著者
水野 誠
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.113-118, 2017-06-30 (Released:2018-06-30)
参考文献数
37

Continuous use of sunscreen products prevents not only sunburn or suntan, but also signs of photo-aging such as wrinkles or pigmentation spots. In the U.S., sunscreen products are categorized as over-the-counter drugs. If certain conditions are fulfilled, statements on the preventive efficacies against skin cancer and early skin aging are allowed on the package insert. The EU commission also stated “sunscreen products can prevent the damage linked to photo-ageing.” Application of sunscreens is strongly recommended for the prevention of photo-aging or skin cancer in these countries. However, statements on the preventive effects of sunscreen cosmetics against photo-aging or skin cancer are not approved in Japan because their efficacies in Japanese people are unclear because of the lack of reliable data. This article reviews the studies that demonstrated the preventive effects of continuous application of sunscreens on photo-aging, and also describes our three-year study on sunscreen application for Japanese elderly subjects, which is probably the first long-term, interventional, clinical study conducted in Japanese people. The results of our clinical study showed that continuous application of the appropriate amount of sunscreen prevents photo-aging signs such as a change in skin color tone uniformity, similar to that seen in Caucasians. Our study investigating the relationship between efficacy and the amount of sunscreen applied, in order to examine the appropriate use of sunscreens to achieve a sufficient effect, is also introduced here.
著者
藤井 まき子
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.109-113, 2015-06-30 (Released:2016-07-22)
参考文献数
16

The skin permeation can explain with Fick's diffusion model. Skin concentration depends on partition coefficient between skin and vehicle and concentration in vehicle. However it is changed with various factors, activity of ingredient in vehicle, effect of other ingredients on skin, the change of formulation after application and so on. Thus, if the same concentration of active ingredient is in the formulation, the skin concentration or skin absorption is not always the same. It is important to know the skin penetration and permeation of cosmetic ingredient for the assessment of not only toxicity but also efficacy.
著者
高野 勝弘
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.17-22, 2015-03-31 (Released:2016-05-11)
参考文献数
22

There are various types of side effects caused by cosmetics; mostly they are believed to be not serious. Further, there are not a few cases at present that it is difficult to identify which ingredients in cosmetic products caused; even it was certainly caused by cosmetics which had been used. It herewith refers the actual cases which were implemented some measures by MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan) under the jurisdiction of Pharmaceutical Affairs Law or JCIA (Japan Cosmetic Industry Association) as a representative of cosmetic industries, taking into account the cases must be caused by cosmetics (including quasi-drugs such as medicated cosmetics). It also covers the background and history of cosmetic regulation under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in considering the safety of cosmetics.
著者
松永 佳世子
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.103-108, 2015-06-30 (Released:2016-07-22)
参考文献数
21

Recently we have experienced two outbreaks of health hazard from cosmetics that were voluntary recalled. One is an outbreak of immediate wheat allergy due to epicutaneous sensitization to a hydrolyzed wheat protein, contained in a facial soap. A total of 2,111 patients have been registered. Most of the patients are females, and half of them had anaphylaxis after eating wheat. The other is an outbreak of Rhododenol-induced leukoderma, and more than 19,000 patients were reported. Rhododenol is a quasi-drug ingredient for lightening cosmetics, and is a phenol compound. The Patch Test Material Research Committee of the Japanese Society for Dermaoallergology and Contact Dermatitis was set up in 2007, and has been performing two nation-wide studies. One of them is an epidemiological study on allergic contact dermatitis, which was done first as the paper-based case-registration questionnaire study started in 2010. Cosmetics were the most responsible products of allergic contact dermatitis, 67% of all, and the common causative items were hair dyes, skin lotions, and shampoos. The cases from the facial soap containing the hydrolyzed wheat protein and cosmetics for lightening skin including Rhododenol were reported in our study. We have made ‘Skin Safety Case Information Network of Cosmetics and Other Products: SSCI-Net.' The aim of this network is to get real-time information of skin health hazards from cosmetics and decrease the risk and hazard as soon as possible by the industry–academic–government information network.
著者
田中 浩
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.39-43, 2019-03-31 (Released:2020-03-31)
参考文献数
28

In Japan, there are values that prefer the state where the skin is white and has no spots or dullness. Therefore, spots and freckles are becoming one of the skin troubles for many consumers. The term “skin whitening” is used as a term referring to skin care for skin troubles such as spots and freckles. Products used for skin whitening purposes, so-called whitening products, generally refer to quasi-drugs containing skin whitening active ingredients. Various mechanisms of action for skin whitening have been elucidated so far, and various skin whitening active ingredients have been developed accordingly. In this article, the functional mechanism of skin whitening active ingredients blended in skin whitening quasi-drugs and the effects on human skin were outlined.
著者
大谷 道輝
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.96-102, 2014-06-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
17

