著者
陳 贇
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.279-296, 2012-04

The word "Min-do" first appeared in newspapers around 1888, but a clear etymology of the word has never appeared. This paper traces back the history of the word's formation and proposes the possibility that this word is a Japanese-created Chinese word influenced by Western thought. This paper also considers the reception of this word in China and researches its mutual relationship with "kokumin-teido (国民程度)" (the condeition of the people) in China during the first two decades of the 20th century.
著者
許 海華
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.44, pp.297-318, 2011-04

While Japan at the end of the Edo period revised their national seclusion system and started to set forward with internationally opening policy,it was the training of translators to communicate at practical negotiations with foreign countries that was most urgently required. In the case of To tsuji 唐通事,Chinese translators at Nagasaki during the Edo period, some of the youths transferred themselves to be in charge of two languages,from solo translation for Chinese to translation for both Chinese and English. They later became very active in the frontlines for diplomacy,education and translation because of their English abilities during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era. One of the typical examples was Ga Noriyuki. Ga Noriyuki was the person who flourished as a liege of Tokugawa Shogunate, a bureaucrat,an educator as well as a translator,who had been working as a Chinese translator at Nagasaki. It was his mastering English which brought him a great turning point for his life. This paper examines historical backgrouds and progress for Ga Noriyuki's mastering English from the view point of the alteration of To tsuji at Nagasaki during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era, through full survey on articles on his carrers.
著者
佐藤 健太郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.47-65, 2012-04

Milk and its by-products are naturally nutritious food, and people in ancient Japan enjoyed tasting them as foods, drinks, or medicines. On the other hand, milk and its by-products were closely related to the philosophy of Buddhism and were often supplied at Buddhist rituals. There have been many studies on ancient diets including milk and its by-products and we have obtained useful knowledge on nutritious foods in ancient Japan. Among the milk products, "So" (蘇), a type of dairy product made from layers of milk skin, has been re-produced, and Japanese people enjoy it as it was enjoyed in the ancient diet. Based on previous studies, in this article the author describes the use of milk and its by-products as well as the contribution system of offerings in ancient Japan. The newly found research materials including Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula (弘仁式逸文) that describe "So" (蘇), wooden plates (木簡), and clay pots (墨書土器) are used for discussion. Since materials useful for studying the contribution system of offerings (蘇) in the Heian Era are unavailable except for 延喜民部式貢蘇条 (a Japanese book of laws and regulations), the contribution system of offerings (蘇) earlier than Engishiki (延喜式) is not known. Thanks to Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula, the contribution system of offerings under regulation called Kouninsikisei (弘仁式制) has been clarified. By comparing the contribution system of offerings called Engishiki with that of Kouninshiki, every aspect of change, i.e., difference in systems and any historical factors for transformation, have been reviewed. It is not clear when the contribution system of offerings was changed from Kouninshiki to Engishiki, but it is certain that the contribution system of offerings (蘇) apparently existed until 887 (the 3rd year of Ninna) according to Kouninshiki.
著者
陳 贇
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.279-296, 2012-04

The word "Min-do" first appeared in newspapers around 1888, but a clear etymology of the word has never appeared. This paper traces back the history of the word's formation and proposes the possibility that this word is a Japanese-created Chinese word influenced by Western thought. This paper also considers the reception of this word in China and researches its mutual relationship with "kokumin-teido (国民程度)" (the condeition of the people) in China during the first two decades of the 20th century.
著者
二階堂 善弘
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.41-50, 2017-04-01

I have been engaged in research on temple guardian gods in Japan and China, as well as, over the course of several years, investigations into Buddhist temples in Vietnam. I have come to the conclusion that the Vietnamese temple guardian known as Duc chua ong has its origins in India Sudatta (Anathapindika). In mainland China some papers asset an Erlanshen infl uence from Zoroastrianism. I agree in part with this viewpoint.
著者
佐藤 健太郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.47-65, 2012-04

