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著者
田中 研之輔
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.109-130, 2013-03

Informational communicative technologies and social networking servicebased on the Internet have enabled the emergence of new sorts ofcommunities and communicative practices of everyday life. This articleaddresses the phenomenon of Internet-based group, generally referred to asonline community. Analyzed through the lens of contemporary approach byan intensive fieldwork, online community study would contribute to debatesin the literature which seeks to the epistemological positionality ofresearcher different from the qualitative method about the face-to-facegroupings traditionally thought of as communities.
著者
田中 研之輔
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.381-428, 2012-03

This article states the social world of youth subcultures in contemporary Japan using social exclusion theory. By examining "structurally embedded inequalities," which tend to be disregarded by post-sub cultural theory, this study will shed some light on the social contexts in which youth subcultures are created.The conceptual and theoretical frameworks that I will employ differ from those of previous works in three regards. First, my approach treats the socially excluded youth not as a group of the "new poor," but as a new collection of social actors produced as a consequence of social stratification. Second, I will focus on the epistemological turn from socio-political social exclusion where it account new poverty provoke a socially exclusive situation, to sociological social exclusion, which focuses on the process of the relationship between new poverty and social exclusion. Third, I will argue that the process of social exclusion is not only forcibly created by structural factors in the global context, but also that mundane exclusion regard to reproduce the everyday practice in local social world.
著者
尾木 直樹
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.99-113, 2008-03

The expression "monster parent" is a Japanese-English term for parents who make unreasonable demands and requests of the school like a monster.This is similar to the notion "helicopter parent" in the United States. In this study, a nationwide survey about this widely known problem among Japanese was executed in order to understand actual situation in schools. The results showed that most teachers admit there is an increase in "monster parents." This study was able to categories five types of "monster parents." namely, "My Child-centered (overprotective)," "Negligent," "Non-Moral," "School Dependent," and "Maker of Excessive Claims."Why did such parents come to appear? The research results point out the influence of the social trend of the consumer supremacy these days, which enables parents to lodge an objection against anything with the appearance of parents, resulting in "my child centrism" and "Selfish parents."Moreover people are often isolated as parents in a local area, without friends who can hear their concerns and worries, so the complains go to directly to the school, which have difficulty fielding the complaints. In addition, this problem occurred due to loss of authority of the "school selection system" even for elementary and junior high schools and I could call these phenomina "merchandization of school." Then, how should we resolve this problem? The Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Technology attemped to instigate "School problem solving support team," but there were only 23% in my questionnaire that supported this idea. The remaining people seem to think that a powerful team consisting of lawyers, psychiatrists, and ex-police cannot be a solution of this problem. The most popular suggestion for a solution was "mutual understanding between parents and the teachers." In a sense, it was a relief to see result, including that there is no need to establish any innovative system, but must keep making an honest effort. All we have to do is make sure that system will support advancement of "mutual understanding". Also, the school relies on neither the system nor the action treatment of the education but to value the principle. The "monster parent" phenomenon is not only a problem of schools but also a social phenomenon which should the government should make an effort to resolve by making an increase in the educational budget.
著者
金山 喜昭
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.41-67, 2014-03

This article is intended to clarify how did the public museums which are managed by the NPO under the Shiteikanrisya-seido change. The result was that the service for the users improved in these museums due to the NPO's inventive ideas. In addition, the more significantly the museum changed, the more people began to use the museum. On the other hand, at the museum which the NPO takes limited administrative task, its service level is also limited. As a result, the number of users of such museums was proved not to increase. It can be said that the way of these public museums which NPO run can be explained in 4 types; innovative type, consecutive type, local type and sightseeing type. With linking each types, one can clarify a certain characteristics of each museums. In the future it is necessary to get some more examples and inspect this result again. At the same time, analysis of the cost-effectiveness is needed, utilizing the data of the amount of budget for public museums managed by the NPO.
著者
松島 英子
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 = 法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.225-241, 2005-03

