.47-67, 2010-11-30 (Released:2014-07-03)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
3

フリースクールに関する従来の社会学的研究において,フリースクールの支援者は,脱学校や不登校の脱医療化を主張し,不登校児の「受容と共感」の支援を行う担い手として認識される傾向にある。だが,支援者が社会的に流通する不登校支援の言説や役割をいかに解釈し,活動を行っているのかといった支援者側の視点からの分析は充分になされていない。本稿は,支援者の不登校児との関わりに伴う感情経験の過程に注目し,民族誌的な視点からフリースクールの支援の複雑な実態に迫るものである。 不登校支援において,支援者は「受容と共感」の感情規則に基づいた支援を求められ,その関わりを通じて不登校児の安心の喚起を試みる。しかし,その実践は常に成功するわけではなく,生徒との関わりの過程の中で問題が顕在化する。本稿は,その事例として生徒の振る舞いと「不安」への対処から生じる,「受容と共感」の感情規則との葛藤の経験を取り上げ,検討する。この問題に対して,支援者はフリースクールを含めた不登校支援において広く流通する「障害」の言説を接合し,生徒を差異化することで葛藤を修復すると同時に,既存の支援のあり方を再構成し,生徒個々に対応した支援を実践している。こうした一連の過程からすれば,フリースクールの支援とは,ローカルな社会状況の展開に応じて,新たな支援のあり方を再構成するという動的過程として再定位できる。
著者
牧野 智和
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.129-146, 2006-05-31

The purpose of this study is to examine the feelings of "uneasiness" that have become the dominant image where we consider the issue of juvenile crime, and which became the driving force for the enactment of various ordinances. The material used for this examination is reports of the juvenile crimes in the pseudo-environment that mediates the holding of this image, that is, in the mass media. Concretely, the analysis and consideration were done based on reports on juvenile homicides in "Asahi Shimbun" in the postwar period. As a result, the following tendencies in recent years have been extracted as a symptom that people have come to feel uneasiness. 1) The number of juveniles arrested on charges of homicide in recent years is low compared with the peak in the 1950s and 1960s. However, newspaper reports on homicides have become much more numerous since 1997. This made people widely aware of crimes by "ordinary children," and it appears that this is related to the uneasiness people feel that they or their children might be victims of juvenile crime or that their child might become an assailant. 2) In recent years, the malicious nature and cruelty of assailants is often reported along with the tendency to focus on "psychological problems" (kokoro no yami) in the articles. As a result, assailants and their parents and teachers have been subjected to criticism that did not exist in the past. 3) From the same focus on "psychology," references to "child-rearing" and "educational methods" have been made from a professional viewpoint by specialists in psychology. As a result, everyday life, which was once self-evident, has come under questioning. Moreover, the usage of psychological terms in recent years has been used not only to label assailants as abnormal, but also to make parents and teachers reflexively think, "Is your child OK?" It was thought that the rise of uneasiness is related to these psychological references that destroy the self-evidence of everyday life of parents and teachers.
著者
湯川 やよい
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, pp.163-184, 2011-06-10 (Released:2014-06-03)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1 1 1

本研究は,高等教育・研究者養成における教員─学生関係の社会学研究として,アカデミック・ハラスメントの形成過程を明らかにする。そのため,医療系の女性大学院生を事例に,学生が「被害」を認識する契機となるエピソードに着目し,被害の背景にある教員─学生間の信頼関係の変遷を,対話的構築主義アプローチを用いたライフストーリーとして再構成する事例研究を行う。 考察の結果,学生が「被害」と認識した出来事は,それ単独として存在するのではなく,多忙化した教員の研究・教育関与の低下,研究室間の不文律システム,教員同士の確執等,日常に埋め込まれた諸文脈の累積により学生の教員への信頼が失われ,その結果初めて学生にとって不快で不当な「ハラスメント被害」が構築されるという過程が明らかになった。 また,対話的構築主義アプローチをとったことにより,上記のハラスメント形成過程は,従来のアカデミック・フェミニズムの中でのモデル・ストーリーとなってきた「ジェンダー要因を中核とするハラスメント体験」の語りに対してずれを含む新たな対抗言説として導出された。 研究室の教員─学生関係で生じる困難を,単に学生相談の臨床心理からのみ論じるのではなく,背景にあるジェンダー関与的文脈と非関与的文脈の総体について社会学的に検討し,政策・教育機能分析と指導の実践レベルの研究とを接続する必要があると考える。
著者
上床 弥生
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, pp.27-48, 2011-11-30 (Released:2012-12-03)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
5