There are many cases where patients use ointments inappropriately. One of the reasons is that there are only few studies about ointments. Even medical package insert of ointments does not give specific instructions about usage and dosage. For moisturizers, the number of times to apply to the skin is one to a few times, but not clearly specified. There has not been many studies done on the relationship between the number of times applied to the skin and the efficacy of the moisturizers. In the past, ointments were applied after bathing. However, recent studies have shown that there is no significant difference between applying just after bathing and after few hours. There are many cases where ointments are used together with other ointments. In these cases, ointments are often mixed together. However, there are only a few studies done on the permeability of ointments which are mixed. Overglazing is also very popular, but there has been no study done on the order of application and permeability. For these reasons, further study will be needed to properly use ointments.
著者
林 伸和
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.12-19, 2016-03-31 (Released:2017-05-12)
参考文献数
55

Acne is a chronic skin condition that affects patient quality-of-life. More than 90% of the Japanese population experiences acne at some point in their lifetime. Comedones, which are caused by excess sebum secretion and hyperkeratosis in the infundibulum, appear in the first stage of acne. The second stage involves inflammatory eruptions mainly caused by Propionibacterium acnes. Benzyl-peroxide (BPO), and fixed combination products of BPO and clindamycin, became available in Japan in 2015. BPO acts on both comedones and inflammatory eruptions, and it can be used for maintenance therapy because it does not induce antibiotic-resistant P. acnes. To achieve early results and to prevent the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the revised guidelines for the treatments of acne in Japan recommend combination therapy with adapalene, antibiotics, and BPO, including fixed-combination topical agents, in the acute inflammatory phase. Once inflammation has improved, comedones treatment should be continued with adapalene and/or BPO in the maintenance phase to achieve further improvement and to prevent recurrence. The acute phase lasts approximately 3 months, and antibiotics should not be used for maintenance therapy. Sometimes, inflammatory eruptions can result in hypertrophic and atrophic scars that cannot be treated completely. Early aggressive treatment is important to prevent scars. Skin care and cosmetics are also important in the treatment of acne as well as to avoid aggravation. The guidelines recommend twice-daily face washing with a suitable cleanser. Non-comedogenic moisturizers should be used by patients who have dry skin and by those who need to avoid the adverse effects of adapalene and BPO. There is no reliable evidence connecting certain foods and acne, and we should not uniformly restrict specific foods. There is compelling evidence demonstrating the efficacy of azelaic acid and chemical peels with glycolic acids in the treatment of acne. Camouflage also helps acne patients improve their quality of life. To improve acne treatments, more evidence is needed regarding the integration of treatments and skin care.
著者
井澤 美苗 信野 明美 西村 友宏 登美 斉俊 中島 恵美
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.3, pp.197-200, 2013-09-30 (Released:2014-10-29)
参考文献数
9

Recent clinical research utilizing noninvasive functional measurement techniques has indicated that placebo effects might be therapeutically useful, because clear responses to placebo administration have been observed in patients' brains. Both physiological and mental states are affected by placebo and a role of brain receptor(s) was suggested. Factors influencing the placebo effect are the Pavlov reaction, expectation, cognition, and conditioning. Further, the nocebo effect is a negative reaction caused by anxiety, which acts as a confounding factor. Different outcomes may be obtained depending upon whether the placebo effect is evaluated in terms of objective or subjective responses. Correlation analyses of outcomes from various clinical trials indicate that placebo improves subjective response more effectively than objective parameters. Psychosocial care of patients is an important aspect of welfare, and a better understanding of the mechanism of the placebo effect will be helpful in this regard. Cognitive therapy is well known to be as efficacious as antidepressant medication for treating depression. Therefore, we studied the relationship between activity in the cerebral prefrontal area and counseling intervention. Aromatherapy is known to be effective to improve mood. We thus evaluated the influence of counseling on the efficacy of aromatherapy in healthy young women. Participants in a room filled with the fragrance of bergamot completed both a self-reported questionnaire (motivation, feeling of drowsiness and general fatigue) and multi-dimensional fatigue inventory-20 (MFI-20). Further, as an objective measure of changes in stress, blood flow in the inferior frontal cortex was evaluated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). MFI-20 showed that the combination of aromatherapy with counseling significantly improved both brain activity and motivation, as compared to aromatherapy alone, though the self-reported questionnaire showed no significant difference. Regional blood flow in the inferior frontal cortex was significantly decreased by exposure to aromatherapy with counseling, compared to aromatherapy alone (p<0.05). The value of the NIRS-derived laterality index (LI), which is considered to be a measure of stress, was decreased by aromatherapy with counseling. Thus, we confirmed that the combination of aromatherapy with counseling intervention significantly improved mood and stress. Our results also demonstrated that counseling intervention increased the effectiveness of aromatherapy.
著者
矢上 晶子
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.104-108, 2018-06-30 (Released:2019-06-30)
参考文献数
14