This paper discusses several aspects of idolatry in Ancient Mesopotamia,especially in the first millennium. In each city of Mesopotamia,there was at least one temple where the city god and his consort were enshrined. As a matter of fact,gods were represented by statues generally made of wood and covered by gold. People identified the statue with the god himself(or the goddess herself)and treated it as if it were a living being. Every day they delicated food and drink to the god('s statue)and changed the clothes,jewelry and articles belonging to it in spring and in autumn. People thus took care of the gods(in fact their statues). As long as the god,being treated carefully,is satisfied and atayed in his own temple,the city as well as its citizens were protected. But if he was not satisfied and angry with his people,he could abandon them and leave the city. In the history of Mesopotamia,such accidents often occurred. In the 8th century B.C.,the Assyrian king Sennacherib attacked Babylonia and its capital Babylon,the most eminent and holy city in Mesopotamia. He destroyed many temples,including Esagila,the temple of the city god Marduk. We do not know whether his statue was completely destroyed or simply captured by the Assyrians. Anyway,Marduk's stantue disappeared from Babylon in 689 B.C. for certain political reasons Esarhaddon, who succeeded Sennacherib,wanted to restore the Marduk's statue and the cult of this god in Babylon by himself. However,the stantue returned home not in his reign but in the first year of his successor,i.e.,668 B.C. We have several written documents concerning this event. Most of them are letters written by high officials in the court of Esarhaddon. They informed the king the details of restorative work. Some of them speak of a clothing ceremony for Marduk in Babylon. This is embarrassing because the statue of this god had not been completed during the reign of this king. After several examinations and dicussions,this paper concludes that both the statue and the cult of Marduk were under restoration under the direction of Esarhaddon. It can be supposed that this very fact is most important because the cult is availabe only with the statue. If the statue disappears,so does the religious cult. This is one of the characteristic aspects of idolatry in Mesopotamia,and certainly of idolatry in general.
著者
佐藤 一子
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.157-180, 2008-03

In this paper, I intend to clarify the historical process in which the profile of a new lifelong learning facilitator has been formed within the integrated system of lifelong learning in Italy since the l990s. Facilitators or trainers of lifelong learning were divided by various fields, but now they have come to be considered according to common functions and jobs. In this paper, their profiles are understood based on four groups, which were historically formed separately, namely: staff, operators, facilitators and trainers. The first group consists of staff working in the private or nonprofit sector in the field of adult education and socio-cultural activities. The second group consists of operators from public sector education and cultural facilities, and personnel involved in adult education administration. The third group consists of trainers of private sector vocational training entrepreneurs. The fourth group is personnel and trainers of public vocational training centers. There are people who have various other roles supporting the leaning process, not only lecturers but also such jobs as managers, tutors, programmers, and counselors. These roles and jobs as lifelong learning facilitators are being established with special occupational descriptions. This paper considers the role and function of such lifelong leaning facilitators from the viewpoint of the "competence of competencies," that is to say, their competence in developing learning competencies.
著者
遠藤 野ゆり
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.131-155, 2013-03

Recently, it has been more and more pointed out that there are somerelevance between school truancy and developmental disorder. However,these studies lack the viewpoint of party which is important for the sake ofproper support for those who have the problem of both school truancy anddevelopmental disorder. This paper tries to elucidate the way of their being,based on the author's experiences in an ordinal school and in a free-school.As a result, this paper reveals the significance of the "being-with". Besides,it clarifies that developmental disorder child who are sensitive to the threatfrom others often can't withstand the publicity of school. It is the atmospherein free-school that supports children which doesn't force them to being withand suffering from the perception of others.
著者
尾木 直樹
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.153-183, 2005-03

On 1 June 2004,a shocking incident took place in Sasebo city,Nagasaki prefecture. A sixth-grade girl slashed her classmate's throst with a knife during the school lunch break. In nagasaki city,in the same prefecture,a similar terrible incident had taken place in July 2003. Then,a seventh-grade male student killed a four-year-old boy by pushing him from the roof of a building. Shince this incident,authorities have been putting all their efforts into the concept of "the education of the mind" to teach the importance of life. They call the teaching "KoKoroneKKo,"(alluding to the roots of a child's development as a psychologically heaalthy person). It involves such activities as reading ten minutes at home,and greeting and talking to people. Nevertheless,why does this kind of incident take plase with such frequency? It is natural that concern for these incidents is increasing throughout Japan. When we examine the crisis management of the institutions and schools concerned after these incidents occur,we cannot but have many questions about the importance of "education of mind" teaching and the institutions' attitudes toward children. Based on field research in the development of crisis management by educational authorities and in schools,this paper analyzes and ponders the problem. As a result,several educational challenges have become clear. Such incidents require each individual teacher,each school and each authority to establish rigid crisis management systems independent of personal views. However,this resarch has made it clear that none of the above parties sees the situation from the "children's standpoint" at all. Consequently,in the educational field,they forcefully implement their own policies based on subjective ideas while failing to pay any attention to children's actual conditions,to theories of childhood growth,or theories of emotional development. They fall back on the excuse of following a manual and implementing management and review processes. Consequently,the schools and authorities have become indifferent to the emotions of each individual child,and are interested in a practical approach,putting exclusive emphasis on the teachers' "ability to instruct" and "ability to manage." Despite the "KoKoroneKKo" movement into which they poured all their energies,a basic relationship of trust with full confidence is rarely established between children and teachers. In a sense,we have to admit that this is an inevitable result. What is education? We have to go back to basics. Those who are supposed to educate children have an ambiguous understanding of the meaning of "education of the mind" and "education for life", and they do not understand what these expressions really mean. Consequently,it is in fact adults who require education. In addition,this paper points out and addresses problems concerned with fundamental research questions and urgent challenges with respect to the Internet and children's development.
著者
斎藤 嘉孝
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 = 法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.369-379, 2012-03

