著者
野口 聡一 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-10, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-03-30)
参考文献数
18

The purpose of this study is to investigate how a microgravity environment affects spatial orientation, the cognitive system, and interpersonal relationships, hence changes in gravity reference frames. After leaving the terrestrial globe, astronauts experience drastic perceptual disturbances (temporary loss of the senses of spatial- and self-orientation). However, they gradually learn to adapt to the novel environment by developing new perceptual and behavioral skills. First, we examined video clips of an astronaut’s body movement inside the International Space Station (ISS) by using a motion video analysis technique. We discovered that a microgravity environment definitely affects spatial orientation. Second, we analyzed how social hierarchy organization, metaphorical expression, and psychological stabilization were affected by space adaptation.
著者
三隅 譲二 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.8-18, 1992
被引用文献数
1 2

The purpose of this study was to find a latent structure of an acquaintance network in our world, or, in other words, to estimate the shortest communication channel between the "starter person" and the "target person" in Japanese society. A modified chain-letter technique was used for the experiment. A total of 200 subjects were randomly selected to be the starter persons in Fukuoka. They were asked to select one of their acquaintances to be an intermediary who would be more likely to approach to the target person who lived in Osaka. The same procedure was repeated until an acquaintance chain reached the target person. There were two target persons, X and Y. X worked in a famous company (F-condition), while Y worked in an obscure company (O-condition). Other variables among target persons, such as age, sex, education, place of residence, position in a company were controlled. It was found that a total number of fifty-five chains reached the target persons, with a mean number of steps equaling 7.2. However, the mean number in the F-condition was 5.5, while that in the O-condition was 9.2. Our world is unexpectedly small. In the former condition, people tended to use information regarding a target person's occupation and alma mater as tactics to select an intermediary. In the latter condition, information regarding a target person's place of residence and the breadth of acquaintances of an intermediary was often used for selecting a friend. There was a strong trend for male subjects to select male acquaintances and female subjects to select female acquaintances. The same applies to age and occupation as well, indicating that there are basic acquaintance networks in Japan such as same-sex, same-age, same-occupation networks.
著者
木下 冨雄
出版者
日本行動計量学会
雑誌
行動計量学 (ISSN:03855481)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.29-39, 1979-09-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
23
著者
三隅 譲二 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.8-18, 1992-02-25 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
3

The purpose of this study was to find a latent structure of an acquaintance network in our world, or, in other words, to estimate the shortest communication channel between the "starter person" and the "target person" in Japanese society. A modified chain-letter technique was used for the experiment. A total of 200 subjects were randomly selected to be the starter persons in Fukuoka. They were asked to select one of their acquaintances to be an intermediary who would be more likely to approach to the target person who lived in Osaka. The same procedure was repeated until an acquaintance chain reached the target person. There were two target persons, X and Y. X worked in a famous company (F-condition), while Y worked in an obscure company (O-condition). Other variables among target persons, such as age, sex, education, place of residence, position in a company were controlled. It was found that a total number of fifty-five chains reached the target persons, with a mean number of steps equaling 7.2. However, the mean number in the F-condition was 5.5, while that in the O-condition was 9.2. Our world is unexpectedly small. In the former condition, people tended to use information regarding a target person's occupation and alma mater as tactics to select an intermediary. In the latter condition, information regarding a target person's place of residence and the breadth of acquaintances of an intermediary was often used for selecting a friend. There was a strong trend for male subjects to select male acquaintances and female subjects to select female acquaintances. The same applies to age and occupation as well, indicating that there are basic acquaintance networks in Japan such as same-sex, same-age, same-occupation networks.
著者
木下 冨雄
出版者
THE SOCIETY FOR RISK ANALYSIS, JAPAN
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.3_3-3_24, 2009 (Released:2011-11-01)
参考文献数
113

