著者
渡部 芳栄
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.153-168, 2015-03

Public University Corporations (PUCs) are founded by local governments to provide higher education, research, and social services efficiently and effectively. The number of PUCs in Japan has been increased since 2004 when the PUC system was begun, and now there are 65 PUCs in 2014. This article examines a total of ninety eight Mid-Term Plans of PUCs to investigate how local governments calculate Management Expenses Grants (MEG) and how much they intend to actually allocate the grants to PUCs. Comparing ninety eight Mid-Term Plans reveals the difference in the proportion of MEG to revenue by the year when they were incorporated. PUCs incorporated between 2005 and 2006 experience relatively deep cuts of MEG nevertheless the average proportion of MEG in the first Mid-Term Goal period. On the other hand, PUCs incorporated between 2008 and 2010 have a relatively high proportion of MEG in the first Mid-Term Goal period. Whether their founders reduce, maintain or increase MEG in the future should be investigated. Also one finds that one third of corporations adopt a variety of coefficients in the calculation of MEG. The various coefficients have various influences on PUC: coefficient of parts of expense items may have less influence and that of MEG itself probably have more influence. Local governments and PUCs should realize and consider the influence and significance of coefficients.本研究はJSPS科研費 25870082(「教育の質保証時代における公立大学法人運営の研究」(研究代表者 渡部芳栄)), 25285236(「大学経営の基盤となる財務情報の戦略的活用に関する研究」(研究代表者 水田健輔))の助成を受けたものである。
著者
ポスト デイヴィッド スタンバック エイミー ギンズバーグ マーク ハナム エミリー ビーナヴォット アーロン ビョー クリス 福留 東土[監訳] 三代川 典史[翻訳]
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.319-335, 2013-03

英語の"Rank"には二つの意味がある。Shakespeare が『ハムレット』を著して以来,この単語はその第1幕にある,順番を付けられ階級化された序列体系を意味するとともに,第3幕で使われる,「腐敗した」「穢れた」という意味を持つ1)。今日,世界中の大学のテニュア(終身在職権)審査委員会や図書収集担当司書にとって,第1幕での序列体系を示す"Rank"はお馴染みである。だが,第3幕で使われる"Rank"の概念も理解しうるだろう。"Rank"の持つ二つの意味が関連性を保持しているのは,「インパクトファクター(論文の影響力を示す指標)」を学問評価の最適な手法と考え,その普及を促進するトムソン・ロイターのような商業ビジネスのおかげだともいえる。 本稿では,学術出版,大学,研究者の評価にインパクトファクターやランキングが利用されるのは,次の4つの動向に関連していることを論ずる。①官僚主義的権威の特徴である専門知識の(不可逆的な?)正統化,②高等教育の規制と管理を巡る駆引き(新管理主義と研究評価制度に如実に顕れる)③この2つの動向に便乗して商業的学術出版界が行う価格設定や資金調達。この動向は大学図書館の予算を侵食する高額課金に顕れる。④学術誌や編集者に期待されるドラマ的演出の拡大。これは,学術誌や編集者が履歴書製造工場の生産ラインの従業員ではなく,思想を賑やかに楽しく語り合う場のホスト役を自認する場合にもあてはまる動向だ。本稿はこれら4つの動向に言及した後, その動向の中に筆者が編集者の立場で携わる『比較教育学研究(Comparative EducationReview)』(以下『CER』)を位置づける。そして,学術誌が選択し得るオプションを考察する。著作者の履歴書に加えられることを目的とする論文ばかりの学術誌もあるが,それとは異なる,より活気に溢れ関わり合いを深く持つように教育学研究のコミュニティを発展させる方法を提案したい。その上で,インパクトファクターという指標の代替手段,或いはその補完に活用しうる,学術誌のクオリティ(以下「質」)を判断する手段を提案する。学術論文は学術コミュニケーションの副次的成果に過ぎないのだ。我々の主張は,最も根本的な成果としての学術コミュニケーションそのものに,学術誌とその読者が固有の価値を見出し,このコミュニケーションに関与すべきである,ということだ。In English the word "Rank" has a double meaning: a "hierarchical series" and also "rotten" or "filthy." This essay considers the pressure felt by scholars publish in journals that are highly "ranked." We first document evidence for this pressure, then discuss the consequences of impact factors and ranking in higher education. We connect ranking four movements: 1) the rationalization of expertise as a feature of Weberian bureaucratic authority; 2) the politics of higher education regulation and control, as manifest in the new managerialism and associated research assessment exercises; 3) the pricing and finance of commercial scholarly publishing, which takes advantage of the preceding developments by charging high prices to maximize profits; 4) decisions by editors and their journals to play by the new rules even when they are personally opposed to them and when they value journals for a different purpose. After touching on these four movements, we discuss the journal that we edit (Comparative Education Review). We consider the alternatives to ranking, and we suggest ways to promote a more vital and engaged educational research. Specifically, we suggest a means to judge the quality of scholarly journals that could be used as an alternative, or supplement, to the metric of the impact factor alone, by considering articles as the by-products of scholarly communication. We advocate that journals and readers attend to the intrinsic value of that communication as the most fundamental product.
著者
喜多村 和之
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.21-39, 1979-06
著者
葛城 浩一
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.115-130, 2012

