著者
高倉 耕一
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.3, pp.145-152, 2009-07-30 (Released:2009-08-07)
参考文献数
17

Recently, there have been fears that an influenza pandemic is approaching in the near future and the importance of preventing infection has often been discussed. The possibility of controlling the evolution of virulence has however received less attention. In the present paper, I first introduce the evolutionary ecology of infectious disease virulence based on the existing theoretical work and then explain three possible selection pressures that favor very serious virulence and suggest promising methods to reduce the effect of each. Most of these methods are consistent with methods to prevent the spread of infection, while one also emphasizes the importance of international cooperation in the elimination of poverty and conflict. I suggest thus that evolutionary ecological thinking has the potential to provide a new point of view in the control of infectious diseases.
著者
中村 美咲 西川 和男
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.4, pp.239-246, 2009-10-30 (Released:2009-11-10)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
2

We have developed a discharge plasma air-cleaning technology known as PlasmaCluster IonR (PCI), which generates both positive and negative ions in the air. The present study was designed to determine the mechanism of the ions' effect on bacteria. We confirmed that PCI destroys the surface of airborne and attached bacteria. The present paper reports the principle of PCI and the results of examination of its bactericidal effect. We also show how the device produces cluster ions from a specially designed discharge electrode and investigate what types of ion are detected in mass-spectroscopy analysis.
著者
久保 英幸
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.3, pp.219-228, 2010-07-30 (Released:2010-08-10)
参考文献数
31

The occurrence of human-human infection with the new influenza A(H1N1) virus (AH1pdm) was reported for the first time in the United States in late April 2009. Sequentially, pandemic AH1pdm was reported worldwide. Laboratory examinations to detect AH1pdm genes in the specimens of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) were performed with real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR at my institute in Osaka City. The first case of AH1pdm genes detection in an ILI patient specimen occurred on April 30, 2009. The number of ILI patient specimens examined increased in May 2009, and 37-120 specimens per month were examined from May to December 2009. In Osaka City, the pandemic of AH1pdm began in July 2009 and the pandemic peak was observed in November 2009. Thereafter, the number of ILI patients with AH1pdm infection decreased gradually and the pandemic of AH1pdm was close to exhausted in March 2010. As it is not possible to estimate the pandemic pattern of AH1pdm in the future, strict surveillance for AH1pdm must be performed with other seasonal influenza viruses.
著者
三浦 克之 菊川 友子 中尾 隆文 東海 秀吉 泉 康雄 藤井 比佐子 北條 泰輔
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.59-64, 2011-03-10 (Released:2011-03-18)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1

In order to assess the safety of electronic cigarettes, 32 smokers who consume more than 20 tobacco cigarettes daily were enrolled in the present study. The cartridge of an electronic cigarette contains 0.25 g of glycerin aqueous solution. Each participant was asked to consume one filter cartridge per day (more than 150 puffs per day) for 4 weeks. Following the treatment, no abnormal changes in blood pressure, hematological data, or blood chemistry and no severe adverse events were observed. Although a trace amount of acrolein was detected in the vapor collected from a single filter cartridge, it was less than the minimum amount in the mainstream smoke from a single tobacco cigarette. During the use of the electronic cigarette, the daily consumption of tobacco cigarettes decreased significantly. This electronic cigarette containing glycerin aqueous solution may be a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.
著者
久保 英幸
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.5, pp.381-386, 2006 (Released:2006-10-19)
参考文献数
12

There are many human infectious diseases derived from pathogenic viruses. In line with the infectious disease surveillance systems of Osaka City, the staff of our institute′s department of microbiology seek to isolate and identify human pathogenic viruses from patient specimens using a number of routine methods. In the present review, I describe methods of pathogenic virus identification using the standard virus neutralization test and the latest methods using virus genome gene analysis, together with Japanese law on infectious disease.
著者
濱田 信夫 藤田 忠雄
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.51-61, 2001-03-30 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
2
著者
濱田 信夫 藤田 忠雄 中村 正樹
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.85-90, 2002-05-30 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
2

The sterilizing effects of laundry detergent and oxygen and chlorine bleach on fungal spores were examined. Bleach did not appreciably kill spores of common fungi such as Penicillium and Cladosporium species in water at 25°C, but, increase in water temperature accelerated the sterilizing effect of bleach. Hot water, higher than 30°C, with bleach was effective for killing fungal spores.Bleach is more effective than detergent for washing cloth samples contaminated with the species of Cladosporium used in 25°C water, although fungal spores are not effectively killed. Fungal mycelia are more sensitive to bleach than their spores, so mycelia on fabric are bleached more easily than their spores.
著者
増田 淳二 森脇 洋 福山 丈二
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.92-96, 2004 (Released:2005-01-27)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
1

