著者
葛城 浩一
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.115-130, 2012

This paper examined the factors affecting the success of instructors at low-prestige universities in balancing their teaching and research responsibilities, and found the following. First, almost half of the instructors reported experiencing difficulty in striking a balance between teaching and research, with over twenty percent of them reporting considerable difficulty. However, it was not only the teachers at the low-prestige universities who reported such difficulties. Second, instructors reporting those difficulties tended to be younger, have less time for research, identify a substantive gap between their educational activities and research topics, and teach a greater percentage of classes at the bachelor level. Third, the multiple linear regression analysis found that the situation was affected by whether the teachers were oriented more to teaching or to research. For the research-oriented teachers, the opportunity to secure time for research during the semester is absolutely critical to whether they feel that they can balance teaching and research. The findings of this paper suggest that for research-oriented teachers at low-prestige universities, the inability to secure time for research is a key obstacle to balancing teaching and research.
著者
橋本 鉱市
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.65-80, 2015

This article presents content analysis of university advertisements placed in the exam-study magazine "Keisetsu-Jidai". It traces the manner in which university advertisements were placed; how publicity activities were conducted; how they were transformed during the 40 years following World War II and finally considers university identity (UI). The texts of all advertisements were analyzed using the quantitative text analysis software (KH Coder).Findings were as follows.1) Contents of the texts of university advertisements could be broadly classified into the following categories : 1) about history and the tradition of the foundation of a university, 2) advantages for the applicants to admission and graduation of the university (system of admitting students into colleges upon the recommendations of high school presidents; a student loan system; qualification and eligibility requirements for an examination after graduation; and the teacher-training course of a teaching certificate for junior high schools or high schools); 3) department, subject constitution and training courses curriculum; 4) technology and technical knowledge based on engineering; 5) the human being formation in the university, research of the professors and institution, experiment facilities; 6) student dormitory; and 7) graduate employment.2) During the forty post-war years, the theme about applicants such as 2) and 7) had decreased. The theme about university image or identity such as 1) and 5) had also decreased.3) On the other hand, the modern themes such as about globalization, technology and information had increased. In addition, the theme of human development had increased.4) In the 1980s, the theme of the advertisement became ambiguous.Further research should focus on more variety of media to analyze the trend after the 1990's.
著者
藤村 正司
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
no.52, pp.1-17, 2020-03

The purpose of this paper is to explore the question: Why do academic professionals and universities surrender their individual and institutional autonomy? This paper looks at the case of National University Corporations (NUCs) in Japan. It traces how they have progressively surrendered their institutional autonomy and acquiesced to the demands of government through the lens of sociological institutionalization and new institutional economics (principal-agent theory). The main findings of the analysis are as follows.Firstly, this paper identifies a principal-agent relationship not only between government and national universities, but also within NUCs. In national universities, president and boards are principals and faculties are their agents. This nested structure of PA relationships is characteristic of NUCs. In this context, the erosion of individual autonomy emerged under reforms to the school education act, which prescribes the function of faculty meetings, constraining its role in academic affairs and educational matters such as admissions and graduation.Secondly, this paper also examines responses to coercive isomorphism in NUCs. The national government, as principal, is identified as a force for coercive isomorphism. Using its role as the provider of contracts, it exerts pressures to conform to the recommendations of University Council and Cabinet Office, and engenders a focus on economic growth and efficiency of management through mid-term plans. As a result of such coerced isomorphism, the mid-term plans of 86 National Universities are virtually identical despite the variable strengths and institutional missions of each national university.Thirdly, the National University Corporation Law as a form of discipline defines only general outlines of university structure and governance. Many finer points such as financial burdens are left to the operational discretion of government. As a result of the incomplete nature of these contracts, the Ministry of Education's status as funder encourages NUCs to exercise self-discipline and conform to the funder's expectations, which further surrenders individual and institutional autonomy of NUCs to the government.
著者
葛城 浩一
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.161-176, 2015

本研究は,平成25~27年度科学研究費補助金若手研究(B)「大学大衆化時代におけるアカデミック・プロフェッションのあり方に関する研究」(研究代表者:葛城浩一)による研究成果の一部である。
著者
山本 清
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.223-237, 2018-03