This paper examined the factors affecting the success of instructors at low-prestige universities in balancing their teaching and research responsibilities, and found the following. First, almost half of the instructors reported experiencing difficulty in striking a balance between teaching and research, with over twenty percent of them reporting considerable difficulty. However, it was not only the teachers at the low-prestige universities who reported such difficulties. Second, instructors reporting those difficulties tended to be younger, have less time for research, identify a substantive gap between their educational activities and research topics, and teach a greater percentage of classes at the bachelor level. Third, the multiple linear regression analysis found that the situation was affected by whether the teachers were oriented more to teaching or to research. For the research-oriented teachers, the opportunity to secure time for research during the semester is absolutely critical to whether they feel that they can balance teaching and research. The findings of this paper suggest that for research-oriented teachers at low-prestige universities, the inability to secure time for research is a key obstacle to balancing teaching and research.
著者
廣内 大輔
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.255-270, 2012-03

In Europe it has become a common target of the Bologna Process to require students to participate in quality assurance activities, and several organizations have monitored and reported on the degree of attainment achieved by each signatory country. However, these types of reports have focused mainly on external student participation, whereby students engaged in national or international level quality assurance activities outside a campus. Also, the reports tend to emphasize whether or not a country accomplished the criteria, and what is rarely revealed is what methods countries used to implement the internal student participation activities that were linked to external student participation and quality assurance, within an institution.In this paper, attention has been focused on internal student participation, whereby students engaged in various spheres of university governance. Norway was selected as test case because the country has long tradition of student participation and is reported to be one of the most advanced countries in the Bologna Process, as regards student participation in quality assurance.The composition of this paper is as follows: first, the background and a brief history of student participation is presented, including a discussion of the University Act of Norway, which requires student participation in university governance. Next, the University of Oslo (the flagship university in Norway) provides a case study for examining the structure of university-level and faculty-level student participation.Then, the results of a survey, conducted in the University of Oslo in 2009, are presented. In the questionnaire there were eight questions, the first two of which are discussed in this paper: Q1 – 'What kinds of problems exist in the current system of student participation at the University of Oslo?'; Q2 – 'What kind of new measures would you like to see put in place?' The open-ended answers to questions one and two were analyzed using a qualitative data analysis software. The results from answers to Q1 indicated that, in decreasing order: the participation and interest of students was quite low; the system had problems relating to the distribution of information; the system was not well known among the students generally, etc. Also, the answers to Q2 showed the need to: improve the way information was distributed, increase funding, and facilitate communication among members of the university, etc.
著者
大川 一毅 西出 順郎 山下 泰弘
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.319-336, 2012-03

