著者
工藤 龍太 志々田 文明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.453-469, 2010 (Released:2010-12-28)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
2

The main purpose of this study was to verify the process of formation and development of the concept of aiki used by Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, and his disciples. The main points can be summarized as follows: 1. The term aiki has been used to refer to particular martial arts techniques and to a spiritual state that can be experienced by practicing Aikido. Morihei taught aiki as a technique, as shown in the memorandum of the Japanese Imperial Navy Admiral Isamu Takeshita around 1930. Kisshomaru Ueshiba, Morihei Ueshiba's son, also introduced these techniques in his book, “Techniques of Aikido” (1962), etc. However, neither Morehei Ueshiba nor his son explained about aiki in detail. Kenji Tomiki and Gozo Shioda used aiki as a term of technique, but they do not seem to have taught techniques under the name of aiki. 2. Onisaburo Deguchi, the head of Omoto-kyo, used the expressions “the union between a kami and a mortal” in 1921 and “the great love of the kami” in 1935, which Morihei later emphasized in relation to aiki. Omoto-kyo heavily influenced the building of Morihei's thoughts on aiki and Aikido. Aiki was likened to the great love of the Universe, Heaven and Earth, or the kami who nurtures all nature and mortals. In short, a) aiki is the union between the kami as love, and mortals, hence the practice of aiki is the purification of mind and body; b) the practice of Aikido creates a paradise for mortals on earth; c) because the kami does not oppose anyone, a practitioner does not oppose in Aikido. Morihei's thought influenced the policy of the succeeding organization of Aikido through Kisshomaru. 3. Morihei's four main pupils inherited his thoughts through several arrangements. Shioda explained aiki as “a technique for following the laws of nature”. Tohei insisted that aiki is “the union between the ki in heaven and earth and a mortal”. Sunadomari interpreted aiki as a combative technique and a divine work. Tomiki understood the term in two ways: one is a technique that falls into the category of kuzushi (balance-breaking), and the other is the unity of ki (energy) between nature and man. As to the way that Aikido should develop in the future, we need to study further Morihei's thoughts and their development under his pupils.
著者
志々田 文明
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.3, pp.1-12, 2002-03-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
30

The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual conditions of the equestrian education introduced as extracurricular activities and part of the physical exercises, a requirement at Kenkoku University (1938-1945) in Manchukuo. The results can be summarized as folows:1. Equitation training, which was caled as kido, as part of the physical exercise program began in August,1938 it was the year when the university was established. Kido was conducted by Shiratori, an officer in Manchukuo, or Matsuoka, a jokyo-rank instructor. Students were divided into year-groups, and about ten training sessions were held during the first three years to help students have cultural experience in Manchukuo. There might have been a hundred and several dozen horses prepared for the classes.2. Hisaya Ogura, the first-term student at the university, established the equestrian club and led members with his own philosophies until he graduated in 1943. According to Moriguchi Kenji, the second-term student, there were ten to 25 students. Almost all of them were Japanese. Most of them seemed to have joined the club to learn a new skill, which was easier than Japanese martial arts although some members like Ogura tried to take on equestrian very seriously. The activities were not always hard, and the emphasis was on individual student's autonomy just in the same way as in other clubs.3. The word kido during that period had the meaning of attaining the state of selflessness through practice in addition to the mastery of horse riding'skill. In other words, kido was almost like a Japanese budo. Ogura suggested that members learn a spiritual discipline like Zen Buddhism. But at the same time he encouraged his students to join the club as part of the dormitory life, because it was the place for students from five different races to live together in harmony. Ogura's movement was significant even from a universal point of view in that he tried to prepare his students to serve purposes in society, instead of just teaching them horseback riding as a sport to let off steam.
著者
志々田 文明
出版者
[出版者不明]
巻号頁・発行日
2003

制度:新 ; 文部省報告番号:乙1810号 ; 学位の種類:博士(人間科学) ; 授与年月日:2003-07-16 ; 早大学位記番号:新3622
著者
志々田 文明
出版者
早稲田大学
雑誌
早稲田大学人間科学研究 (ISSN:09160396)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.161-171, 1990-03-25

This study has two aims. One is to clarify the process by which Japanese colleges have established departments of Budo; in the other words, how Budo Science came into existence. In particular, I studied two preeminent schools, the Nippon College of Physical Education and the Tokyo University of Education. The second aim is to clarify questions about Budo Theory, which is the foundation of Budo Science. Budo Science is an Interdisciplinary Study. There is some discussion in the Interdisciplinary Sciences about how subdisciplines should be integrated, and about the question of what the foundation of an Interdisciplinary Science is. Budo Theory has a natural role as the foundation of an Interdisciplinary Science, but this is not yet recognized because there has not been enough research in the area of Budo Science. So we can not yet say that it is truly an Interdisciplinary Science. For the present we must work to establish the foundation of Budo Science. That task will be accomplished by the History of Science and Philosophy, which are both main elements of Budo Science. Budo Theory as such a science must study the following questions: I. The scope of Budo Theory A. Before Meiji Era 1. History and philosophy of martial arts techniques 2. History of Budo weapons and armor 3. History of the Budo mind B. After Meiji Era 1. History of Budo in the educational system and the police force 2. History of Budo organizations II. Philosophical viewpoints A. Culture B. Human-movement C. Education D. Relationship between traditional and modern values Concerning A, B and C, comparative research between Japanese Budo and foreign martial arts and among individual Budos will be important as a methodology after we have sufficiently studied Budo itself. We must examine the relationship between traditional and modern values in the context of Budo.
著者
工藤 龍太 志々田 文明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1006250159, (Released:2010-06-30)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
2