The 2017 scandals that the Education Ministry continued to seek new jobs for retiring senior officials, despite its being banned by the National Public Service Law, caused a greater decline of trust in the Ministry. An Investigation team in the ministry found that many bureaucrats moved to private universities after retirement from the ministry through the intermediation of a retired official having close relationships with the ministry's personnel department. The report also made clear that quite a large number of senior officials obtained a director and secretary general of national university corporations through temporary transfer from the ministry. National universities are now legally independent from the Education Ministry and the President has authority of appointing the Director at his or her own discretion. These findings indicate some possibility that the Ministry might influence universities whether public or private through its personnel management. Therefore the contents of the investigation report, the publications on reemployment of retiring senior officials by the Cabinet Office, and the annual reports of national universities were analyzed. As a result, it was determined that the personnel system expanding the recruitment, transfer, promotion, and after-retirement worked as an informal network contributing to make education policy successful and effective other than keeping high loyalty of officials to the ministry. At the same time, it must be said that the system had shortcomings in impartiality and transparency of public policy, especially on subsidies and regulations to universities.
著者
白川 優治
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.35-48, 2017

本研究は,日本学術振興会科学研究費(課題番号15K04346)による研究成果の一部である。
著者
北垣 郁雄
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.145-159, 2018-03

This paper deals with the Ig®noble prize which is sometimes called a parody of the Nobel Prize. This activity has been conducted every year and each year nearly ten outcomes are selected then given the prize. The general reputation for the prize varies widely, from its high value for laughing matters to its low value for the foolish matters.The main objective here is surveying and analyzing the selected outcomes then considering their influence on the researcher development due to the following reason.First, after the inauguration of the Ig®nobel prize in 1991, the activity has continued for more than 25 years. The fact that it has been done for many years shows that the there has been positive assessment for the activity. Anyway the prize could make a crucial discussion on "research" resulting from its given outcomes. Unexpected creativity could have the impact on researcher development especially in the graduate education.Second, the prize could have an impact on the promotion of future technology. A new paradigm of research has been researcher interest in the times that technology outcomes have had an enormous influence on human life. For example, computer has been developed mainly for obtaining practicability of human life; for finding the possibility of computer such as artificial intelligence; or for finding an emotional technology method by making an appropriate human-computer interaction. In the time that divergent technology method has been researched, divergent interest as shown in Ig®noble prize could promote the researcher development through the transdisciplinary approach.
著者
福留 東土
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
no.46, pp.139-169, 2014-09

This article examines the progress of comparative higher education research and reveals related issues that have been previously discussed. In addition, it notes research trends found in the literature as well as papers written during the past decade. In the past ten years, there have been more than one hundred and fifty individual pieces of published literature or research papers introduced at major academic journals. The United States has remained to be the primary target area of research, but Europe and Asia attracted increasing interests of Japanese higher education scholars. Moreover, there have been some studies oriented toward the comparison of multiple countries. Research that covers the present state of education (undergraduate and graduate education, curricula, student learning outcomes, etc.) are the primary themes, while the secondary area of interest is policies and systems together with broad overviews on higher education for each country. However, subject areas and themes vary considerably depending on the academic society. Thus, this article reviews research presented in various academic journals, and outlines their research characteristics. Interest in higher education for each country can only intensify with the advance of globalization. However, since historical investigations have declined, a future issue for scholars is the renewal of interest in historical research. There is also the need to employ a research methodology that thoroughly investigates the realities in the field, i.e., fieldwork, and to formulate theories derived from new discoveries. We have every reason to believe that comparative higher education research will progress, and as specializations advance, we look forward to exchanges with researchers specializing in specific geographic areas and topics. It is hoped that this approach will lead to the emergence of an improved overall picture of this area of research.
著者
三輪 哲 下瀬川 陽
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.193-208, 2016

