著者
朴澤 泰男 白川 優治
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.321-340, 2006-05-31

This article explores factors that affect rates of financial aid receipt among private institutions of higher education in Japan, with the aim to understand whether academically well-prepared and needy students are awarded financial aid in those institutions. Using a survey dataset of chief financial officers of Japanese private four-year colleges and universities, an ordered logistic regression analysis of the rates of institutional aid receipt including tuition waivers and a linear multiple regression analysis of the percentage of recipients of Japan Scholarship Foundation (JSF) Scholarship Loans were conducted. The regression results are as follows: (1) the rates of institutional aid receipt are related to the age of the institution and the selectivity of students, but not to regional income levels or tuition amounts. The percentage of aid awardees is also not related to instructional costs. In institutions where many students receive institutional aid, there are a significant number of students who borrow JSF Type I Scholarship Loans (Interest-Free Loans). (2) While the rate of JSF Type I Scholarship Loan recipients is related to the historical background of the institution, selectivity of students, and regional income levels, there is no correlation between JSF Type I Loan recipient rates and tuition. The type of departments and schools in an institution is also not relevant to that figure. (3) While the rate of JSF Type II Scholarship Loan (Interest Bearing Loan) recipients is not related to the historical background of an institution, the selectivity of students, regional income levels, tuition, and instructional costs affect it. The percentage of JSF Type I Scholarship Loan awardees is positively correlated to that of JSF Type II Scholarship Loans.
著者
竹内 比呂也 川本 一彦 白川 優治 國本 千裕 岡本 一志 姉川 雄大 藤本 茂雄
巻号頁・発行日
2012-04-01 (Released:2013-05-31)

大学図書館による学習コンテンツの提供,ラーニングコモンズおよび学習支援サービスの有機的結合によって形成される新しい学習環境が学生の学習行動,情報探索行動にどのように影響を与えるかを明らかにし今後の学習環境整備の方向性を示すことを目的として,千葉大学アカデミック・リンクを対象に学際的なアプローチの下,定量的,定性的調査分析を実施した。その結果,新しい学習環境が学生の多様なニーズを満たしていること,また,間接的ながら,学習成果に影響を与えていることが示唆された。
著者
白川 優治
出版者
広島大学
雑誌
大学論集 (ISSN:03020142)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.135-152, 2012-03

This article discusses the development of the characteristics of the national scholarship system in postwar Japan. The Japanese national scholarship system for undergraduate and graduate students has two characteristics : first, the system provides only student loans, not grants; second, repayment is wavered if recipients work in certain occupations after graduation. These characteristics existed until 1965, and this article discusses those that influenced the policy-making process from 1945 to 1965.The Japanese Scholarship Foundation (JSF), the national scholarship organization, was founded 1944. At that time, the JSF promoted the ideal of "ikuei": which meant that at first the scholarship loan system targeted a small number of poor but brilliant students. But after WWII, the ideal and the system changed to "shougaku", which meant many more students were offered scholarships. The two ideals meant there was a difference in the number of scholarships offered and in the amount of money spent on the scheme.From 1945 to 1950, a national council for students' affairs tried to have the national student scholarship system extended. In 1948, a report by the Committee for Student Welfare, proposed the introduction of the scholarship grants system, the temporary loan system, and an increase in both the number of recipients and the value of the scholarships. Some of these proposals were adopted, but did not deliver a grants system. Another proposal from the Council for Student Welfare (this council is a separate to the committee referred to above) was the exemption from the repayment if the scholarship student became a teacher at an elementary or junior high school. This repayment exemption system was introduced in 1950, but the changes did not mean a revision was made to the law. It was not until 1953 that the law relating to the Japanese scholarship foundation was revised, and the repayment exemption system defined more clearly.The Ministry of Finance (MoF) at first welcomed an increase in the number of recipients and in the value of scholarships, but subsequently it changed its position and insisted that the scholarship system be "ikuei" not "shogaku.": i.e., it was not intended for students generally.From the late 1950s to 1965, two characteristics of the national scholarship system were established, and attention is paid to four processes.First, in 1958 the law was revised and the new scholarship system was introduced. It provided special loans to outstanding students. This new system introduced the ideal of "ikuei" and was retained when the law was revised in 1984.Secondly, in early 1960 the law was revised two times to widen exemptions for repayment of the loans. These changes not only targeted students who would become elementary school and junior high school teachers but also high school and kindergarten teachers. There was some argument in the Diet about revising the law and members of the Diet demanded that it be extended to other types of teachers like nursery school teachers etc. But, the Ministry of Education (MoE) insisted that the recipients be restricted to teachers at formal regular schools, such as kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools, and high schools.Thirdly, during this period it was pointed out in the mass media that the repayment rate was very low and this posed a problem for the Diet. Henceforth the MoE and the JSF took measures to ensure that more loans were repaid. The basis for such an argument was that scholarships comprised a "loan" system.Fourthly, in 1961 the MoF rejected a proposal by the MoE that it introduce a new grant system for doctoral graduate students. Because of the repayment exemption this system had the same effect. The Japanese feature of the scholarship system was completed by this process.This article argues that the characteristics of the national scholarship system came about as part of an historic process. But what kind of problems arose in relation to this starship system after the 1960s? This is next problem that needs to be solved.
著者
朴澤 泰男 白川 優治
出版者
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.321-340, 2006

