著者
南 保輔
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
コミュニケーション紀要 (ISSN:02887843)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.1-76, 2008-03

Tetsuko Kuroyanagi has been a hostess of a TV talk show, Tetsuko's Room, for more than thirty years. In order to provide a demonstrative description of Tetsuko's skills as a talk show hostess, a comparison is made between this program and another one broadcast by NHK, Hello from Studio Park. Three shows from the two programs are compared, each pair of shows having the same guest. For each of the three paired shows, the portions dealing with the "same" topic are chosen and transcribed for analysis. When a singer and actor, Tetsuya Takeda, was a guest, he replayed interchanges which mark some moments of his career as an entertainer. While at Hello, Tetsuya replayed these interchanges without prompting from the hosts, however, at Room, Tetsuko made focused attempts to solicit a specific exchange that included the words of encouragement of Tetsuya's wife who worked to keep their spirits high while they were struggling economically. Tetsuko's personal knowledge and memory about the guest seem critical to eliciting this exchange. When a speed skater and Olympic bronze medalist, Tomomi Okazaki, was a guest, the size of her thighs was one of major topics. In both shows, the hostess touched her thigh. While the hostess of Hello just rubbed, Tetsuko slapped Okazaki's thigh twentyeight times. She made slapping sounds that could be heard by the audience so as to show how "good" Okazaki's muscles are. Tetsuko even slapped her own thighs to make a contrast. Although Tetsuko's superior skills usually work well and make the talk interesting and enjoyable, she remained silent while Mami Yamase changed styles of the clothes of her designing from skirts to pants. Pauses of few seconds long were heard while watching Yamase change styles. Because the audience was distracted during the time Yamase was changing styles, the length of the pauses was not as noticeable as it might have been otherwise. Still, the fact that Tetsuko did not talk for that long stood out. Comparisons of the same guests talking about the "same" topics have provided several important findings. First, Tetsuko Kuroyanagi has superior skills of eliciting interesting stories from her guests. Second, however, even Tetsuko is sometimes forced to remain silent while the talk show guest engages in preparatory activities. Third, therefore, "chattiness" should not be attributed to a person but should be considered an attribute of the situation.
著者
木畑 和子
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
成城文藝 (ISSN:02865718)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.195, pp.146-128, 2006-06
著者
長塚 祐季
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
成城国文学 (ISSN:09110941)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.26-35, 2012-03
著者
弘島 礼奈
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
Azur
巻号頁・発行日
no.10, pp.17-34, 2009
著者
池田 浩貴
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
常民文化 (ISSN:03888908)
巻号頁・発行日
no.38, pp.206-181, 2015-03

Now it is becoming the accepted view that the Kamakura shogunate has gradually introduced Onmyodo from Kyoto since Minamoto no Yoritomo ruled as the first shogun, and utilized its divination and ritual methods for the shogunate government based on conventional research. When unusual natural phenomena such as natural disasters, celestial motion, strange behavior of animals, appearances of strange lights or cryptid birds and so on occurred, the Kamakura shogunate followed established procedures to prevent further disasters by holding Onmyodo ceremonies or making offerings to Tsurugaoka Hachimangu depending on the results of divination by Onmyoji about the meaning of the phenomena. Most previous research in this field has focused on Onmyoji or measures taken by shogunate government. In this paper, however, I investigated the abnormal natural phenomena called "kwai-i (strangeness)", which lead the shogunate government to take political procedures, based on Azuma Kagami as a main text. Especially I focused on two strange behaviors of animals, "Kicho-gunhi" (flight of yellow butterflies in groups) and "Sagi-kwai" (specter of herons). Kicho-gunhi occurred mainly at Tsurugaoka Hachimangu and were recorded before or after three wars including the Battle of Oshu (between the Kamakura shogunate and Oshu Fujiwara), Battle of Wada (rebellion of Wada Yoshimori) and Battle of Hoji (rebellion of Miura Yasumura). The articles of Azuma Kagami about Kicho-gunhi seem to include some falsifications. It is doubtful whether all of the Kicho-gunhi cases actually occurred, but even so it is certain that the phenomenon reminded people of occurrence of battles and was regarded as foreboding of battles in the Kamakura period. Sagi-kwai occurred at Shogun Gosho (shogun palace). It was regarded as bad omen and foreboding of Battle of Wada and the famine in the Kanki era. Unlike other kinds of kwai-i, the shogunate government shot herons as a countermeasure against Sagi-kwai without depending on the divination by a Onmyoji.Now it is becoming the accepted view that the Kamakura shogunate has gradually introduced Onmyodo from Kyoto since Minamoto no Yoritomo ruled as the first shogun, and utilized its divination and ritual methods for the shogunate government based on conventional research. When unusual natural phenomena such as natural disasters, celestial motion, strange behavior of animals, appearances of strange lights or cryptid birds and so on occurred, the Kamakura shogunate followed established procedures to prevent further disasters by holding Onmyodo ceremonies or making offerings to Tsurugaoka Hachimangu depending on the results of divination by Onmyoji about the meaning of the phenomena. Most previous research in this field has focused on Onmyoji or measures taken by shogunate government. In this paper, however, I investigated the abnormal natural phenomena called "kwai-i (strangeness)", which lead the shogunate government to take political procedures, based on Azuma Kagami as a main text. Especially I focused on two strange behaviors of animals, "Kicho-gunhi" (flight of yellow butterflies in groups) and "Sagi-kwai" (specter of herons). Kicho-gunhi occurred mainly at Tsurugaoka Hachimangu and were recorded before or after three wars including the Battle of Oshu (between the Kamakura shogunate and Oshu Fujiwara), Battle of Wada (rebellion of Wada Yoshimori) and Battle of Hoji (rebellion of Miura Yasumura). The articles of Azuma Kagami about Kicho-gunhi seem to include some falsifications. It is doubtful whether all of the Kicho-gunhi cases actually occurred, but even so it is certain that the phenomenon reminded people of occurrence of battles and was regarded as foreboding of battles in the Kamakura period. Sagi-kwai occurred at Shogun Gosho (shogun palace). It was regarded as bad omen and foreboding of Battle of Wada and the famine in the Kanki era. Unlike other kinds of kwai-i, the shogunate government shot herons as a countermeasure against Sagi-kwai without depending on the divination by a Onmyoji.
著者
高木 まどか
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
常民文化 = Jomin bunka (ISSN:03888908)
巻号頁・発行日
no.38, pp.180-154, 2015-03