These days, Japanese society faces serious problems regarding marriage. That is, the average age at which a person first marries is becoming older and older, and the number of youth who do not want to be married is increasing. Governmental reports and academic studies often attempt to explain what causes such phenomena. This paper aims to examine effects of the relationship between a youth's parents on the youth's positive/negative attitudes towards his or her own future marriage. A survey was conducted on undergraduate students who lived in and around the Tokyo metropolitan area in 2011. The results of my statistical analyses included that (1) those whose parents went out together were more likely to have positive attitudes towards marriage than others, (2) those whose parents often quarreled were more likely to have negative attitudes towards marriage than others, and (3) those whose mothers were satisfied with their relationships with the fathers were more likely to have more positive attitudes towards marriage than others. These findings suggest that we should pay more attention to the parental relationship, that is, the marital partnership, as one of the influential factors on youth's attitudes towards marriage.
著者
坂本 旬
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.221-253, 2018-03

The first independent fact checking grassroots organization "Fact Check Initiative Japan (FIJ)" established on June 21st, 2017 in Japan. It launched a new fact-checking project during a general election in last October. I stared an action research in my librarian training classes using a guideline of the fact checking, a form and samples. In conclusion, first of all, it was a challenging assignment especially finding fact-checking targets for students. Second, they wrote it was meaningful experience to vote in the election. It means that fact-checking practice is citizenship education. Third, fact-checking experience provides critical point of views to not only online unidentifiable disinformation but also mass media articles. Combating fake news is so essential for not only journalists bur also librarians, students and general citizens that they should address the resolution of it together cooperatively. Grassroots fact-checking movements including practice of it as media and literacy education in schools would be a key element for building a democratic society.
著者
岩谷 道夫
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.21-39, 2014-03

The Jutes and the Frisians were the old Germanic tribes who had been described in the works of the Roman historians. We can also find those two Germanic tribes in the Finn Episode in Beowulf, the largest epic in old English and in the Fight at Finnsburh, one of the oldest poems written in English. The story in those old English works is about the battle between the Frisians and the Danes, and the Jutes had an important role in it. At first the Jutes had inhabited Jutland, which means the land of the Jutes. But later, in the old English poems mentioned above, they lived in the vicinity of the Frisians. Why they can be found there is a difficult problem which has been argued by many scholars. Fr. Klaeber is one of the most eminent researchers of Beowulf in the 20th century and his third edition of Beowulf is thought to be the most excellent one which has ever been published. He also argues on the Jutish problem and presents some important comments about it. This paper first aims at searching for the territories of the Jutes and the Frisians in the works of the Roman historians and the old English poems. And it also investigates the view of Fr. Klaeber through his comments and map in his third edition. It finally attempts to pursue the true history of the Jutes suggested in the battle between the Frisians and the Danes.
著者
金山 喜昭
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.237-256, 2006-03