IntroductionIn response to issues such as the declining birthrate, a harsh economy, and universalization, universities have begun to focus on strengthening relationships with their alumni. Alumni form a significant group of university supporters. Today, universities seek cooperation from their alumni in various ways, asking them for their views on educational achievement, involvement in management and operational matters, as well as financial donations and student support. Alumni often greatly contribute to their alma mater by providing such services. However, although the universities are enthusiastic in seeking support, they often do not offer beneficial services to their alumni. This results in the alumni's dissatisfaction with their alma mater.To encourage more alumni involvement, it was conjectured that the "Alumni Services" provided by universities could be more effective. Universities could offer continued support to their alumni, which would in return, motivate the alumni to support their alma mater. For national universities in non-Tokyo areas, "Alumni Services" could become a tool to responsibly ensure that graduates who work locally are competent members of the work force. This might lead to the formation of a network involving universities and their local communities.Based upon this hypothesis, a research project, "A Demonstrative Research on the Significance and Potentials of Alumni Services by Universities in Non-Tokyo Areas", was conducted, which positioned "Alumni Services" as "a system effective in building sustainable, mutually-supporting networks involving universities and their alumni."This is a report on the present state of, and the various issues related to, Alumni Services offered by national universities.1. The Present StateIn March 2010 a questionnaire was sent to all 86 national universities in Japan. Forty-eight responded, all of which indicated that they provided Alumni Services in some form. In addition, about half of the universities that responded commented that they "emphasized the importance of Alumni Services," indicating an increasing awareness of the need for Alumni Services. However, although 75% of the large national universities replied that they "emphasized the importance of Alumni Services," only 31% of the smaller, universities in the non-Tokyo-area did so.From these survey results, it became clear that there was a difference in the awareness and availability of Alumni Services in the large national universities when compared to the national universities in non-Tokyo areas.2. Alumni Services as Described in Medium-Term Goals and Medium-Term PlansNational university corporations frequently included projects for the provision of Alumni Services in their medium-term targets and proposals. Specifically, the most common item was "strengthening the relations with alumni," followed by "donation requests," "building a network with alumni," and "establishing a reunion committee." Large national universities and national universities in large metropolitan areas especially emphasized "strengthening the relations with alumni."Alumni Services were also included as part of the "globalization project" of the universities, with specific items such as "support for international alumni" and "organizing overseas reunions." Some plans included items of direct benefit to alumni, such as "employment support," "career enhancement support," and "lifelong learning opportunities".3. Issues Regarding the Implementation of Alumni ServicesThe implementation of Alumni Services was greatly affected by the environment and circumstances pertaining to each university. Implementation is especially difficult for national universities in non-Tokyo areas. Operational subsidies have been cut and it has become increasingly difficult to secure funding for new projects. In addition, criticisms have been made about the cost-effectiveness of Alumni Services. There is some hesitation about implementing projects that focus only on alumni. Furthermore, many universities have had one or more predecessor institutions, resulting in multiple reunion committees; coordinating these committees is often a vexing issue for these universities. Finally, the handling of personal data was a large issue for all universities.ConclusionToday universities tend to expect a lot of their alumni. However, if universities want their support, beneficial services should be offered in return.It is important to identify what the alumni expects of the universities, and what universities can offer as "sustainable alumni services."
著者
橋本 鉱市
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.65-80, 2015

This article presents content analysis of university advertisements placed in the exam-study magazine "Keisetsu-Jidai". It traces the manner in which university advertisements were placed; how publicity activities were conducted; how they were transformed during the 40 years following World War II and finally considers university identity (UI). The texts of all advertisements were analyzed using the quantitative text analysis software (KH Coder).Findings were as follows.1) Contents of the texts of university advertisements could be broadly classified into the following categories : 1) about history and the tradition of the foundation of a university, 2) advantages for the applicants to admission and graduation of the university (system of admitting students into colleges upon the recommendations of high school presidents; a student loan system; qualification and eligibility requirements for an examination after graduation; and the teacher-training course of a teaching certificate for junior high schools or high schools); 3) department, subject constitution and training courses curriculum; 4) technology and technical knowledge based on engineering; 5) the human being formation in the university, research of the professors and institution, experiment facilities; 6) student dormitory; and 7) graduate employment.2) During the forty post-war years, the theme about applicants such as 2) and 7) had decreased. The theme about university image or identity such as 1) and 5) had also decreased.3) On the other hand, the modern themes such as about globalization, technology and information had increased. In addition, the theme of human development had increased.4) In the 1980s, the theme of the advertisement became ambiguous.Further research should focus on more variety of media to analyze the trend after the 1990's.
著者
白川 優治
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.135-152, 2012-03