This study examines the discourse that visitors' social position did not make sense in Yoshiwara of Edo, using Yujo hyoban-ki, which is one of the classifications of a story book Kanazoshi, in this paper. In the Edo period, there were some districts of licensed brothels, such as Shinmachi in Osaka, Shimabara in Kyoto, and Yoshiwara in Edo. Previous studies often explained that these brothel districts were places beyond the social order that visitors' social statuses did not make sense. Although there were also some positions contrary to such explanation, the dispute in a scientific meaning has not arisen between different positions. Moreover, each dispute does not show clear basis and is not necessarily an empirical discussion. In this paper, I focus on the difference in positions and the insufficient demonstration in such previous studies. Then, I'll consider why the opinions about the treatment of a visitor's status in brothel districts are divided, and how the visitor's status was in fact treated in brothels. In considering these, I use Yujo hyo-banki, which is one of the classifications of Kanazoshi, as the primary historical sources. Although Yujo hyo-banki is a document which describes the reputation of each prostitute, there are some description of visitors' aspects finely, which observe visitors' actual conditions in brothels. In this paper, I verify how visitors' social positions in brothel districts are treated, by mainly focusing on Yoshiwara from the second half of the 17th century to the middle of the 18th century, when many description about visitors to the brothels are seen in Yujo hyo-banki.
著者
小森 陽一
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
成城国文学 (ISSN:09110941)
巻号頁・発行日
no.1, pp.41-52, 1985-03
著者
小山 由
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
常民文化 = Jomin bunka (ISSN:03888908)
巻号頁・発行日
no.38, pp.1-31, 2015-03

The idea that there is a relationship between personality based on ABO blood type and the nature of each individual has been widely accepted in Japan. This understanding has been scientifically referred to as the blood type stereotype. In my previous paper, I argued that there are deficiencies in the definition and its naming. I renamed the "classification of people based on blood type," and defined it as the idea that classifies all human beings into four groups according to their blood type based on ABO blood typing. ABO blood typing attempts to match the exchange relationships among each ABO blood type with the relationships between each human group using knowledge of blood transfusions. That point needs to be noted first. For the acceptance and sustainment of this concept that people can be classified based on blood type, a number of scientific interpretations have been added primarily by psychologists. In their interpretations, classification based on blood type has been accepted. Although the idea is scientifically incorrect, people continue to believe the idea because it helps to smooth their relationships or it is deceiving their cognition. However, this interpretation has a fundamental error. The purpose of this paper is to point out the error of the traditional interpretation and to present a different interpretation. First, I will show that the traditional classification of people based on blood type is composed of imagery derived from three elements: doctrine, guru and believers. In addition, I describe the assumption that individuals are deceived by the ruses used by scammers who call themselves gurus. Next, I discuss that expressions such as 'believers,' which are frequently used in the conventional interpretation, generated the illusion that the Observer/interpreter can read an individual's inner mind. I show that the expression of the term 'believers' is a scientific problem. If it is understood as above, the context of sustainment and acceptance of the classification based on blood type can be perceived as a characteristic idea that people can easily use and is unforgettable, rather than the idea that people are deceived by the pseudo-scientific illogic of classifying individuals based on blood type. As I have shown in the previous paper, the classification of people based on blood type belongs to an image of the relationships among ABO blood types that can also be applied to people, and the idea of classification based on blood type has no scientific credibility. The conventional interpretation was generated by the stereotype that humans can be easily fooled by pseudo-scientific thinking.
著者
木村 建哉
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
成城美学美術史 (ISSN:13405861)
巻号頁・発行日
no.20, pp.1-18, 2014-03