The main purpose of this study was to verify the process of formation and development of the concept of aiki used by Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, and his disciples. The main points can be summarized as follows: 1. The term aiki has been used to refer to particular martial arts techniques and to a spiritual state that can be experienced by practicing Aikido. Morihei taught aiki as a technique, as shown in the memorandum of the Japanese Imperial Navy Admiral Isamu Takeshita around 1930. Kisshomaru Ueshiba, Morihei Ueshiba's son, also introduced these techniques in his book, “Techniques of Aikido” (1962), etc. However, neither Morehei Ueshiba nor his son explained about aiki in detail. Kenji Tomiki and Gozo Shioda used aiki as a term of technique, but they do not seem to have taught techniques under the name of aiki. 2. Onisaburo Deguchi, the head of Omoto-kyo, used the expressions “the union between a kami and a mortal” in 1921 and “the great love of the kami” in 1935, which Morihei later emphasized in relation to aiki. Omoto-kyo heavily influenced the building of Morihei's thoughts on aiki and Aikido. Aiki was likened to the great love of the Universe, Heaven and Earth, or the kami who nurtures all nature and mortals. In short, a) aiki is the union between the kami as love, and mortals, hence the practice of aiki is the purification of mind and body; b) the practice of Aikido creates a paradise for mortals on earth; c) because the kami does not oppose anyone, a practitioner does not oppose in Aikido. Morihei's thought influenced the policy of the succeeding organization of Aikido through Kisshomaru. 3. Morihei's four main pupils inherited his thoughts through several arrangements. Shioda explained aiki as “a technique for following the laws of nature”. Tohei insisted that aiki is “the union between the ki in heaven and earth and a mortal”. Sunadomari interpreted aiki as a combative technique and a divine work. Tomiki understood the term in two ways: one is a technique that falls into the category of kuzushi (balance-breaking), and the other is the unity of ki (energy) between nature and man. As to the way that Aikido should develop in the future, we need to study further Morihei's thoughts and their development under his pupils.
著者
志々田 文明
出版者
早稲田大学
雑誌
早稲田大学人間科学研究 (ISSN:09160396)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.129-141, 1994-03-25

Seizaburo Fukushima (1890-1950), a famous judo instructor, became involved in political activity after he met Kanji Ishihara, who was said to be the best strategist in the Japanese army. The author devised five questions to investigate why he changed and researched them using documents and firsthand accounts. Briefly, the results were as follows: 1. Fukushima was born in Kumamoto Prefecture. In 1920, after graduating from the bujutsu instructors' school he became a professor of the college of budo managed by the Dainihon Butokukai. He then became an influential budo instructor in the Kansai area and also a budo adviser at Kenkoku University in Manchukuo. 2. He was a man who practiced judo actively since his youth and was devoted to helping young people. He was impartial with his students, even with a Korean student who practiced karate, despite the racial discrimination of that era. 3. In 1936, Fukushima built a 80-mat judo training hall, the Giho-kai, where he taught students. At that time, he was an active supporter of a political movement known as the East Asia Union, under the guidance of Ishihara, despite the military police and ultra-rightists trying to suppress it. 4. He recommended his student Suguru Manda for the position of chief judo instructor at Kenkoku University and as a result had an indirect influence on the students of the judo club through Manda, because Manda sometimes invited them to his home to give them opportunities to listen to Ishihara's ideas. 5. Budo instructors generally tend to be conservative, because they are influenced by the traditional budo practice system in which great importance is attached to obedience to seniors. However, Fukushima and his friend Tatsukuma Ushijima, one of the strongest judo players of his era, became critical of their own lives and society after meeting Ishihara. Cases such as these tell us that if we attach importance to budo education in modern education, it is necessary that we try to foster a critical spirit in it, because traditionally it tends to lead to a passive acceptance of the status quo.
著者
志々田 文明
出版者
早稲田大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2008

竹下勇日記及び「乾」の巻解読によって以下の事実が明らかになった。1)植芝盛平が1926、1927年頃において指導した武術名は大東流柔術であった。以後1928年に相生流合気柔術、1929年に合気武術、1933年頃には合気武道へと変遷した。2)1930年頃から柔道、剣道、唐手等の著名な武術家の竹下勇訪問があり、植芝の武術への他武術の影響が示唆された。3)1635手の技術があり66の格闘形態が想定されていた。その七割強が相手に組み付かれた状態、組みつこうとしたときが想定されていた。4)植芝の武術はかなり実戦・実用的なものと理解された。
著者
志々田 文明
出版者
早稲田大学人間科学学術院
雑誌
人間科学研究 = Waseda journal of human sciences (ISSN:09160396)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.第3巻, no.第1号, pp.161-171, 1990