The forms of risk communication in Japan changed drastically after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. While the pre-Earthquake risk related information was based on the myth of zero-risk, the post-Earthquake risk communication has required a much higher level of fair and open information, which is now the main current of this field. At the same time, other theoretical and practical problems have recently been founded. Those problems include (1)the philosophy and value system underlying risk communication, (2)the causal relation between risk communication and credibility, (3)whether the citizen really want risk information or not, (4) whether citizen's risk perception is emotional or not, (5)the organizational climate as a factor in successful risk communication, (6)misunderstanding of the meaning of precautionary principle, (7)the skill of the risk communicator, (8)the importance of wording and logic in risk communication, (9)how to construct good relations between risk agent and mass media , etc. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the notion of risk communication with the macro view in both time and space, which used to be based on the idea of a one-shot and local solution to future disasters.
著者
小川 浩 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本行動計量学会
雑誌
日本行動計量学会大会発表論文抄録集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, 1991-08-28

心理社会的ストレスは近年,急速にわが国社会で問題にされるようになった.その背景には,最近の社会変容にともなう心理社会的ストレスが,我々の身体的,精神的,社会的適応を阻害して,様々な健康障害を引き起こしている現実があると思われる.したがって,その現実を認識し,心理社会的ストレスに対する対応方法を検討することは,健康増進ならびに予防医学の立場からは重要な課題であるといえる.一方,心理社会的ストレスと健康の問題に関する研究は急速に今後も増え続けるであろう.そこで,本シンポジウムでは,(1)心理社会的ストレスが我々の体内でどのような反応を引き起こすのか,(2)心理社会的ストレスをどのようにして計測するのか,(3)心理社会的ストレスがどのような精神障害を生み出すのか,(4)最近わが国でも検討されるようになったタイプA行動と心臓病の関係に,心理社会的ストレスがどのようなかかわり合いをもつのか,そして(5)心理社会的ストレスにどのように対応したらよいのか,これらの問題提起に応える形で,これまでに精力的に取り組んでこられた演者の先生方より考察をうかがい,会員諸氏に,この方面の問題ならびに研究の現状と重要性を認識していただく.
著者
木下 冨雄
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.2_3-2_22, 2008 (Released:2012-08-22)
参考文献数
90

The forms of risk communication in Japan changed drastically after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. While the pre-Earthquake risk communication was based on the myth of zero-risk, the post-Earthquake risk communication has required a much higher level of fair and open information, which is now the main current of this field. At the same time, other theoretical and practical problems have recently been founded. Those problems include (1)the philosophy and value system underlying risk communication, (2)the causal relation between risk communication and credibility, (3)whether the citizen really wants risk information or not, (4)whether citizen’s risk perception is emotional or not, (5)the organizational climate as a factor in successful risk communication, (6)misunderstanding of the meaning of precautionary principle, (7)the skill of the risk communicator, (8)the importance of wording in risk communication, (9)how to construct good relations between risk agent and mass media , etc. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the notion of risk communication with the macro view (in both time and space), which used to be based on the idea of a one-shot and local solution to future disasters.
著者
木下 冨雄
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.19_3-19_17, 2009 (Released:2012-07-19)
参考文献数
102

The forms of risk communication in Japan changed drastically after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. While the pre-Earthquake risk communication was based on the myth of zero-risk, the post-Earthquake risk communication has required a much higher level of fair and open information, which is now the main current of this field. At the same time, other theoretical and practical problems have recently been founded. Those problems include (1)the philosophy and value system underlying risk communication, (2)the causal relation between risk communication and credibility, (3)whether the citizen really want risk information or not, (4)whether citizen‘s risk perception is emotional or not, (5)the organizational climate as a factor in successful risk communication, (6)misunderstanding of the meaning of precautionary principle, (7)the skill of the risk communicator, (8)the importance of wording in risk communication, (9)how to construct good relations between risk agent and mass media , etc. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the notion of risk communication with the macro view (in both time and space), which used to be based on the idea of a one-shot and local solution to future disasters.
著者
木下 冨雄
出版者
日本行動計量学会
雑誌
行動計量学 (ISSN:03855481)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.5-12, 2016 (Released:2016-09-09)
参考文献数
39