Many Japanese individuals develop gray hair with age, and thus hair dye products are useful for aesthetics and everyday life. However, there has been an increase in the number of cases of contact dermatitis following the use of hair dye. Allergic contact dermatitis has been observed in many patients and some cases develop contact urticaria as an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to hair dye. It is therefore important for individuals to perform an initial strand and allergy test before using a product, and to visit a medical institution immediately if skin symptoms are seen following the use of hair dye. In my presentation, I described the actual symptoms of skin disorders induced by using hair care products, the allergens related to hair dye use, and the efforts of administrative bodies such as the Japan Hair Color Industry Association and the Skin Safety Case Information Network (SSCI-Net) website.
著者
小池 都 村上 泉子 丹野 修
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.81-89, 2013-06-30 (Released:2014-07-16)
参考文献数
27

We determined skin properties and morphological characteristics in the neck and décolleté in 90 Japanese women aged 22–76 years old, then analyzed age-related changes and differences in those areas as compared to skin of the face. Our results showed that skin in the décolleté had higher water content, as well as lower TEWL and sebum levels as compared to the cheek, with the same tendency seen in the neck, e.g., the sebum-water balance in the skin of the neck and décolleté areas was greatly different from that in the skin of the cheek. Furthermore, in subjects aged 40 years and older, sebum levels and skin color lightness were significantly decreased in the neck and décolleté areas, while wrinkle morphology was also markedly different, suggesting that these areas showed marked alterations in women in their 40s, which may be attributed to the effects of ultraviolet (UV) to change skin elasticity and color. The shape of the neck and lower jaw area was also markedly changed in subjects aged 60 years older, indicating that subcutaneous tissue might exert varying age-dependent effects on lower jaw morphology.
著者
萩野 亮
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.119-127, 2019-06-30 (Released:2020-06-30)
参考文献数
25

Makeup cosmetics have been used in ancient times for the purpose of religious acts or expression of user’s authorities. The meaning of makeup changes with the times, and nowadays it is mainly used for the expression of personal beauty and tidy appearance. The main function of the makeup products are visual effects such as hiding of skin troubles, modifying the skin color and texture, and making users look more attractive with color and brilliance. In addition, recent makeup products also offer protective function such as moisturization or UV protection. Furthermore, research about the psychological effects by using makeup products is also in progress such as gaining confidence, satisfaction and sociality. There are various makeup products with different application area, and their usage method and required finishing state differ depending on each product. Therefore, in order to use makeup products safely and effectively, it is important to understand the composition of each product and usage method including the package and the applicator. In this article, I explain the formulation composition and several essential raw materials of each makeup product, and outline the molding technology and usage.
著者
南野 美紀
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.109-124, 2018-06-30 (Released:2019-06-30)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
2

Cosmetics that are used daily to keep our skin healthy and to make it look attractive, are available in many types where ingredients comprising them vary depending on the formulation in which they are contained. The infant stage of modern Japanese cosmetic history just after the Meiji Restoration (1868) saw many novel products appearing on the market one after another due to demands and changes in consumer perceptions, new findings in dermatology and the birth of new ingredients and development of formulation technologies, where up until then, only limited items e.g., facial cleansers and skin lotions for skincare and face powders, rouge and eyebrow pencils for makeup were commercially available. The myriad of cosmetic formulations available today are the fruits of the technology development history to meet consumer demands. With the recent advent of consumers demanding both efficacy and safety concurrently, cosmetic research and development too has entered a new era, and changes are envisaged in marketing strategies as well. Hence, to safely make full use of the products that flood the market today, their proper usage should be understood and executed correctly. This article will attempt to outline the types and usage of skincare cosmetic products that flourish the market through tracing the history of cosmetic technologies and marketing strategies.
著者
伊藤 隆司
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.199-208, 2019-09-30 (Released:2020-09-30)
参考文献数
24

