著者
Michiaki KAI
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.169-173, 2014 (Released:2015-02-03)
参考文献数
19

This paper will make an overview on current radiation risk assessment and management, and also discuss current issues after reflection of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011. Historically, the risk-based approach was introduced based on the assumption that radiation risk follows a linear-non-threshold model for cancer and hereditary effects. Since then, radiological protection has developed the principles and the fundamental framework for the risk management. Currently, radiological protection has evolved from a “classical” top-down approach. The talk and collaboration between radiological protection community and risk analysis community like SRA will be needed to build more acceptable and feasible management and regulation for radiation and chemicals.
著者
楠見 孝
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.29-36, 2013 (Released:2013-07-04)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
2

This paper discusses a general framework for examining the structure and the function of scientific literacy, which is an important element of risk literacy. There are five layers of literacy: (1) basic literacy for communication in documents; (2) functional literacy in everyday life and the workplace; (3) scientific and mathematical literacy, and media and Internet literacy for students and citizens; (4) civil literacy for citizenship; and (5) academic and research literacies for professionals and researchers. This paper focuses on the concept of scientific literacy as informed by Baltes’s five criteria of wisdom (Baltes & Smith, 2008): factual knowledge, procedural knowledge, contextualization, value-goal relativism, and recognition and management of uncertainty. In addition, scientific, media, and mathematical literacies are basic elements of risk literacy, as civil literacy is for citizenship. Risk-literate citizens can understand risk information and manage their risk. Four methods for improving the scientific and risk literacies of the public are discussed: science education, science communication by mass media, and practices of local and Internet communities.
著者
島田 洋子 伊藤 慶彦 米田 稔 森澤 眞輔
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.25-32, 2012 (Released:2012-07-26)
参考文献数
37

Before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, radionuclide like 137Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and the Chernobyl accident has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137Cs and the health risks caused by prolonged radioactive global environment contamination were evaluated age-dependently for the reference Japanese since 1945 until 2010 by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The model estimates were compared with the monitoring data of 137Cs in Japanese total diet and 137Cs concentration in food as an attempt at validation. The results of this evaluation would be useful for understanding the background situations without the Fukushima accident and give important information for the radiological health risk assessment of the accident.
著者
小林 憲弘 杉本 直樹 久保田 領志 野本 雅彦 五十嵐 良明
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.65-70, 2013 (Released:2014-05-30)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

We have identified the cause of the formaldehyde pollution that occurred in the Tonegawa River system in May, 2012. We analyzed 10 river water samples that were collected in the Edogawa River using a liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and a liquid chromatography/ ion-trap time-offlight mass spectrometry (LC/IT-TOF-MS). As a result, hexamethylenetetramine was detected in all the water samples. Further, significant relationship was observed between the hexamethylenetetramine and the formaldehyde concentration in the same sample (r2=0.9576). Furthermore, formaldehyde concentration calculated by the reaction formula was very similar to the measured formaldehyde concentration in each sample. Therefore, we concluded that the cause of the formaldehyde pollution was the inflow of hexamethylenetetramines in the river system. Further, we focus the future issues on the management of unregulated chemicals in drinking water.
著者
内山 巌雄
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.175-182, 2011 (Released:2012-03-27)
参考文献数
18

For complete revival of the East Japan great earthquake, withdrawal of waste and sludge, disassemble of collapse buildings, etc. are performed over a long period of time. In these cases, many particulate matters included asbestos are generated, and will induce lung cancer or mesothelioma in tens of years. Since the health risk following exposure to the present environmental concentration of asbestos is about 10-5, we should control the scattering of asbestos into environment and prevent the inhalation by wearing an anti-dust mask (national assay disposable mask DS2, N95) .
著者
村上 道夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.141-149, 2016-12-25 (Released:2017-02-10)
参考文献数
73

At processes of risk communication, it is important to capture the meanings of “safety”, which citizens use in everyday speech. In this study, I focused on the interpretations of safety and reassurance in dictionaries as everyday words, and comprehensively surveyed 18 representative dictionaries (60 when revisions are included) since the Meiji Period to summarize historical changes and current status of them. While reassurance was interpreted from psychological aspects in all the dictionaries, safety had two types of interpretations of the word. The first type of the interpretation contained psychological aspects. It could not be judged whether the second type of the interpretation included psychological aspects or not. There were no significant differences in uses of these types of interpretations in dictionaries between before the World War II and the present. This study highlights that the interpretations of safety are complex and differ among dictionaries.
著者
小杉 素子 土屋 智子 谷口 武俊
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.115-123, 2011 (Released:2012-01-22)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1

It is important to infer and respect others' values and attitudes for fruitful communication. This paper examines how experts and lay people infer others' risk perception. According to the 2009 questionnaire survey for academic professionals and the general public, professionals estimate that there is a larger difference in risk perception of the technology that they study between themselves and lay people than the general public does. The professionals who hold this feeling perceive the risk of technology as being lower and estimate lay people' s risk perception to be higher. They also focus on positive more than negative aspects of the technology, evaluate its benefits, and tend to presume that negative media coverage greatly affects public perception.
著者
甲斐 倫明
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.83-89, 2015 (Released:2015-09-28)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

