著者
高倉 耕一
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.3, pp.145-152, 2009-07-30 (Released:2009-08-07)
参考文献数
17

Recently, there have been fears that an influenza pandemic is approaching in the near future and the importance of preventing infection has often been discussed. The possibility of controlling the evolution of virulence has however received less attention. In the present paper, I first introduce the evolutionary ecology of infectious disease virulence based on the existing theoretical work and then explain three possible selection pressures that favor very serious virulence and suggest promising methods to reduce the effect of each. Most of these methods are consistent with methods to prevent the spread of infection, while one also emphasizes the importance of international cooperation in the elimination of poverty and conflict. I suggest thus that evolutionary ecological thinking has the potential to provide a new point of view in the control of infectious diseases.
著者
中村 美咲 西川 和男
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.4, pp.239-246, 2009-10-30 (Released:2009-11-10)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
2

We have developed a discharge plasma air-cleaning technology known as PlasmaCluster IonR (PCI), which generates both positive and negative ions in the air. The present study was designed to determine the mechanism of the ions' effect on bacteria. We confirmed that PCI destroys the surface of airborne and attached bacteria. The present paper reports the principle of PCI and the results of examination of its bactericidal effect. We also show how the device produces cluster ions from a specially designed discharge electrode and investigate what types of ion are detected in mass-spectroscopy analysis.
著者
久保 英幸
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.3, pp.219-228, 2010-07-30 (Released:2010-08-10)
参考文献数
31

The occurrence of human-human infection with the new influenza A(H1N1) virus (AH1pdm) was reported for the first time in the United States in late April 2009. Sequentially, pandemic AH1pdm was reported worldwide. Laboratory examinations to detect AH1pdm genes in the specimens of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) were performed with real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR at my institute in Osaka City. The first case of AH1pdm genes detection in an ILI patient specimen occurred on April 30, 2009. The number of ILI patient specimens examined increased in May 2009, and 37-120 specimens per month were examined from May to December 2009. In Osaka City, the pandemic of AH1pdm began in July 2009 and the pandemic peak was observed in November 2009. Thereafter, the number of ILI patients with AH1pdm infection decreased gradually and the pandemic of AH1pdm was close to exhausted in March 2010. As it is not possible to estimate the pandemic pattern of AH1pdm in the future, strict surveillance for AH1pdm must be performed with other seasonal influenza viruses.
著者
三浦 克之 菊川 友子 中尾 隆文 東海 秀吉 泉 康雄 藤井 比佐子 北條 泰輔
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.59-64, 2011-03-10 (Released:2011-03-18)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1

In order to assess the safety of electronic cigarettes, 32 smokers who consume more than 20 tobacco cigarettes daily were enrolled in the present study. The cartridge of an electronic cigarette contains 0.25 g of glycerin aqueous solution. Each participant was asked to consume one filter cartridge per day (more than 150 puffs per day) for 4 weeks. Following the treatment, no abnormal changes in blood pressure, hematological data, or blood chemistry and no severe adverse events were observed. Although a trace amount of acrolein was detected in the vapor collected from a single filter cartridge, it was less than the minimum amount in the mainstream smoke from a single tobacco cigarette. During the use of the electronic cigarette, the daily consumption of tobacco cigarettes decreased significantly. This electronic cigarette containing glycerin aqueous solution may be a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.
著者
石井 営次 乾 美智子 高橋 美帆 塚本 晶子 林 茂美 三浦 和美
出版者
(社)大阪生活衛生協会
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.5, pp.228-232, 1991-09-10 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
1

Bacterial contamination in tableware sponge polishers for kitchen use was examined and means for sterilization were sought. Among 36 polishers including 4 for use at places of business, a colony forming unit for each polisher measured by standard plate count, exceeded 109 in 21 polishers, and 108 in 32 polishers, of which a number of coliforms in MPN was more than 106 in each polisher. Although no Salmonella could be detected, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus were found in 9 and 15 polishers, respectively. Polishers treated with boiling water every day and which dried easily showed a low number of bacterium, from 102 to 103. Bacterial contaminated polishers were sterilized by boiling water for more than 30 seconds every day, but not by chemicals or disinfectant. Salmonella, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli were found capable of growing in polishers at 25°C.
著者
久保 英幸
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.5, pp.381-386, 2006 (Released:2006-10-19)
参考文献数
12

There are many human infectious diseases derived from pathogenic viruses. In line with the infectious disease surveillance systems of Osaka City, the staff of our institute′s department of microbiology seek to isolate and identify human pathogenic viruses from patient specimens using a number of routine methods. In the present review, I describe methods of pathogenic virus identification using the standard virus neutralization test and the latest methods using virus genome gene analysis, together with Japanese law on infectious disease.
著者
濱田 信夫 藤田 忠雄
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.51-61, 2001-03-30 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
2
著者
安川 章
出版者
社団法人 大阪生活衛生協会
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.6, pp.348-351, 1984-11-10 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
17
著者
濱田 信夫
出版者
(社)大阪生活衛生協会
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.89-96, 1999-05-30 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
18

Fungal and yeasty contamination in bathrooms was studied using the swabbing method. The average number of fungi was larger on the ceiling and upper parts of the wall than that of the floor and lower parts of the wall. In the upper parts of the bathroom, Cladosporium was the predominant fungi in both summer and winter, followed by Exophiala, Aureobasidium, Phoma and Acremonium. In the lower parts of the bathroom, Exophiala was predominant, and represented around 80% of all fungi. Rhodotorula was the predominant yeast in all parts of the bathroom. Cladosporium, more than Exophiala, Rhodotorula and others, seemed to affect the dirtiness of bathrooms. Additionally, the growth rate of each type of fungus on the walls of the bathroom were compared after cleaning. It was observed that the number of fungi after 2 months was less than half that of pre-cleaning.Ventilation was effective in reducing fungal and yeasty contamination. The effects of moisture on fungal contamination was more remarkable in the upper parts of the bathroom than in the lower parts, including the floor. The effects of cleaning were distinctly recognized on the floor, because the frequency of cleaning the floor is much higher than that of the upper parts of the bathroom.