Hair care products include shampoo, conditioner, treatment, hairstyling product, perm agent, coloring agent, and hair growing agent. The products other than shampoo and hair growing agent are used for scalp hair shaft, which is a dead part. Therefore, unlike skin care products, it is characteristic for hair care products that some of them act with a chemical reaction, like permanent wave lotions and oxidation hair dyes. In this article, I explain hair care products except in-bath products (shampoo, conditioner, and treatment) with a focus on their functions, product types, purposes, ingredients, and usages. Hairstyling can be performed by rearranging hydrogen bonds in hair. In other cases, hairstyles are made by fixing hair fibers with fixative ingredients. Hairstyling products assisting hairstyling or fixing hairstyles include hair sprays, hair water or lotions, hair foams, hair creams or milks, gels, liquids, tonics, oils, waxes, etc. The characteristics of their forms and components are explained. Perm agent is intended to change hair shape permanently by cleavage and recombination of disulfide bonds in the hair. In addition to the perm agent of quasi-drug from the past, there has been extending recently curling agents of the cosmetic category, of which curling mechanism is based on the reduction and oxidation of disulfide bonds, same as quasi-drugs. As for hair coloring agent, there are also quasi-drugs and cosmetic products. In the quasi-drug category, there are oxidation hair dyes and bleaching agents. There are semi-permanent hair color and temporary hair color in cosmetic products. Their coloring mechanisms and including components are described. As for hair growing agents, many effective ingredients have been proposed in accordance with the mechanism of thinning hair. I explain briefly products in the categories of medicine and quasi-drug.
著者
藤原 信太郎 牛木 勝
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.173-176, 2015-09-30 (Released:2017-01-17)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
1

Conspicuous pores on face causes great concern to women across age boundaries because skin smoothness is one of the crucial beauty markers. Eye-catching pores are mainly distributed on the cheek and have dilated orifice, but cheek-specific changes leading to pore dilation have not been found, although some previous reports suggested that pore dilation is evoked by clogged sebum or the change in internal structure of the skin around pores. Focusing on the relationship between skin morphology and porous skin, many researchers examined the effect of the changes in shape of crista and sulcus cutis and isotropy of the surface morphology on the holistic impression of the pore size, but existing ideas have not provided sufficient understanding of the formation of porous skin. In this study, we hypothesized that rough skin texture adjacent to facial pore may contribute the impression of pore dilation, since few previous reports focused on the change in the shape of the radical triangle of the skin texture around each pore associated with skin dryness whereas it is localized at the center of sulcus cutis. We compared skin condition and texture figure around pores of the cheek to those of the forehead and eye area, and found that cheek-specific skin dehydration and many sulculus around the pore centers which might be evoked by the skin dryness and skin moves. Detailed observation of the inner surface of facial pores leads to the new finding. These findings suggested that the increased sulculus by skin dryness and skin moves contribute to the vision of porous skin via pore dilation and the addition of a dark shadow to the pore.

2 0 0 0 OA 信頼の心理学

著者
中谷内 一也
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.4, pp.244-249, 2014-12-31 (Released:2016-01-22)
参考文献数
4

Conventionally, in social psychology research, “perceived competence” that is rooted in a specialized technique and knowledge, and “perceived motivation” that is rooted in the attitude to carry out one's duty have been targeted, as important factors for earning trust. Today, attention is being drawn to the salient value similarity (SVS) model whose viewpoint differs from that of these two factors. In the SVS model, trust is assumed not only to be dependent on characteristics of the trusted party but also to be determined by the commonality of both the trusting and trusted parties, in particular, by sharing salient values. That is to say that the SVS model insists that “we can trust in and entrust something to a person who has the same viewpoint and shares similar feelings.” Studies related to trust in recent years have clarified that all of the perception of competence, motivation, and value sharing are significant defining factors of trust. In addition, it is reported that the weight of trust in value-sharing perception increases and the weight of competence perception decreases relatively, in the event that the problem someone faces is important to the individual, in the event that there exists an argument in the society concerning the pros and cons of the problem, and in the event that trust in the risk management organization subject to assessment is reduced.
著者
富永 真琴
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.4, pp.296-302, 2012-12-31 (Released:2013-12-20)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
1