The deodorizing effects of tea leaves and used tea leaves were evaluated. Absorption capacities of sencha (Japanese green tea), hojicha (Japanese roasted tea), oolong tea and black tea for hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, toluene and ammonia were determined. These tea leaves were found to absorb small amounts of toluene and negligible amounts hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan, but were very effective in absorbing. No correlation was found between the catechin concentrations of the tea leaves and their absorption capacities.
著者
川越 昌子 川井 信子 亀井 正治 中沢 るみ
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.5, pp.183-186, 1998-09-30 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1 5

The content of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, carotene, thiamin, riboflavin and ascorbic acid was determined in samples of fresh and cooked broccoli. The cooking methods were boiling (conventional methods), waterless cooking (steaming in pot with little water), and microwave heating.In boiled broccoli, potassium and zinc retention were less than 50%. Carotene retention was over 98%. Ascorbic acid retention was 44%.In the waterless and the microwave cooked broccoli, retention was over 87% for each mineral. Carotene retention was over 98%. Ascorbic acid retention was over 84%.Mineral and water soluble vitamin retention by waterless cooking were higher than by boilng.
著者
濱田 信夫 森 義明
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.3, pp.139-144, 2003-05-30 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

Change of fungal and bacterial counts inoculated to towel and subjected to treatment by clothes dryer or natural sun-drying was examined. No significant difference was found in sterilizing effect on fungi and bacteria by drying of towel in the sun or in the shade. Sterilizing effect on C. cladosporioides and P. digitatum was higher in towel sun-dried in summer than in winter, and in towel dried by clothes dryer at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures. E. coli as well as T. rubrum seems to be killed with loss of moisture in towel regardless of temperature at which towel is dried.
著者
芳住 邦雄
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.4, pp.182-186, 1988-07-10 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
11

The filtration of respirable particles by an absorbent gauze, one of the most popular mask materials, was examined from the standpoint of its hygienic validity. The ambient particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.1μm was collected by rearranging the Andersen sampler stages. It was found that the collection efficiency of 10 layers of absorbent gauge was only 15% with respect to those res pirable particles. It is concluded that the effectiveness of an absorbent gauge mask is not sufficient because 85% of respirable particles in the ambient air will brake through it.
著者
板野 一臣
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.57-65, 2007 (Released:2007-04-07)
参考文献数
63
被引用文献数
2

Mercury is present in the environment in elemental, inorganic and organic (methylated) forms. As methylmercury bioaccumulates up the marine food chain, large predatory species such as tuna, shark and swordfish have high concentrations of methylmercury in their tissue. Almost all of the mercury in marine fish is methylmercury. As small cetaceans such as toothed whale and dolphin are long-lived and occupy the top of the marine food chain, they contain more mercury in their tissue than large predatory fish. Small cetaceans demethylate methylmercury into inorganic mercury and store it in the liver as mercury selenide. Marine seafood is one of the major sources of mercury in the human food chain.The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for methylmercury of 3.3 μg/kg-body weight for the general population was established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1972. In 1973, the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare set the provisional permitted levels of total mercury and methylmercury in marine food at 0.4 and 0.3 μg/wet-g, respectively. These levels were based on the PTWI of JECFA. In 2003, from the outcomes of two cohort studies in the Faroe Islands and Seychelles Islands regarding the effect of fetal methylmercury exposure on children’s development, JECFA set the PTWI of methylmercury at 1.6 μg/kg-body weight for pregnant women. In 2005, the Japanese Food Safety Commission announced a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for methylmercury of 2.0 μg/kg-body weight for women who are or may be pregnant. The Japanese average daily intake of mercury from foods is about 60% of the TWI.
著者
木村 美恵子
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.7-13, 1999-01-30 (Released:2010-10-28)
参考文献数
74
被引用文献数
1
著者
小西 良子
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.285-297, 2010-10-30 (Released:2010-11-10)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi which present a hazard to humans and animals. Recently, a risk assessment of the main mycotoxins has been initiated by international committees through which an international standard in the form of a maximum residue level has been established as part of the Codex Alimentarius. In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and the Food Safety Committee carry out surveillance, reduction and risk assessment of mycotoxins. The present article reviews recent information from mycotoxin studies relating to food contamination and worldwide regulation.
著者
中村 寛海 西川 禎一
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.4, pp.175-184, 2006 (Released:2006-08-08)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
2

Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of foodborne listeriosis in humans. Japan has an average of 83 cases of listeriosis per year and an estimated incidence of 0.65 cases per million residents, which is lower than the values reported in some European countries and the United States. Nevertheless, the level of contamination in retail food products in Japan is roughly equivalent to that reported in these countries, where large outbreaks have occurred. Japan might therefore face a similar risk of foodborne listeriosis outbreaks. Ready-to-eat seafood (such as cold-smoked fish) has been linked to sporadic cases of listeriosis. In Japan, a wide range of ready-to-eat seafood products are consumed in great quantities. We investigated L. monocytogenes contamination in commercially available ready-to-eat seafood products during 1999 and 2000. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 13% (12 of 95) of the tested products. All the positive samples were cold-smoked fish products. Molecular typing of the isolates suggested that the products were contaminated with persistent strains that were unique to their respective manufacturers. We investigated manufacturing plant A to trace L. monocytogenes isolates to the source of contamination. As the result of this, a combined analysis of the seasonal prevalence of this bacterium and molecular typing of the isolates in the plant suggested that the product contamination was associated with the slicing machines. Implementation of an effective washing and cleaning regime for the slicing machines resulted in a marked decrease in the incidence of L. monocytogenes contamination of the finished products.
著者
若林 一郎
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.34-45, 2011-03-10 (Released:2011-03-18)
参考文献数
52

Light-to-moderate alcohol drinking reduces the risk of atherosclerotic diseases such as coronary heart disease, ischemic-type stroke, and peripheral artery disease through the anti-atherosclerotic and anti-thrombotic effects of alcohol. These beneficial effects of alcohol are explained mainly by its blood lipid-improving actions, such as HDL cholesterol-increasing and LDL cholesterol-decreasing actions, and by its blood coagulation-suppressing actions, such as platelet aggregation-inhibiting, blood fibrinogen-decreasing, and plasminogen activator-increasing actions. These biological actions of alcohol are thought to be independent of the type of beverage and to be due to ethanol itself. On the other hand, excessive drinking and binge drinking increase the risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic-type stroke, arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy. The guidelines of the international and Japanese societies of hypertension recommend that alcohol intake should be restricted to less than two drinks (24 g ethanol) per day in men and one drink (12 g ethanol) per day in women. Alcohol drinking should never be recommended for promotion of health in those who are currently nondrinkers since there is no way of predicting the future likelihood of excessive drinking and addiction. Moreover, individual background factors such as age, gender, body weight, history of smoking, history of hypertension therapy, and polymorphism of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes should be taken into account when considering alcohol intake volume suitable for each individual. The etiology of alcohol-induced hypertension and cardiomyopathy remains to be clarified. Future studies are also needed to determine whether light-to-moderate alcohol drinking is permissible in persons with atherosclerotic disease and in persons with risk factors for atherosclerosis.
著者
瓦家 千代子 大柴 恵一 来住 輝彦
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.83-88, 1989-03-10 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
11

The variation of vitamin C and bacterium contents during the cooking and storage of chopped cabbage were studied by both hand and machine cooking under various conditions.The results are as follows.1) The water contents wear the same and had the constant value (93.9-95.5%) on each method.2) The loss of vitamin C was affected little by cooking and storing, the loss being about 25%. However, the ratio of vitamin C retention declined significantly (p<0.001) in cooking by hand and stocking in water.3) The number of bacterium and E. coli. increased to twice the reference during the cooking, while no increase was recognized in the storing.These results explain that chopped cabbage has little loss of vitamin C in cooking and storage, bacterium pollution is ignored for stock during one day in a cold storage.
著者
細谷 圭助
出版者
Osaka Urban Living and Health Association
雑誌
生活衛生 (ISSN:05824176)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.70-75, 1990-03-10 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
10

市販魚類中のビタミンA含量の冷蔵・冷凍貯蔵中の変化を調べるために, ハマチとサバを試料とし, その変化の原因についても検討した。1. ハマチを4℃及び8℃で冷蔵貯蔵したとき, 血合肉及び普通肉中のレチノール含量は, 貯蔵期間が長くなるほど残存率は低下し, 10日後では冷蔵4℃のとき残存率が, それぞれ42.7及び49.0%であった。サバの場合も同様に減少し, 12日後では冷蔵温度4℃のとき血合肉及び普通肉の残存率は, それぞれ70.4及び52.0%であり, ハマチよりも高く, しかも冷蔵温度の影響が明らかであった。2. 冷凍貯蔵中のハマチのレチノール含量は, 貯蔵期間とともに減少し, 貯蔵温度が-18℃で30日後の血合肉及び普通肉中の残存率は, それぞれ15.6及び19.0%であった。サバの同条件下での血合肉及び普通肉中の残存率は, それぞれ38.5及び21.0%となり, ハマチとは異なり冷凍温度差が残存率にも影響した。3. サバを塩蔵し, 4℃で貯蔵したとき, 11日後のレチノールの残存率は, 62.1%であり, 冷蔵のみの残存率に比べわずかに高くなり, 18日後でも腐敗の兆候はみられなかった。4. ハマチの冷蔵 (4℃) 及び冷凍 (-18℃) 貯蔵中のTBA値は, いずれの場合も期間が長くなるに従い上昇した。冷蔵の場合は, 早期に急速に上昇し, 血合肉の方が普通肉より高い値であった。TBA値の上昇時期と魚肉中のレチノールの減少時期がほぼ一致していることから, 過酸化脂質の増加がレチノールの減少の原因の1つになっている可能性が示された。