This article explores factors that affect rates of financial aid receipt among private institutions of higher education in Japan, with the aim to understand whether academically well-prepared and needy students are awarded financial aid in those institutions. Using a survey dataset of chief financial officers of Japanese private four-year colleges and universities, an ordered logistic regression analysis of the rates of institutional aid receipt including tuition waivers and a linear multiple regression analysis of the percentage of recipients of Japan Scholarship Foundation (JSF) Scholarship Loans were conducted. The regression results are as follows:(1) the rates of institutional aid receipt are related to the age of the institution and the selectivity of students, but not to regional income levels or tuition amounts. The percentage of aid awardees is also not related to instructional costs. In institutions where many students receive institutional aid, there are a significant number of students who borrow JSF Type I Scholarship Loans (Interest-Free Loans).(2) While the rate of JSF Type IScholarship Loan recipients is related to the historical background of the institution, selectivity of students, and regional income levels, there is no correlation between JSF Type I Loan recipient rates and tuition. The type of departmentsand schools in an institution is also not relevant to that figure.(3) While the rate of JSF Type II Scholarship Loan (Interest Bearing Loan) recipients is not related to the historical background of an institution, the selectivity of students, regional income levels, tuition, and instructional costs affect it. The percentage of JSF Type I Scholarship Loan awardees is positively correlated to that of JSF Type II Scholarship Loans.
著者
杉谷 祐美子 白川 優治 小島 佐恵子
出版者
青山学院大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2011 (Released:2011-08-05)

本研究は、50%の進学率に達する現代日本の大学・大学生・大学政策へのイメージや社会的期待を明らかにするため、90年代以降の大学・大学生に関する雑誌記事の変遷を分析するとともに、一般市民を対象に大学・大学政策等に関する質問紙調査を行った。その結果、雑誌によって大学の問題点が過度に強調される反面、一般市民は大学の効用を認め、進学への潜在的需要に対応できるよう公的財政支援の増大を望むことを明らかにした。
著者
菊地 栄治 池田 賢市 亀田 温子 栗原 真孝 白川 優治 高田 研 高橋 亜希子 永田 佳之 仁平 典宏 丸山 英樹 宮古 紀宏 椋本 洋 吉田 敦彦 吉本 圭一 和井田 清司 平塚 眞樹
出版者
早稲田大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2012-04-01 (Released:2012-04-24)

本研究を通じて、私たちは現代日本の若者たちが力を奪われている実態について共通認識を得た。とはいえ、具体的な事例の協働的研究を通して、さまざまな難題に直面しつつも多くの若者たちがエンパワーされていく可能性が明らかになった。総じて、〈一元的操作モデル〉にもとづく施策と実践はかれらの力を奪い取りがちである。これに対して、〈多元的生成モデル〉はかれらをエンパワーできる。多くの事例において、かれらを〈若年市民層〉へと育む実践に共通するのは、相互的主体変容を促しているという特徴であった。〈多元的生成モデル〉は、エンパワメントの実践に共通する本質的特徴であり、今後の教育改革のあり方を示唆している。