著者
許 海華
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.44, pp.297-318, 2011-04

While Japan at the end of the Edo period revised their national seclusion system and started to set forward with internationally opening policy,it was the training of translators to communicate at practical negotiations with foreign countries that was most urgently required. In the case of To tsuji 唐通事,Chinese translators at Nagasaki during the Edo period, some of the youths transferred themselves to be in charge of two languages,from solo translation for Chinese to translation for both Chinese and English. They later became very active in the frontlines for diplomacy,education and translation because of their English abilities during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era. One of the typical examples was Ga Noriyuki. Ga Noriyuki was the person who flourished as a liege of Tokugawa Shogunate, a bureaucrat,an educator as well as a translator,who had been working as a Chinese translator at Nagasaki. It was his mastering English which brought him a great turning point for his life. This paper examines historical backgrouds and progress for Ga Noriyuki's mastering English from the view point of the alteration of To tsuji at Nagasaki during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era, through full survey on articles on his carrers.
著者
佐藤 健太郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.47-65, 2012-04

Milk and its by-products are naturally nutritious food, and people in ancient Japan enjoyed tasting them as foods, drinks, or medicines. On the other hand, milk and its by-products were closely related to the philosophy of Buddhism and were often supplied at Buddhist rituals. There have been many studies on ancient diets including milk and its by-products and we have obtained useful knowledge on nutritious foods in ancient Japan. Among the milk products, "So" (蘇), a type of dairy product made from layers of milk skin, has been re-produced, and Japanese people enjoy it as it was enjoyed in the ancient diet. Based on previous studies, in this article the author describes the use of milk and its by-products as well as the contribution system of offerings in ancient Japan. The newly found research materials including Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula(弘仁式逸文) that describe "So"(蘇), wooden plates (木簡), and clay pots(墨書土器) are used for discussion. Since materials useful for studying the contribution system of offerings (蘇) in the Heian Era are unavailable except for 延喜民部式貢蘇条 (a Japanese book of laws and regulations), the contribution system of offerings (蘇) earlier than Engishiki (延喜式) is not known. Thanks to Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula, the contribution system of offerings under regulation called Kouninsikisei (弘仁式制) has been clarified. By comparing the contribution system of offerings called Engishiki with that of Kouninshiki, every aspect of change, i.e., difference in systems and any historical factors for transformation, have been reviewed. It is not clear when the contribution system of offerings was changed from Kouninshiki to Engishiki, but it is certain that the contribution system of offerings (蘇) apparently existed until 887 (the 3rd year of Ninna) according to Kouninshiki.
著者
二階堂 善弘
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.41-50, 2017-04-01

I have been engaged in research on temple guardian gods in Japan and China, as well as, over the course of several years, investigations into Buddhist temples in Vietnam. I have come to the conclusion that the Vietnamese temple guardian known as Duc chua ong has its origins in India Sudatta (Anathapindika). In mainland China some papers asset an Erlanshen infl uence from Zoroastrianism. I agree in part with this viewpoint.
著者
吉川 潤
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.41-65, 2007-04

This paper introduces "Nagasaki Kankei Monjo (The Documents related to Nagasaki)" which is archived at Hideo Tsuda Library of Kansai University, and aims to investigate the life in Nagasaki Kaisyo at the end of Tokugawa Syogunate. "Nagasaki Kankei Monjo" contains huge amount of documents, mainly consists of documents written by (or suspected to be written by) Yamada (山田) Kaduki (香月), the official working at Nagasaki Kaisyo, and documents of Ito Family, and trading records at Nagasaki Kaisyo. This paper focus on "Honuri Negumi Cho (本売直組帳) to investigate "Negumi (直組)", the products imported by Chinese or Dutch ships to Japan in 1845. Nagasaki Kaisyo handled "Negumi (直組)" for variety kinds of imported products. We think it basically carried out its business by sometimes raising the price of imported goods, and othertimes by folloing the precedent price "Zenkakusumi Nedan (前格済直段)". By using these two methods, the Kaisyo could carried out its business smoothly. In addition to that, this paper investigate diaries wirtten (or suspected to be written) by the officials in Kaisyo like Yamada, and introduced their activities like going to Osaka, during Genji and Keio periods.
著者
陳 贇
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.279-296, 2012-04