This article discusses the development of the characteristics of the national scholarship system in postwar Japan. The Japanese national scholarship system for undergraduate and graduate students has two characteristics : first, the system provides only student loans, not grants; second, repayment is wavered if recipients work in certain occupations after graduation. These characteristics existed until 1965, and this article discusses those that influenced the policy-making process from 1945 to 1965.The Japanese Scholarship Foundation (JSF), the national scholarship organization, was founded 1944. At that time, the JSF promoted the ideal of "ikuei": which meant that at first the scholarship loan system targeted a small number of poor but brilliant students. But after WWII, the ideal and the system changed to "shougaku", which meant many more students were offered scholarships. The two ideals meant there was a difference in the number of scholarships offered and in the amount of money spent on the scheme.From 1945 to 1950, a national council for students' affairs tried to have the national student scholarship system extended. In 1948, a report by the Committee for Student Welfare, proposed the introduction of the scholarship grants system, the temporary loan system, and an increase in both the number of recipients and the value of the scholarships. Some of these proposals were adopted, but did not deliver a grants system. Another proposal from the Council for Student Welfare (this council is a separate to the committee referred to above) was the exemption from the repayment if the scholarship student became a teacher at an elementary or junior high school. This repayment exemption system was introduced in 1950, but the changes did not mean a revision was made to the law. It was not until 1953 that the law relating to the Japanese scholarship foundation was revised, and the repayment exemption system defined more clearly.The Ministry of Finance (MoF) at first welcomed an increase in the number of recipients and in the value of scholarships, but subsequently it changed its position and insisted that the scholarship system be "ikuei" not "shogaku.": i.e., it was not intended for students generally.From the late 1950s to 1965, two characteristics of the national scholarship system were established, and attention is paid to four processes.First, in 1958 the law was revised and the new scholarship system was introduced. It provided special loans to outstanding students. This new system introduced the ideal of "ikuei" and was retained when the law was revised in 1984.Secondly, in early 1960 the law was revised two times to widen exemptions for repayment of the loans. These changes not only targeted students who would become elementary school and junior high school teachers but also high school and kindergarten teachers. There was some argument in the Diet about revising the law and members of the Diet demanded that it be extended to other types of teachers like nursery school teachers etc. But, the Ministry of Education (MoE) insisted that the recipients be restricted to teachers at formal regular schools, such as kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools, and high schools.Thirdly, during this period it was pointed out in the mass media that the repayment rate was very low and this posed a problem for the Diet. Henceforth the MoE and the JSF took measures to ensure that more loans were repaid. The basis for such an argument was that scholarships comprised a "loan" system.Fourthly, in 1961 the MoF rejected a proposal by the MoE that it introduce a new grant system for doctoral graduate students. Because of the repayment exemption this system had the same effect. The Japanese feature of the scholarship system was completed by this process.This article argues that the characteristics of the national scholarship system came about as part of an historic process. But what kind of problems arose in relation to this starship system after the 1960s? This is next problem that needs to be solved.
著者
西村 和雄 平田 純一 八木 匡 浦坂 純子
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.147-162, 2013-03