The Castle of Cagliostro (1979) is the first feature film (long film) by MIYAZAKI Hayao, the most famous Japanese anime director. In this article I will show that this animation film is a typical swashbuckler very much influenced by classical Hollywood ones. For that purpose, I first argue what classical Hollywood swashbucklers are, and briefly explain the history of this genre (or subgenre of adventure movies). Second I clarify typical traits of narratives and ways of directing of classical Hollywood swashbucklers. Then I show not only that The Castle of Cagliostro is a typical swashbuckler but also that it is one of the best swashbucklers in the film history, and I suggest that influences of classical Hollywood movies should be more taken into account in thinking about and analyzing MIYAZAKI's films.
著者
木村 建哉
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
成城美学美術史 (ISSN:13405861)
巻号頁・発行日
no.20, pp.1-18, 2014-03

The Castle of Cagliostro (1979) is the first feature film (long film) by MIYAZAKI Hayao, the most famous Japanese anime director. In this article I will show that this animation film is a typical swashbuckler very much influenced by classical Hollywood ones. For that purpose, I first argue what classical Hollywood swashbucklers are, and briefly explain the history of this genre (or subgenre of adventure movies). Second I clarify typical traits of narratives and ways of directing of classical Hollywood swashbucklers. Then I show not only that The Castle of Cagliostro is a typical swashbuckler but also that it is one of the best swashbucklers in the film history, and I suggest that influences of classical Hollywood movies should be more taken into account in thinking about and analyzing MIYAZAKI's films.The Castle of Cagliostro (1979) is the first feature film (long film) by MIYAZAKI Hayao, the most famous Japanese anime director. In this article I will show that this animation film is a typical swashbuckler very much influenced by classical Hollywood ones. For that purpose, I first argue what classical Hollywood swashbucklers are, and briefly explain the history of this genre (or subgenre of adventure movies). Second I clarify typical traits of narratives and ways of directing of classical Hollywood swashbucklers. Then I show not only that The Castle of Cagliostro is a typical swashbuckler but also that it is one of the best swashbucklers in the film history, and I suggest that influences of classical Hollywood movies should be more taken into account in thinking about and analyzing MIYAZAKI's films.
著者
小山 由
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
常民文化 = Jomin bunka (ISSN:03888908)
巻号頁・発行日
no.37, pp.1-30, 2014-03

The belief that there is a relationship between personality and ABO blood type has been widely accepted among people in Japan. Many researchers have studied this belief. However, the studies have given the wrong names to and definitions of the belief because they have not focused on its inherent theory. This study aims to show the actual theory for the belief while examming limitations in the previous studies. Further, the current study intends to name and appropriately define the belief. This study identifies two misinterpretations in studies by psychologists while reviewing previous studies, and confirms that those fallacies can also be seen in the interpretation of the concept of totemism. Consequently, this study indicates that the belief about blood type is linked to Claude Levi-Strauss' totemistic classification. The totemistic classification refers to the thinking that distinguishes between the human line and the totem line and matches subjects belonging to the totem line with those belonging to the human line. Based on Claude Levi-Strauss' totemistic classification, this study shows that knowledge of blood transfusions is related to the establishment of the belief about blood type, and that the belief links the relationship between each totem of ABO blood type with the relationship between each human group perceiving people as owners of each blood type. Finally, this study defines the belief as follows: by leveraging the knowledge of blood transfusion, the belief classifies all human beings into four groups according to their respective types of blood based on ABO blood typing, and matches the relationship between each ABO blood type based on blood replacement with the relationship between each human group. This study also names the belief: the classification of people based on blood type.
著者
篠塚 勝正 窪田 三喜夫
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
成城文藝 (ISSN:02865718)
巻号頁・発行日
no.221, pp.98-84, 2012-12

Among three distinctive types of Japanese writing systems (Kanji, Hiragana and Katakana), a behavioral experiment using 97 university students as subjects implies that Katakana is regarded as most difficult (approximately 90%) followed by Hiragana (10%) for the comprehension. Kanji is easiest to comprehend (100%). This indicates Kanji might be comprehended by accessing semantic recognition directly. On the other hand, Hiragana and Katakana might be comprehended by accessing semantic recognition through phonological recognition with an obligatory subvocalization. However, the subvocalization could occur depending on the familiarity or difficulty of stimuli. I also conclude that the subvocalization includes shallow to deep ones depending on the three Japanese writing systems. In addition, interpreters and translators should avoid using Katakana words as much as possible in order for both their listeners and readers to ease their cognitive workload for understanding the meanings of the words.