The word "Min-do" first appeared in newspapers around 1888, but a clear etymology of the word has never appeared. This paper traces back the history of the word's formation and proposes the possibility that this word is a Japanese-created Chinese word influenced by Western thought. This paper also considers the reception of this word in China and researches its mutual relationship with "kokumin-teido (国民程度)" (the condeition of the people) in China during the first two decades of the 20th century.
著者
溝井 裕一
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.79-103, 2006-04-01

Since ancient times in Europe, stories have been told about heroes, gods and saints who fought with dragons. While many of them faced monsters and killed them, there are some stories of heroes and heroines who were swallowed by a dragon, killed it from inside, and emerged unhurt from its body. Some of the pictures and legends from the ancient or medieval times tell about those dragon-slayers. For example, according to a picture on a vase of the 5th century B.C., the famous Greek hero Jason was swallowed apparently by a dragon and came out again of its mouth. A legend also tells that the Irish hero Fionn Mac Cumhail entered the body of a dragon and killed it from inside. We can also find the similar motif in the medieval paintings and the legend of St. Margaret. The meaning of those pictures and legends seems difficult to understand. I analyzed the motif of the "swallowing dragon" by applying it to the scheme of rites de passage. According to Arnold van Gennep, the rites of passage consist of three steps-separation, transition, and incorporation. It is also said that they symbolize the death and rebirth of a person who moves from one state to another. I viewed that the motif of the "swallowing dragon" represents the death and rebirth at the rites of passage of heroes or saints. At the beginning of the article, the pictures and stories of the "swallowing dragon" are presented. After that, I will compare the European "swallowing dragon" stories with the notion of the "swallowing animals" in other countries (they appear at the initiation of Siberian and Eskimo shamans as well as the people of New Guinea) and examine the analogy between them. Then, I will apply the Genneps schema to "swallowing dragon" stories and consider whether we can count them among the rites of passage. With the results from those studies, I will clarify the notion of death and rebirth in the European pictures, myths and legends.
著者
野間 晴雄
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.A51-A60, 2009-04-01

イギリスのプラントハンターの総元締めのJ.Banksが記した海外からの植物の移送・保存に関する指示書。マイクDフィルムからの手稿の翻刻をした。 This paper is aimed to transliterate the English manuscript " Rules for Collecting and Preserving Specimens of Plants" (1796) written by Joseph Banks (1743‒1820), who is a renown English plant collector, and then became an infl uential patron for plant hunters, explorers or natural historians in the late 18th century to the early 19th century. Since the original document is preserved in the British Library, the author used the microfi lm copy possessed in Kansai University library. The background of this written document is how to transport live plants collected in Asia, Africa and New Continents for plant hunters to Western Europe with moderate and cool climate. The end of 18th century is the last phase of scientifi c navigation era for European countries. British Empire sent James Cook to the Pacific Ocean navigation in order to astronomical survey and make correct maps in 1768‒1771. J. Banks took the same ship and collected many rare plants. After he came back to Britain, he, as the president of the Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge, started to support fi nancially to collect rare or economically useful plants in the world by plant hunters. At the same time, he instructed plant hunters or botanists to send rare plants, seeds, and herbarium to Kew Garden in the suburbs of London. Thus, the Kew Garden has become the world center of plants. Since the transport live plants to Britain by ship safely is a very diffi cult work at that time, so Banks instructed minutely in the document such as the protection them from sea water, uncertain temperature and humidity.
著者
三村 尚彦
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.A79-A100, 2018-04-01