Although the mathematical bases of risk are not entirely derived from the probability theory, the two have a delicate and unique relationship. At the origin of the science of risk, insurance companies flourished in the 17th and 18th centuries, where the calculation of insurance premium was based on probabilistic concepts, especially those developed by Pascal. Distinguished mathematicians such as Huygens, Bernoulli, and Bayes all belonged to this era. The probability theory was often used for risk analysis with relatively simple structures such as chemicals and toxicology, and this tendency is still dominant today. However, as risk targets expanded to include complex and non-linear phenomena such as environmental and social risks, the conventional, simple probability theory proved inadequate. In particular, probabilistic tools cannot be used to assess the complex mechanisms of low-level radiation risk. Moreover, huge earthquakes and nuclear power plant meltdown incidents that have a low frequency of occurrence but devastating repercussions cannot be approached with the probability theory. The appropriate mathematical model for such risks has not yet been developed.
著者
野口 聡一 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-10, 2014-08-18

The purpose of this study is to investigate how a microgravity environment affects spatial orientation, the cognitive system, and interpersonal relationships, hence changes in gravity reference frames. After leaving the terrestrial globe, astronauts experience drastic perceptual disturbances (temporary loss of the senses of spatial- and self-orientation). However, they gradually learn to adapt to the novel environment by developing new erceptual and behavioral skills. First, we examined video clips of an astronaut's body movement inside the International Space Station (ISS) by using a motion video analysis technique. We discovered that a microgravity environment definitely affects spatial orientation. Second, we analyzed how social hierarchy organization, metaphorical expression, and psychological stabilization were affected by space adaptation.
著者
岩坪 秀一 木下 冨雄 四方 義啓 内田 達弘 伊藤 圭
出版者
独立行政法人大学入試センター
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2002

理工系分野の早期教育の真の在り方を探るために、かつてわが国において実施された「飛び級」制度(小学校五年から中学校に進学する「五修」と中学校四年から高等学校に進学する「四修」を導入することによって、普通課程と比較して二年早く教育課程を終了するもの)、及び終戦前後(昭和20年1月〜昭和23年3月)に実施された「特別科学教育」制度(小学校四年から六年、中学校一年から三年までの六学級から理数系の学力に特に秀でた児童・生徒を選抜して英才教育を施したもの。東京高等師範学校、東京女子高等師範学校、広島高等師範学校、金沢高等師範学校、京都帝国大学が中心となって教育に当たった。学級数は実施機関によって異なった。)を取り上げた。これらの教育制度の経験者からの情報収集及び追跡調査から教育の実態を明らかにし、その得失を十分に検討することによって、わが国の理数系早期教育の発展に資することを目的とした。具体的活動としては、経験者から経験談及び資料提供を受けるために11回の研究集会を開催し、さらに面接聴き取り調査を行った。また、中国における早期教育のための教員養成についての講演会を開催した。アンケート調査も計画したが、個人情報に深く関わる内容であるために質問項目について慎重に吟味して実施へと繋げることができた。主要な研究成果の概要は以下の通りである。(1)飛び級については、その経験者の協力を得て、京都府師範学校附属小学校第二教室の教育の実態が明らかになった。また、兵庫県立神戸第一中学校の四修修了者の特徴について統計的な検討を行った。(2)京都府立第一中学校において実施された特別科学教育(京都帝国大学が協力)の経験者諸氏の協力が得られ、従来余り知られていなかった事実が明らかにされた。(3)理数分野の早期教育の実をあげるためには、理数分野と人文社会分野の教育のバランスが必要不可欠であることが明らかになった。理数系分野だけに特化して効率を図ることは、優れた人材養成に繋がらない。(4)早期教育のための教員養成、上級学校との接続の確保、中途からの転向の保障など、制度面での支援が重要であることが明らかになった。