This paper uses data obtained from 13,059 respondents to an online survey examining disparitiess between initial employment performance (size & scale of company of initial recruitment, manner of employment) and current employment performance (current position, current salary) according to bias in science learning among science graduates and mathematics learning among humanities graduates. The impact of amendments made to the Japanese national curriculum guidelines is also considered. Survey results showed that, among science graduates, those who specialized in physics were recruited as full-time permanent employees of larger companies at a higher rate than graduates from other science disciplines. The proportion of physics graduates currently holding managerial positions was also high, as was their average annual income. For humanities graduates, those who had sat for admission examination(s) in mathematics had been recruited as full-time permanent employees of larger companies at a higher rate than graduates who had taken no admission examination(s) in mathematics. A higher proportion of graduates who had sat for admission examination(s) in mathematics held managerial positions than those who had not, and those who had taken mathematics examination(s) also had higher incomes. These findings agree with the results of previous surveys. An analysis by generation, carried out in order to gauge the impact of amendments to national curriculum guidelines, showed that science graduates who had specialized in physics and humanities graduates who had taken admission examination(s) in mathematics showed the smallest inter-generational disparity in income, suggesting that the impact on such graduates of changing the national curriculum guidelines to reduce coursework has been only minimal.
著者
山崎 博敏
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.1-21, 1982-12

This paper reports that the distribution of productivity of 124 university chemists in Japan shows the best fittness to a negative binomial distribution, and then considers the reasons for and the sociological implications of the results.Since the inverse square law of A. J. Lotka (1926), several mathematical models on the distribution of productivity have been proposed by Williams (1944), Simon (1955), Shockley (1957), Price (1963, 1976), Allison (1976) and Rao (1980) et al. The characteristics of these models were examined in comparative perspective. The negative binominal distribution showed the best fittness to our data among these models. This result proposes the hypotheses — reinforcement in the process of research activity and heterogeneity among each scientist. It is difficult, however, to judge which hypothesis is more appropriate, mainly because both models correlate with each other. Heterogeneity of the ability and the socialization process of each scientist causes an inequality of productivity among them. And this inequality reallocates the productive scientists to research oriented-universities and strengthens their motivation to the further research on the one hand, and weakens the motivation of less productive scientists. This process increases the differences of productivity among scientists.However these difficulties were solved by the two findings in that(i) the distribution of the productivity in the subsample of full professors in graduate schools with doctoral programs (N = 39) shows a good fittness to the negative binomial distribution, and(ii) the coefficient of variation of productivity increases as the age of scientists increases.From these two facts, we can accept the reinforcement hypothesis at least. This implies that the more the scientist publishes, the more the probability to publish later increases, while the less he publishes, the more the probability decreases. This hypothesis has a significant meaning for the theory of sociology of science, because "reinforcement model" describe the Merton's Matthew Effect on the mathematical level. Our result also confirms the empirical validity and international universality of the Mertonian theory of sociology of science.
著者
三輪 哲 下瀬川 陽
出版者
広島大学高等教育研究開発センター
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.193-208, 2016

The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between dropout from higher education and social class origin. It focuses on the following three points; 1) to investigate the pattern of association between class origin and the risk of dropout; 2) to compare the impact of class origin on dropout among several educational transition stages; 3) to examine the trends in the effect of class origin on dropout from higher education.In order to conduct the empirical analysis, large-scale datasets which were merged from various Japanese national representative survey datasets, such as the Social Stratification and Mobility surveys (SSM), Japanese General Social Surveys (JGSS), and Japanese Life-course Panel Surveys (JLPS) are used. The risk of dropout is estimated using binary logit models, rare-event logit models, and transition models.Results show that the risk of dropout from higher education is affected by class origin. Non-manual and agricultural classes are less likely to drop out, while manual and self-employed classes are more likely to drop out from higher education. As for dropout from secondary education, the same pattern of inequality of the risk of dropout among classes is observed. The degree of impact of class origin on dropout is smaller than that on entering into next stage of education. There are no trends in the effects of class origin on dropout. This finding supports Maximum Maintained Inequality (MMI) hypothesis because educational expansion did not affect the pattern of educational inequality including dropping out stage.In conclusion, stable, huge inequality of dropout among social classes is found. Class origin is crucial factor for predicting the risk of dropout from higher education, also a long time ago even now.本研究は,科学研究費・特別推進研究(25000001)および基盤研究C(16K04029),2016年度参加者公募型共同研究(二次分析研究会テーマB)の成果の一部である。
著者
石附 実
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.183-200, 1982-12