Shusaku Arakawa (1936-2010) - a modern artist - and Madeline Gins (1942-2014) - a poet - interacted with numerous scientists, thinkers and philosophers, attempting to integrate science and philosophy into art. Among such scientists was Eugene Gendlin (1926-2017), a world-renowned advocate for focusing-oriented psychotherapy. Although it was known that Gendlin was writing a paper on Arakawa and Gins, until recently little was understood about what kind of interests Arakawa and Gins had in the Gendlin philosophy. In 2017, I examined manuscripts by Arakawa and Gins, which revealed that Eugene Gendlin had close academic relationships with Arakawa and Gins. Arakawa and Gins were interested in the function of blanks in poetry studied by Gendlin and David Kolb; Arakawa and Gins made notes on this, to which I succeeded in gaining access. This article focuses mainly on the arguments between Gendlin and Kolb, discussing the function of blanks in poetry and expanding on descriptions of the reasons for their different views on it. My purpose is to further advance the study of manuscripts by Arakawa and Gins. Kolb believes that the two categories of 1) symbols and 2) blanks represent felt meaning, and that they are independent discrete concepts that interact with each other, whereas Gendlin believes that these two categories are presented a priori, and that they do not interact with each other or provide support as discrete entities.
著者
河村 晃太郎
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.65-81, 2005-04-01

Su Dongpo is one of the most prominent poets in the Song period. In this paper, I examined his thoughts and attitude on art and literature around the time of his exile. As he opposed the political reform by Wang An-shi (王安石), he was impeached for writing many verses which were regarded as lese-majesty. He was exiled to Huang Zhou (黄州) in 1071. Though he didn't write many poems at this time, he devoted himself to drawing. Though this experience he began to realize that both drawing pictures and composing poems were originated from the same source of creation. Just before he was exiled, he recalled his friend, Wen Tong (文同), and wrote an essay about him. Su Dong-po referred to technical skills on drawing, saying "Imagine a bamboo drawn perfectly in your mind and should tackle it." Although he mentioned about drawing, it can be read as a criticism on verse. It might be too much to say that a person who can write poems can draw pictures, but at least Su Dong-po thought that it was verses that give pictures profundity.
著者
陳 贇
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.279-296, 2012-04

The word "Min-do" first appeared in newspapers around 1888, but a clear etymology of the word has never appeared. This paper traces back the history of the word's formation and proposes the possibility that this word is a Japanese-created Chinese word influenced by Western thought. This paper also considers the reception of this word in China and researches its mutual relationship with "kokumin-teido (国民程度)" (the condeition of the people) in China during the first two decades of the 20th century.
著者
横山 俊一郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.48, pp.213-228, 2015-04

This paper examines the mutual relationship between the academic connections and the political practice of Adachi Seifu, a graduate of Hakuen-juku in Osaka and Shoheikoin Edo, as an example of the depth of Confucian learning that samurai engaged in practical affairs had acquired by the late Tokugawa period. Examples of Adachi's scholarly contacts are two men he befriended during the course of his education toward the end of the Tokugawa period: the Confucian scholar Mori Kiemon and the village headman Okubo Shichirozaemon. Adachi's political practice was embodied in a land reclamation project he conducted in the Shoboku district of Okayama prefecture after the Meiji Restoration of 1868. This examination reveals that Seifu saw the rise of an educated populace as desirable, and practical education in the classroom as crucial to achieving this end. The paper concludes with an examination of the scholarly connections and political ideas of Yamada Kodo, a graduate of the Kaitokudo in Osaka, and demonstrates that Adachi Seifu wasengaged in a practical implementation of Kodo's political vision.
著者
木岡 伸夫
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.六三-七五, 2008-04