本稿の目的は,中学校における生徒文化とジェンダーの関係に注目し,ジェンダーを軸としたピア・グループの分化とそれによる秩序形成・維持のメカニズムを明らかにすることである。 その際,本稿では Wieder の「コード」概念を援用し,中学校での学級観察と生徒へのインタビュー調査から,生徒同士が共有するジェンダーに関するコードを「ジェンダー・コード」として抽出し,分析に用いた。 分析の結果明らかとなったのは,中学校の教室では,生徒の行動をコントロールするコードとして,男子と女子との間の距離化や男子優位の上下関係で行為を説明するジェンダー・コードが,圧倒的に重要なものとして存在していたことであった。フォーマルな学校教育においてはジェンダーが回避されているにも関わらず,生徒たち自身が,行為解釈のなかでジェンダー秩序を維持していたのである。 もちろん本調査でも,ある場面をめぐって男子と女子で解釈に用いるコードが対立し,ジェンダー・コード自体が揺らぐこともあった。しかし,その場合でも,生徒による再解釈過程を経て,ジェンダー・コードはさらに修復・維持されていった。 このように,本稿ではジェンダー・コードが,特に中学校の教室においてはいかに秩序維持と分かちがたく結び付き,また生徒同士の関係性においても重要なものとして機能しているのかが示されたのである。
著者
天童 睦子
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.61-83, 2007-05-31 (Released:2018-07-01)
参考文献数
41

This paper examines inter/intra family differences and child-care support policies in Japan from child-rearing strategies and a gender perspective. For the theoretical consideration of mechanisms of reproduction of family differences, this paper proposes a Child-rearing Code and Gender Code based on B. Bernstein’s theory of cultural transmission. The Child-rearing Code system reveals not only inter family differences based on parental economic background, but also intra family differences based on the sexual division of labor in the family.This paper traces Family Support Policies after World War II, and examines how these policies were gendered and privatized. Especially since the 1990s, various Child-care Support Policies have been introduced in Japan not just to support family childcare, but to raise the birth rate, and these policies sometimes functioned to reinforce a Gender Regime.The latter part of the paper focuses on voices of parents, based on an extensive empirical investigation which was conducted in Tokyo from 2000 to 2006. The study describes the isolation of mothers with children in a gendered division of labor situation, the emotional capital in mother-child interactions, and the dilemmas of working mothers who have to divide their time between paid work and time spent with their children. It also explores the difficulties faced by fathers who want to, but cannot, care for their children, because of long working hours and business-centered social values. This paper also explains the economic difficulties faced by single mothers due to the lack of social security and wage disadvantages in the labor market in Japan.Based on these theoretical and empirical considerations, this paper concludes that the symbolic realization of inter/intra family differences are generated by a gender code which operates with an invisible gender hierarchy.
著者
吉田 美穂 Miho YOSHIDA 中央大学大学院 Graduate School Chuo University
出版者
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.89-109, 2007-11-30