Machizukuri(literally,"town construction")is the building of a city for and by the citizens who would like the town to be better than before. It has often been used to solve the problems of a town. In Noda,a town in Chiba prefecture,people used not to have any living energy,and the streets were lonely and poor. Improving them was necessary for people to communicate with each other. My colleagues and I established Noda Culture Square in January 2005 to solve this problem;in May 2005,it became a Non-Profit Organization of the prefecture with 30 regular members and 11 student menmbers,it has lectures called Terakoya(an old term meaning a school run by a temple):workers talk about their careers and skills,persons,who learn to compose accomplishments,talk about theirs,hands-on learning is provided for children and their parents. And we made a map which shows buildings in the old town. A party held on the day of the harvest moon gathered about 90 people. The members have felt something come alive from these activities,having a mission in common. This was shown by a questionnaire survey. On the other hand I founud that we had not been commmunicating with each other as well as we would have liked. And a lot of members felt as if they weren't contributing to the activities of Noda Culture Square. I think it is necessary for them to communicate with other menmbers and contribute to the activities in some way:arranging parties among members,urging people to join Terakoya,etc. Perhaps they would be bettre off. But if they don't like to join in,I could not force them to do so. In Machizukuri,I have found that communicating with members is based on how we realize the mission at the first stage. And it is important for them to improve their life through Machizukuri.
著者
梅崎 修
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.225-253, 2015-03

This paper transcribes a lecture by Mr. Tsuchiya Toshio. former television producer and CEO of LIFE VIDEO Co. Ltd. Tsuchiya has produced comedies by utilizing documentary techniques in various Television varietyshows. Mr. Tsuchiya has also launched LIFE VIDEO Co. Ltd. in recent years, wherein he captures the lives of ordinary people. Mr. Tsuchiya has been a pioneer in the new field of "documentary variety" and is currently working on an oral history of ordinary people. This paper aims to introduce Mr. Tsuchiya and to present his experiences of interviewing people for their oral histories. The findings will aid researchers of oral history and students who wish to conduct interviews in the future.
著者
岩谷 道夫
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.219-236, 2006-03

The Saxons are among the Germanic tribes who moved from the European continent to the island of Britain in the age of the Germanic migration. After their movement to Britain,the Saxons,together with the Angles and Jutes,estabilshed the so-called Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. Alfred the Great,who finally united all the other English nations,was the king of a West-Saxon kingdom created by the Saxons. In contrast with the Angles and Jutes,however,the Saxons did not migrate from their homeland totally. The Sachsen,their German kindred,stayed in their continental homeland and they subsequently played an important role in German history. This paper searches for the original entity of the Saxons and for its relation to the continental Sachsen. The formation of the Saxons is not clearly understood and there are several views on the matter. Two Germanic tribes,the Chauci and Reudigni,seem to have contributed much to the tribal formation of the Saxons. But it is still an open issue which tribe or tribes formed the Saxons. It is also unclear how the Saxons came to occupy the vast dominion of the Chauci. Those matters are to be sought entirely through the investigation into the references made by Roman writers and modern scholars. The historical relationship between Saxons and Sachsen is also purued in order to illuminate the mutual influences in religion and culture in the early middle ages.
著者
岩谷 道夫
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.171-190, 2007-03

Among the Germanic tribes who migrated from the continent to Britain, the Angles formed the two important kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia, which were quite prosperous in the early history of England. In Northumbria, for example, Beda and Alcuin were outstanding in learning and religion, and their works influenced the cultures and thought of later Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. The cultural influence of the Angles eventually led to the name -for that part of the British Ilses: England. This paper aims to search for the homeland of the Angles before their migration to Britain. They were said to have lived in the northern part of today's Germany. But it is also said that they had been staying farther south. Which was their true homeland and from which direction did the Angles migrate to Britain? On the other hand, there is a possibility that the Angles had a strong relationship with the Thuringians, especially in the formation of their kingdom. How then did the Angles establish the Thuringian kingdom and when was it? The views of modern scholars on those questions are divided and are not entirely argued on the same grounds. This paper tries to deal with those questions on the same basis, referring mainly to the works of the Roman historians. It also tries to seek for the probable homeland of the Angles and their traces of migration with regard to the Thuringian kingdom.
著者
尾木 直樹
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.153-183, 2005-03