Le problème de la «rencontre avec le monde moderne» se réduit à deux questions : «Comment les hommes européens ont-ils rencontré les autres 'inconnus' jusqu'alors ?» et «Quelles réflexions ont-ils eu sur eux-mêmes à travers cette expérience de rencontre ?». On doit presque nécessairement vivre entre «décentralisation» et «recentralisation» lorsqu'on sort de son propre monde afin d'entrer dans un nouveau monde qui nous est étranger. C'est justement le cas d'Augustin Berque qui s'est mis en relation extrêmement cordiale avec le Japon.La rencontre avec le Japon n'était pour lui pas autre chose qu'un processus d'établissement de la mésologie (fûdogaku) en tant que discipline. Comme le sens des milieux (fûdo) s'exprime en paysages dans la théorie mésologique, Berque ne put s'empêcher de s'accoutumer, dans ses études sur la culture japonaise, à ces paysages très différents de ceux dans son pays. La diversité des expressions paysagères se fond sur la pluralité des «types» de culture. Il devait donc «décentraliser» en comparant la culture japonaise avec celles de l'Europe, ce qui constitua une étape nécessaire à sa réflexion sur lui-même.Il n'en est pas de même des recherches urbaines, parce qu'on n'aperçoit dans toutes les villes qu'un seul prototype : l'union de la substance physique (astu ; ville ; town) et de la communauté spirituelle(polis ; cité ; city), laquelle est typique des villes historiques à l'Occident. Pour ce qui est de l'unité complète de la «structure» et du «sens», on ne l'a trouvé nulle part ailleursque dans les villes européennes de tout temps historiques. C'est pourquoi Berque leur accorde une position de modèle idéal.Il nous marque son attitude de «recentralisation» en ce qu'il fait de la ville occidentale son cadre de référence. Pourtant ce n'est pas de l'ethnocentrisme, car il fait aussi du Japon une sorte de miroir réfléchissant sur lui-même et il fait par cela même le trajet entre «décentralisation» et «recentralisation», c'est-àdire qu'il accomplit une dialectique proprement mésologique. Et ce qui y joue un rôle de médiateur n'est pas le Japon, ni l'Europe, mais l'Amérique. Une triade «Japon-Amérique-Europe» apparaîtra ainsi avec l'intérêt de se situer dans une structure multipolaire internationale.Le Japon fonctionne alors comme miroir en ces sens : il reflète avant tout l'image positive ou idéale de la France(ou de l'Europe) et puis celle de l'Amérique avec sa réalité négative. Il reflète enfin l'image négative de l'Europe qui se laisse ronger par son double ennuyeux, l'Amérique. Tout cela signifie qu'il y a toujours, dans la pratique de la mésologie, un processus circulaire de «décentralisation- recentralisation». C'est ainsi que le «centre» se prépare à échanger sa place avec la «périphérie».
著者
李 暁辰
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.271-285, 2017-04

In this paper, I will examine academic activities and the human network at Keijō Imperial University, focusing on the 'Assistants Association of the Department of Liberal Arts'. This association was established in April 1934 by Nakayama Iwamitsu (中山岩光), Takeshita Teruhiko (竹下暉彦), Park Chi-woo (朴致祐), Shūda Tatsuo (習田達夫), Sano (佐野道), and Shōji (庄司秀一). They gathered 44 members in a year and a half. Most of the members had experience as assistants at Keijō Imperial University, and most of the assistants were graduates after 1929, when Keijō Imperial University started producing graduates. They held regular lectures more than 10 times between 1934 to 1935, and published the journal Gakkai twice in 1935. The two journals published contain 17 articles and three poems written by members of the association. This association is important because it gives us a clue about how young Korean and Japan scholars communicated in that period, and helps us understand what the role of the assistant position in Imperial University was like.
著者
許 海華
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.297-318, 2011-04

While Japan at the end of the Edo period revised their national seclusion system and started to set forward with internationally opening policy, it was the training of translators to communicate at practical negotiations with foreign countries that was most urgently required. In the case of To tsuji 唐通事, Chinese translators at Nagasaki during the Edo period, some of the youths transferred themselves to be in charge of two languages, from solo translation for Chinese to translation for both Chinese and English. They later became very active in the frontlines for diplomacy, education and translation because of their English abilities during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era. One of the typical examples was Ga Noriyuki. Ga Noriyuki was the person who flourished as a liege of Tokugawa Shogunate, a bureaucrat, an educator as well as a translator, who had been working as a Chinese translator at Nagasaki. It was his mastering English which brought him a great turning point for his life. This paper examines historical backgrouds and progress for Ga Noriyuki's mastering English from the view point of the alteration of To tsuji at Nagasaki during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era, through full survey on articles on his carrers.
著者
中村 朋美
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.231-244, 2017-04