This paper examines the control system of secondary schools and teachers' survival strategies in the 2000s, a time known as an era of accountability, through an ethnography of a low-ranked high school in the metropolitan area. Student guidance and maintaining school order are important tasks for Japanese teachers. The culture of administration in secondary education has changed over time. In the late 1990s, a "counseling mentality" and "internal understanding" were emphasized in student guidance rather than administering the exterior aspect of students, under the system of "kanri kyoiku", until the 1980s. Earlier papers indicate that there was a process of "consummatorization of schooling." How, then, is order maintained in schools in the 2000s? The main data for this paper were gathered from April 2005 to August 2006. Participatory observation and interviews were carried out to describe the control system under which teachers avoided conflict with students. For example, teachers kept discipline indirectly by recording absence times in five-minute units. The maximum period of absence for receiving credits for the class was made known to students who were considered problematic and who tended to miss class. Some inappropriate behaviors, such as failing to wear the school uniform and eating in class, were also dealt with as absent time. In this way, teachers were able to keep their classes in order and avoid conflicts with students. Teachers often behaved gently and kindly, supporting the students under the assumption of this count system. In this paper, this behavior by teachers is called "Osewa mode, " with osewa meaning "caring" in Japanese. The teachers used this strategy to conceal their authority to set rules and to keep order in a way that avoided conflicts with students. They soothed students with gentle behavior and familiar words. They often directed students' attention to the absent time count and advised them to attend classes with a proper attitude. This strategy was transmitted to other teachers through group interactions. The school kept order through a "Control system to avoid conflict with students" and the "Osewa Mode, " which is an individual strategy based on that system. On the other hand, this system and strategy fits well into an era of accountability. Teachers often gave notification to parents of the numerical value of the absent time count. This made it easy for teachers to justify their treatment of students to their parents. Teachers' culture differs by regions. Therefore, there are some limits to the usefulness of the descriptions in this paper, as they would differ in different teachers' cultures in rural areas. However, the metropolitan area tends to lead in the areas of accountability, loss of teachers' authority and "consumerization of schooling." Thus, the "Osewa Mode" and "Control system to avoid conflict with students" in this ethnography in the metropolitan area may show important characteristics of teachers' culture in the 2000s.
著者
丸山 和昭
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, pp.85-104, 2004-11-15 (Released:2011-03-18)
参考文献数
33

Organizations of clinical psychologist were organized on two occasions in Japan at the initiative of professional societies. The move toward professionalization in the 1960s used a strategy which gave priority to the acquisition of specialist status and autonomy than to obtaining a state-granted qualification. As a result, it failed to obtain the support of professionals working in the clinical field. However, in the 1970s, the whole clinical mental occupation reached consensus on the need to promote specialist status, from a sense of crisis brought about by the unwillingness of the Ministry of Health and Welfare and doctors to create a qualification. In the second professionalization in the 1980s, calls were made for the advancement of specialist status and the establishment of a training system. Thanks to a strategy of professionalization aimed at developing an educational field, it came to attain “miraculous” growth.This professionalization of clinical psychologists was based on the leadership of professional societies, which developed specialist attributes for the cultivation of a “science-profession” core based on a “dual strategy”, to gain professional status. The clinical psychologists used a dual strategy toward the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of Education, expanded the market autonomously and produced a great deal of “science-profession.” However, it can be said that the professional society-led model has the danger of following the route of very unstable professionalization, which can be easily influenced of many domains although it has the potential for expanding new markets and the development of an autonomous training system.
著者
久冨 善之
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, pp.43-64, 2012-06-15 (Released:2013-06-17)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
3 1