Sensing temperature is essential for organismal survival and efficient metabolism, and now we know that TRP (transient receptor potential) channels are important for detecting ambient temperatures in many species. TRP channels were first described in Drosophila in 1989, and in mammals, TRP channels comprise six related protein families (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPML, TRPP). One subunit of the TRP channel is composed of six transmembrane domains and a putative pore region with both amino and carboxyl termini on the cytosolic side. TRP channels are best recognized for their contributions to sensory transduction, responding to temperature, nociceptive stimuli, touch, osmolarity, pheromones and other stimuli from both within and outside the cell. Among the huge TRP super family of ion channels, some have been proven to be involved in thermosensation detecting ambient temperatures from cold to hot. There are now nine thermosensitive TRP channels (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM8 and TRPA1) with distinct temperature thresholds for their activation. Thermosensitive TRP channels work as ‘multimodal receptors’ which respond to various chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV1, the first identified thermosensitive TRP channel, was found as a receptor for capsaicin in 1997, and later was found to have thermosensitivity. I would like to describe the physiological significance of the thermosensitive TRP channels.
著者
大谷 道輝
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.96-102, 2014

There are many cases where patients use ointments inappropriately. One of the reasons is that there are only few studies about ointments. Even medical package insert of ointments does not give specific instructions about usage and dosage. For moisturizers, the number of times to apply to the skin is one to a few times, but not clearly specified. There has not been many studies done on the relationship between the number of times applied to the skin and the efficacy of the moisturizers. In the past, ointments were applied after bathing. However, recent studies have shown that there is no significant difference between applying just after bathing and after few hours. There are many cases where ointments are used together with other ointments. In these cases, ointments are often mixed together. However, there are only a few studies done on the permeability of ointments which are mixed. Overglazing is also very popular, but there has been no study done on the order of application and permeability. For these reasons, further study will be needed to properly use ointments.
著者
篠原 一之 西谷 正太
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.4, pp.303-309, 2012-12-31 (Released:2013-12-20)
参考文献数
72

Whether pheromone signaling exists in humans is still a matter of intense discussion. In this review, the likelihood of pheromonal communication in humans is assessed with a discussion of the vomeronasal system is functional in humans; and the possible ways pheromones operate in humans. Although the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a putative pheromone receptor organ, has been implicated in the reception of pheromones in many vertebrates, it is not the only pathway through which such information has access to the central nervous system. In fact, the main olfactory system also detects pheromones. In addition, an important caveat for humans is that critical components typically found within the functioning vomeronasal system of other, nonprimate, mammals are lacking, suggesting that the human vomeronasal system does not function in the way that has been described for other mammals. Therefore, linking detection of pheromones with the vomeronasal system as pheromones is a non sequitur. Thus, in the years since the introduction of pheromones, the extensiveness of the concept has expanded. In a broader perspective, pheromones can be classified as primers, signalers, modulators, and releasers. Examples include affects on the menstrual cycle (primer effects); olfactory recognition of newborn by its mother (signaler effects); individuals may exude different odors based on mood (suggestive of modulator effects); breast crawl of newborn (releaser effects).
著者
平野 奈緒美 石田 賢哉
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.209-222, 2019-09-30 (Released:2020-09-30)
参考文献数
23

It is well known that fragrances influence our senses. Fragrances used in cosmetic products are no exception. Not only masking the odor of the product base, they give various impressions such as freshness, comfortableness and newness, and provide higher added value to products. In this report, we describe the fragrance development with a focus on raw materials, functional materials, and creation by perfumers. In addition, it is necessary to understand the regulations and environment issues related to fragrances and cosmetics.
著者
佐藤 隆
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.8-11, 2016-03-31 (Released:2017-05-12)
参考文献数
30

Sebum production and secretion in sebaceous glands play important roles in the formation of a thin lipid layer as a physiological barrier on the skin's surface. The secretion of sebum is considered to be controlled in concert with the regulation of sebum production, in which insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, and eicosanoids are involved under physiological and pathological conditions. In addition, environmental stimuli such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and temperature change have been reported to influence sebum secretion as well as its production. Furthermore, the abnormalities of sebum production and secretion are likely to disrupt the skin barrier functions and to cause sebaceous gland disorders such as acne, seborrhea, and xerosis. On the other hand, the regulation of sebum secretion has been generally defined to be due to a holocrine mechanism, which may contain apoptosis of sebaceous gland cells (sebocytes). In contrast, the apoptosis-independent sebum secretion by polymethoxy flavonoids and UVB has been reported in differentiated hamster sebocytes. Therefore, in addition to sebocyte-specific lipogenetic mechanisms, another unique sebum secretion pathway distinct from the holocrine mechanism is likely to exist in sebaceous glands.