The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between dropout from higher education and social class origin. It focuses on the following three points; 1) to investigate the pattern of association between class origin and the risk of dropout; 2) to compare the impact of class origin on dropout among several educational transition stages; 3) to examine the trends in the effect of class origin on dropout from higher education.In order to conduct the empirical analysis, large-scale datasets which were merged from various Japanese national representative survey datasets, such as the Social Stratification and Mobility surveys (SSM), Japanese General Social Surveys (JGSS), and Japanese Life-course Panel Surveys (JLPS) are used. The risk of dropout is estimated using binary logit models, rare-event logit models, and transition models.Results show that the risk of dropout from higher education is affected by class origin. Non-manual and agricultural classes are less likely to drop out, while manual and self-employed classes are more likely to drop out from higher education. As for dropout from secondary education, the same pattern of inequality of the risk of dropout among classes is observed. The degree of impact of class origin on dropout is smaller than that on entering into next stage of education. There are no trends in the effects of class origin on dropout. This finding supports Maximum Maintained Inequality (MMI) hypothesis because educational expansion did not affect the pattern of educational inequality including dropping out stage.In conclusion, stable, huge inequality of dropout among social classes is found. Class origin is crucial factor for predicting the risk of dropout from higher education, also a long time ago even now.本研究は,科学研究費・特別推進研究(25000001)および基盤研究C(16K04029),2016年度参加者公募型共同研究(二次分析研究会テーマB)の成果の一部である。
著者
吉田 香奈
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.137-152, 2014

The purpose of this study is to clarify the trends and problems of public college tuition and state student aid policy in Pennsylvania which is known as the highest tuition level in the United States. Access to higher education is an extremely important policy issue. In granting student financial assistance and maintaining low-tuition level, the state government has enlarged the opportunity of higher education for many years. However, many states have shifted high-tuition/high-aid policy recently. They have shifted the cost burden from taxpayers to college students and their families through high percentage tuition increases in the public colleges and universities. Why is the tuition level of public colleges in Pennsylvania the highest in the nation? How do they compensate the rising tuition through student financial aid programs? In pursuing the goal of this study, the author conducted hearings with the Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency and the student aid offices of colleges and universities in Pennsylvania in 2011, 2013 and 2014. The study consists of four sections. The first describes the characteristics of Title IV postsecondary education institutions in Pennsylvania, its average cost of attendance, and the decision making process of tuition setting. The second explains the characteristics of state student aid programs carried by the Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency and it's positioning in the United States. Pennsylvania has had a strong tradition of providing need-based financial aid program to students. But, it has been difficult to raise state appropriations for the need-based student aid program to compensate for the rising tuition. The third examines the difference of net price. Net price is generated by subtracting the grant or scholarship aid from the total cost of attendance. It was found from the data that the highest net price in the lowest income group was the four-year public research university. For low income students, it is likely to be difficult to access and persist their learning in selective public research university due to their burden of cost of attendance. Fourth and lastly the study concludes by summarizing the main points and indicating the implications for Japanese national and public university tuition setting and student financial aid policy.
著者
吉川 政夫 有沢 孝治 川野辺 裕幸 内田 晴久
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
no.43, pp.337-351, 2012-03

The purpose of this study was to develop a structured class evaluation questionnaire to be completed by students at Tokai University. Two thousand and seven hundred students from sixty-two classes answered the new class-evaluation questionnaire. The data of the survey were collected and analyzed and the results of the analysis are as follows.In relation to the items "teaching content and teaching methods", five factors labeled "motivating students", "intelligible teaching", "the passion and concern of the teacher", "the critical goal of the course", and "the appropriate presentation of information", were extracted by factor analysis. Similarly, in the items for "outcomes from the teaching and learning process", one factor labeled "outcomes from the teaching and learning process" was extracted.The findings, which were revealed by multiple regression analysis, were as follows. For the items of "teaching content and teaching methods", the factor of "intelligible teaching", predominantly, and the factor "the passion of the teacher", secondly, contributed to the overall evaluation score. Also, the item "outcomes from the teaching and learning process", affected the overall evaluation score.There were significant differences in the mean scores between those who wrote their names on the questionnaire form and those who did not, in relation to several of the evaluation items. But, including the overall evaluation, significant differences in the mean scores between the two groups were not found in many of the evaluation items. Overall, differences were slightly smaller between those who wrote their names and those who did not.Based on findings outlined above, a structured questionnaire for class evaluation by students was developed.