The purpose of this paper is to consider the trading design of the Russian Empirein the Seas of East Asia in the early 19th century. After the treaty of Kyakhta in1727, the Russian Empire and the Qing Dynasty maintained relations based on trade, and the trade in the only overland border town of Kyakhta increased year by year. At the end of the 18th century, however, Russia attempted to increase itsprofi ts from the trade. This request came to the fore when the Golovkin Embassy was dispatched to the Qing Dynasty by the Russian Empire in 1805‒06. Firstly, this paper illustrates the background to growing interest in Guangzhou trade, and how and why the Russian government dispatched the first Russian to circumnavigate the globe and the Golovkin Embassy at the same time. I then consider issues occurring related to the fur trade in Kyakhta by observation of Yu. A. Golovkin. Finally, it shows that analyzing the instruction given to Golovkin and the documents written by Russian government officials, the Russian government attempted to negotiate with the Qing for the rights to enter the Guangzhou Trade and the Amur River navigation rights, and Russia envisaged the establishment of trading routes that connected the three points, Guangzhou and the Jiangnan district (and Japan), the colonies in Kamchatka and Alaska, and central Siberia in the Seas of East Asia.
著者
奥村 佳代子
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.43, pp.131-142, 2010-04

There are two types of Chinese-language translations of the Japanese joruri (narrative drama) work "Kanadehon Chushingura" (The Treasury of Loyal Retainers: A Model for Emulation). "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) is a work translated by Nagasaki To Tsuji (Japanese interpreters of Chinese located in Nagasaki), and "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange, a colloquial Chinese-language translation of Chushingura) is a work completed by a Japanese intellectual. Both works were translated in the Edo Period."Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange) was long ignored as a Chinese language source, but comparing it with "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) revealed that it depicts the results of a Japanese intellectual learning a foreign language, i.e. Chinese.This paper begins by looking at the heterogeneity of vocabulary found in "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) and the diverse vocabulary found in "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange). It then examines how "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) is reworked in "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange). Finally, the paper profiles the translator of "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange) and discusses his translation style.
著者
原田 正俊
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.46, pp.17-31, 2013-04

In medieval Japan, the eight kenmitsu (exoteric-esoteric) Buddhism sects: the six sects of the Southern capital, the Tendai sect, and the Shingon sect, established orthodox Buddhism and became the mainstream of the Buddhist rituals. In the Kamakura period, however, Zen monks introduced Chinese Buddhist services and ascetic rules from Southern Sou and Yuan, from which point on the new Chinese-style Buddhist services spread into the Japanese society. During the Muromachi period, the zen Buddhist services started to incorporate Japanese elements, which was a new turn Japanese Buddhism took. Mannen-san Shokoku Jotenzen-ji ekou narabini sho, a document brought to one of the five great Zen temples in Kyoto, Shokoku-ji, provides important information on Zen Buddhist services during the Muromachi period and shows extensive practice of Zen services during that time. This paper analyses the structure and the content of this historical document, which has not been fully examined. The Shokoku temple was built by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who united the court nobles and samurai warriors. Yoshimitsu constantly performed big Buddhist services in this temple, through which the Muromachi shogunate promoted Buddhist policies to the public.
著者
毛利 英介
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.549-567, 2016-04-01

研究ノートTwo treaties were concluded between the Khitai and the Northern Song, in 1004 and 1042 respectively. The first is famous as the Treaty of Shanyuan; the second, the subject of the present paper, is referred to as "the revised treaty." A set of documents, known as the Guannan Oath, was exchanged between the Khitai and the Northern Song when the revised treaty was signed in 1042. The present paper specifically addresses the following:▪ A translation of the Guannan Oath into modern Japanese, and an analysis of itscomposition as a text.▪ A comparison of the provisions of the Guannan Oath with those of the Shanyuan Oath.▪ An evaluation of the historiographic value of the text of the Guannan Oath as contained in Sanchao beimeng huibian, which up to now has been overlooked.