- 武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
- vol.52, no.2, pp.39-55, 2020-03-31 (Released:2020-08-26)
The purpose of this study is to examine the researches on atemi-waza by Kano Jigoro, the founder of judo, and his pupils to clarify the development of the theory of judo as a martial art during the prewar Showa era. The main points are summarized as follows:According to Kano, atemi-waza should be practiced in the shobuho (the martial arts system of judo) kata as part of the judo system. It was a dangerous technique which had the potential to kill or wound an opponent, but as judo is a martial art, it was also an essential technique. Kano created the “Seiryoku-Zenyo-Kokumin-Taiiku” (Maximum- Efficiency National Physical Education) in which there is solo practice that, starting from shizentai (natural posture), teaches atemi-waza that use the hands and feet. Through this kata, Kano’s aim was for practitioners to achieve all of the shobuho, taiikuho (the physical education system of judo) and shushinho (the intellectual and moral system of judo).Seiryoku-Zenyo-Kokumin-Taiiku became a model method for practitioners to learn atemi-waza, and it was a kata method adopted in judo which had become a compulsory subject in school physical education in 1931. Based on this kata, other new atemi-waza kata were devised into which research was carried out regarding their physical education aspects. Concerning its martial art aspects, research was more developed in times of war. Nango Jiro , the second Kodokan president, also studied and trained in atemi-waza and established an in-house atemi-waza research committee at the Kodokan in 1942, and conducted systematic research into it.Tomiki Kenji, who trained in judo and aikijujutsu, conceived judo as a comprehensive combat art that integrated both kendo and judo principles. In the thesis “The systematic study of techniques while maintaining distance in judo” (1942), Tomiki regarded atemi-waza as the opening technique of an attack which could change into a throwing technique or joint-locking technique. Tomiki thought that atemi-waza using the hand blade from hanmi (oblique stance) was important. He transformed Kano’s dangerous atemi-waza into another which was based on the principle of throwing techniques in judo. The purpose of that atemi-waza was to touch and topple the opponent by using the hand blade.Regarding the development of the theory of judo as a martial art, on the assumption that atemi-waza was an essential technique, there were two research directions: the pursuit of killing techniques and the technical uniqueness of judo.