This paper will review current radiological protection (RP). Risk concept has been proposed in the light of precautionary principle since 1950's, although RP philosophy has been historically built partly based on scientific evidence. RP uses the risk estimate of cancer obtained by epidemiological studies. Linear-Non-Threshold (LNT) models assume there is some probability no matter how low dose is received, since convinced evidence has not been established on radiation risk at low-dose and low-dose rate. How to apply the risk concept is a key issue in radiological protection. RP introduces three fundamental principles such as justification, optimization and dose limitation. Furthermore, RP uses a situation-based approach where planned, emergency and existing exposure situations are defined. In an existing exposure situation after the Fukushima accident, reference levels can be applied to drive risk reduction using protective actions such as evacuation and foodstuff restriction. The risk concept can explain why the dose limits used in a planned exposure situation should not be applied in terms of risk-tradeoff.
著者
木下 冨雄
出版者
THE SOCIETY FOR RISK ANALYSIS, JAPAN
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.3_3-3_24, 2009 (Released:2011-11-01)
参考文献数
113

The forms of risk communication in Japan changed drastically after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. While the pre-Earthquake risk related information was based on the myth of zero-risk, the post-Earthquake risk communication has required a much higher level of fair and open information, which is now the main current of this field. At the same time, other theoretical and practical problems have recently been founded. Those problems include (1)the philosophy and value system underlying risk communication, (2)the causal relation between risk communication and credibility, (3)whether the citizen really want risk information or not, (4) whether citizen's risk perception is emotional or not, (5)the organizational climate as a factor in successful risk communication, (6)misunderstanding of the meaning of precautionary principle, (7)the skill of the risk communicator, (8)the importance of wording and logic in risk communication, (9)how to construct good relations between risk agent and mass media , etc. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the notion of risk communication with the macro view in both time and space, which used to be based on the idea of a one-shot and local solution to future disasters.
著者
大野 浩一
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.81-85, 2013 (Released:2014-05-30)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
1

Regarding risk management for emergent water quality accidents, the author believes better risk governance is not achieved by mere total optimization of systems of law regarding water management but by the flexible coalition among respective optimized systems. A questionnaire survey on the perception for water supply suspension was conducted after the water quality accident by formaldehyde in May, 2012. As preliminary results, 43% of respondents did not want suspension of water supply even if the water did not satisfy the standard values. If the water for oral intake purpose could be ensured by other sources such as bottled water, 86% did not want the suspension. These results suggested public anxiety for adverse health effects by the water that exceeded the standard values even if the exceedance did not cause adverse health effects. Risk communication on meaning and effect of “exceeding the standard values” should be important to mitigate the anxiety.
著者
滝上 英孝 酒井 伸一 新美 育文
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.77-80, 2013 (Released:2014-05-30)
参考文献数
8

Discussion was conducted at a national investigative commission on the Tone River system water pollution accident by formaldehyde occurred in May 2012. The objectives of the commission were establishment of preventive and restoration measures against this water pollution case based on the appropriate legislation development. Discussion results at the commission and the following countermeasures were summarized from the viewpoint of chemical and waste management in this paper. Briefly, aqueous monitoring for hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), a precursor of formaldehyde and information transfer of HMT-containing wastes during waste treatment processing have been strengthened.
著者
阿部 修治 長沢 順一
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.4, pp.231-240, 2013 (Released:2014-05-30)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1

An overview is presented on the comparison between asbestos and nanofiber from the viewpoint of risk perception. After reviewing various fundamental concepts related to fibers, it is pointed out that asbestos and nanofiber have significant differences in size and structure, although both fall into the category of respirable fiber. The results of hazard evaluation for asbestos and related fibers show significant variability among materials, thus making a simple extrapolation of previous knowledge to nanofiber impossible. Therefore, the risk analysis of various nanofibers, such as carbon nanotubes, needs to be carried out for individual classes with specific size, shape, and other structural characteristics. Towards this end, an increasing number of toxicological studies are indeed under way, especially for carbon nanotubes.
著者
楠見 孝 平山 るみ
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.165-172, 2013 (Released:2014-05-30)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
4

We conducted a questionnaire survey among 1500 citizens to investigate the factors and functions of food.related risk literacy in relation to reflective cognitive style, critical thinking attitude, educational background, knowledge of risks, and scientific literacy. On basis of the data gathered and using structural equation modeling, we created a causal model of food-related risk literacy. Participants’ deliberative thinking styles and educational backgrounds had a direct effect on their critical thinking attitude. Critical thinking attitude affected scientific literacy and knowledge of food-related risks, which in turn, affected media literacy. The data suggest that critical thinking attitude is important for improving scientific and media literacy about food-related risks as it serves a mediator for the effects of reflective cognitive style and educational background.
著者
菅野 純
出版者
一般社団法人日本リスク研究学会
雑誌
日本リスク研究学会誌 (ISSN:09155465)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.169-174, 2011 (Released:2012-03-27)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1

After the crisis of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors, the media started to broadcast comments of radiation doctors and researchers saying “there is no harm up to 100mSv”, “it would be worse for your health if you do not take proper amount of exercises or green vegetables by avoiding radiation”, “smoking is much worse than the current levels of radiation”, some of them were totally against the decades-long efforts of the toxicologist who have been campaigning the harmful effects of smoking, poor exercise, low vegetable intake, etc. These comments can be given as a “Mund Therapie” given by a doctor to a patient in a hospital, only to the people who were, unfortunately, exposed to radiation. The source of confusion of the public was such a sudden change in radiation risk information which is very different from ICRP-based radiation protection guidance. Here, differences and similarities of radiation and chemical in biology, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are briefly discussed as a starter for a closer interaction between radiation and chemical biologists/scientists/regulators.