小論は「教育と責任」の問題を,学校・教師と親とが教育をめぐってどのような応答・責任関係を構成するのかという課題として,3・11大震災・原発事故とそれに続く状況の中で考察したものである。 「落第のない義務教育学校」や「献身的教師像」は日本の学校文化・教員文化の特徴であると考えられる。そこには学校と教師が,子どもを学校で教育する責任を積極的に引き受ける〈前面性〉があり,それを回路に個々の学校と教師は,子ども・親から「信頼・権威」を調達して,元来難しい近代学校教育の仕事を,何とか乗り切って来た。それは不安定さをはらむ「学校・教師と親との関係構成」を安定化するのに寄与したものと分析した。 戦後日本の社会変化の中では,上のような伝統的関係構成にもいくつかの再編があったと考える。それを「学校・教師の黄金時代」から過渡期を経て,第Ⅲ期(90年代半ば〜今日)の「学校・教師の困難と教育改革」時代へという展開として記述した。Ⅲ期では伝統的な〈前面性〉が,信頼・権威調達回路から,逆に個々の学校・教師が,学校教育への不信・不満・非難の矢面に立つ関係構成へという転化が生じた。その〈前面性〉が衝立になって,責任ある教育官僚機構はその陰で非難を免れ「公正なる改革者」として登場して,親・国民からの学校・教師への非難を追い風に次々と学校・教員制度改革を進行させている。 それらが学校と教師をいっそう圧迫する現状が好ましくないとすれば,どんな関係構成の再編があり得るだろうか。一つは親と教師・学校の「相互非難関係」から「困難の相互共有関係」への可能性として,もう一つは「押しつければ改革成功」とする評価方式を「第三者による教育政策・改革のアセスメント」方式の必要性として,大震災と続く状況下でそれらが試されている点を考察した。
著者
内田 良
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, pp.201-221[含 英語文要旨], 2010

本稿の目的は,「リスク」の理論と分析手法を用いて,学校管理下における各種事故の「実在」,とくに事故の発生確率を比較することから,学校安全に関する今日的な「認知」のあり方を批判的に検討し,エビデンスにもとづいた学校安全施策を提唱することである。今日,学校安全の名のもと不審者対策に多くの資源が投入されている。いっぽう,学校における多種多様な事故を広く見渡して,事故の発生件数や確率を調べようとする試みは少ない。そこで本稿では多義的なリスク概念を手がかりに,次のように分析を進めた。まず社会学のリスク論から,リスクは社会的に構築されるという視点を得た。事故は「認知」に左右される。次に自然科学の方法から,事故の「実在」に注目して各種死亡事故の発生確率を算出した。その結果不審者犯罪よりも発生確率が高い事故が多くあることが明らかとなった。学校事故の特殊性は,管理するという「決定」に,多くの主体(国,自治体学校,保護者,地域住民)が容易に関与できる点である。このとき,「決定」はリスクをめぐるコミュニケーションを活性化させ,リスクに対する人びとの認知を敏感にさせていく。本稿が提唱したいのは,危機感が増幅し始めた早い段階においてエビデンスが参照されることである。事故を管理しようとする意志が多くの主体に増幅していく前に,「決定」の大きな権力を有する教育行政が,エビデンスにもとづいた「決定」をなすべきである。
著者
友田 泰正
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.185-195, 1970-10-10

The problem of this article is to determine the regional differences in college enrollment ratio and to explore the determinants of these differences. The determination of the college enrollment ratio in each prefecture is not easy because the data on the exact number of re-enrollment and on the statistical universe in each prefecture are not available. In this article, I tried to determine the college enrollment (and application) ratio by including the number of re-enrollment as far as the data are available and by defining the junior high school graduates of 1964 (and 1965) as a statistical universe. There is a large variability in application ratio from 43% of Tokyo to 11% of Aomori. Generally, highly urbanized prefectures such as Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Nara, Kyoto, Hyogo, Kagawa, and Hiroshima are high in the ratio. There is also a variability in the college enrollment ratio from 39% of Tokyo to 11% of Aomori. In order to explore the determinants of these regional differences, the following six factors were employed as independent variables: (a) proportion of administrative, managerial, and professional workers; (b) proportion of non-agricultural workers; (c) proportion of senior high school or college graduates; (d) per capita income; (e) proportion of urban population; (f) dispersion of college campuses. Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficients were computed. Results showed very high correlation coefficients: for instance, for four-year college application ratio, 0.9132 with (c); 0.9012 with (a); 0.8835 with (d); 0.8668 with (b).