On 1 June 2004,a shocking incident took place in Sasebo city,Nagasaki prefecture. A sixth-grade girl slashed her classmate's throst with a knife during the school lunch break. In nagasaki city,in the same prefecture,a similar terrible incident had taken place in July 2003. Then,a seventh-grade male student killed a four-year-old boy by pushing him from the roof of a building. Shince this incident,authorities have been putting all their efforts into the concept of "the education of the mind" to teach the importance of life. They call the teaching "KoKoroneKKo,"(alluding to the roots of a child's development as a psychologically heaalthy person). It involves such activities as reading ten minutes at home,and greeting and talking to people. Nevertheless,why does this kind of incident take plase with such frequency? It is natural that concern for these incidents is increasing throughout Japan. When we examine the crisis management of the institutions and schools concerned after these incidents occur,we cannot but have many questions about the importance of "education of mind" teaching and the institutions' attitudes toward children. Based on field research in the development of crisis management by educational authorities and in schools,this paper analyzes and ponders the problem. As a result,several educational challenges have become clear. Such incidents require each individual teacher,each school and each authority to establish rigid crisis management systems independent of personal views. However,this resarch has made it clear that none of the above parties sees the situation from the "children's standpoint" at all. Consequently,in the educational field,they forcefully implement their own policies based on subjective ideas while failing to pay any attention to children's actual conditions,to theories of childhood growth,or theories of emotional development. They fall back on the excuse of following a manual and implementing management and review processes. Consequently,the schools and authorities have become indifferent to the emotions of each individual child,and are interested in a practical approach,putting exclusive emphasis on the teachers' "ability to instruct" and "ability to manage." Despite the "KoKoroneKKo" movement into which they poured all their energies,a basic relationship of trust with full confidence is rarely established between children and teachers. In a sense,we have to admit that this is an inevitable result. What is education? We have to go back to basics. Those who are supposed to educate children have an ambiguous understanding of the meaning of "education of the mind" and "education for life", and they do not understand what these expressions really mean. Consequently,it is in fact adults who require education. In addition,this paper points out and addresses problems concerned with fundamental research questions and urgent challenges with respect to the Internet and children's development.
著者
田澤 実
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.71-97, 2008-03

Based on the findings of Tazawa (2003, 2004), several desirable ways of deciding on a course are suggested. These include (1) expansion, (2) severance, (3) focusing, (4) single, and (5) reproduction. First, an index of ideas on how decide on a course was constructed, its relationship to other characteristics was examined, and its validity was confirmed. Then, using this index, the desirable methods of deciding on a course for university students were identified. In Study 1, the relationship between ego-identity and the index was examined. In Study 2, the relationship between career indecision, vocational indecision and the index was examined. And in Study 3, the relationship between attitudes towards career and the index was examined. In Study 4, desirable methods of deciding on a course were analyzed using free descriptions. Further more,grade-differences in desirable methods of deciding on a course were examined. Results indicated that the index of desirable methods had adequate validity. Moreover, they showed that students who thought a single type was desirable were not in an appropriate condition for making a reliable decision. The importance of considerating plural courses at least once in the decision process is emphasized.
著者
佐藤 厚
出版者
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部
雑誌
法政大学キャリアデザイン学部紀要 (ISSN:13493043)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.139-180, 2009-03

The purpose of this paper is to show how one's career anchor plays an important role in both an engineer's career formation and work consciousness in an organization. We can consider "self-confident technical fields" as those which E. Shein called "career anchors." We conducted a questionnaire survey to analyze the process of how engineers acquire "self-confident technical fields," focusing on the early career stage just after entering the company until promotion to the managerial class. The informants used consisted of 3657 engineers from 63 large electronics companies. The important things that our research found out in terms of a company's HRM policy and engineers career orientation are as follows. The first thing we should point out is trends in the firms' human resource management system (HRM) reform. Nearly 90% of large electronic companies in Japan have introduced "performance oriented HRM" in order to motivate employees and maintain mutual consent in employment relations. Furthermore, many companies are committed to "inculcating the employees with companies policy," "fitting employees behavior to corporate strategy," and "maintaining long term human resource development" in future. Therefore, the second point we should make is that we must pay attention to the process in which engineers, as an important human resource, gain self-confident in a technical field. The result of our research clearly shows that engineers who gained self-confident in a technical field, in other words, engineers who have a career anchor, tend to get a higher job related competence, and their job performance is much better than engineers who do not have such a career anchor. Many engineers got their career anchor when they were in their early 30s. What this means is that, early career management including the first posting just after recruitment is very important in HRM. On the other hand, it is important to note that a career anchor has significance for an engineer's career formation, but, unfortunately, not all engineers get one, because about one-third of engineers at the union level answered that they do not have a "self-confident technical field." It goes without saying that it is a big problem for HRM policy to hold engineers who have no career anchor. Last, our research revealed that there are some critical gaps between the companies, HRM policies in future and the engineers, consciousness at the workplace level. About 70% or more of all engineers answered, "We do not have a suitable human resource development leader," and "Our bosses are too busy to coach us," and "We are too busy to train." These research findings suggest a gap when we remember that HRM policy in the future stressed human resource development.