Milk and its by-products are naturally nutritious food, and people in ancient Japan enjoyed tasting them as foods, drinks, or medicines. On the other hand, milk and its by-products were closely related to the philosophy of Buddhism and were often supplied at Buddhist rituals. There have been many studies on ancient diets including milk and its by-products and we have obtained useful knowledge on nutritious foods in ancient Japan. Among the milk products, "So" (蘇), a type of dairy product made from layers of milk skin, has been re-produced, and Japanese people enjoy it as it was enjoyed in the ancient diet. Based on previous studies, in this article the author describes the use of milk and its by-products as well as the contribution system of offerings in ancient Japan. The newly found research materials including Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula(弘仁式逸文) that describe "So"(蘇), wooden plates (木簡), and clay pots(墨書土器) are used for discussion. Since materials useful for studying the contribution system of offerings (蘇) in the Heian Era are unavailable except for 延喜民部式貢蘇条 (a Japanese book of laws and regulations), the contribution system of offerings (蘇) earlier than Engishiki (延喜式) is not known. Thanks to Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula, the contribution system of offerings under regulation called Kouninsikisei (弘仁式制) has been clarified. By comparing the contribution system of offerings called Engishiki with that of Kouninshiki, every aspect of change, i.e., difference in systems and any historical factors for transformation, have been reviewed. It is not clear when the contribution system of offerings was changed from Kouninshiki to Engishiki, but it is certain that the contribution system of offerings (蘇) apparently existed until 887 (the 3rd year of Ninna) according to Kouninshiki.
著者
横山 俊一郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.48, pp.213-228, 2015-04

This paper examines the mutual relationship between the academic connections and the political practice of Adachi Seifu, a graduate of Hakuen-juku in Osaka and Shoheikoin Edo, as an example of the depth of Confucian learning that samurai engaged in practical affairs had acquired by the late Tokugawa period. Examples of Adachi's scholarly contacts are two men he befriended during the course of his education toward the end of the Tokugawa period: the Confucian scholar Mori Kiemon and the village headman Okubo Shichirozaemon. Adachi's political practice was embodied in a land reclamation project he conducted in the Shoboku district of Okayama prefecture after the Meiji Restoration of 1868. This examination reveals that Seifu saw the rise of an educated populace as desirable, and practical education in the classroom as crucial to achieving this end. The paper concludes with an examination of the scholarly connections and political ideas of Yamada Kodo, a graduate of the Kaitokudo in Osaka, and demonstrates that Adachi Seifu wasengaged in a practical implementation of Kodo's political vision.
著者
薄 培林
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.47, pp.207-224, 2014-04

In the late nineteenth century, the international order in East Asia was undergoing a transition from tradition to modernity. Relations among the nations in the region were being radically transformed. In the 1870s, confrontation between the Japanese and Chinese governments regarding sovereignty over the Ryukyu Islands was aggravated. In the midst of these difficulties, the late-Qing intellectual Wang Tao (王韜) was invited by Japanese scholars of Chinese literature and culture to Japan, where he made the acquaintance of many Japanese intellectuals of the period. Wang Tao's visit took place immediately after the Meiji government had carried out the "Ryukyu shobun" (policies that eventuated in the annexation of the Ryukyus by Japan as Okinawa Prefecture), a time when tensions between China and Japan had reached a new level. This paper focuses on the issue of the Ryukyus as a source of conflict between Japan and China in the 1870s and 1880s. It analyzes the related writings by Wang Tao and his Japanese acquaintances such as Nakamura Masanao (中村正直), Shigeno Yasutsugu (重野安繹), and Oka Senjin (岡千仞). It examines the question of how Japanese and Chinese intellectuals perceived the international status and identity of the Ryukyus in the rapidly changing East Asian international order, and how they associated the Ryukyu issue with Sino-Japanese relations at the present and the triangular relations of China, Japan and the Ryukyus in the future. At the same time, this paper will highlight the contradictions between the perceptions of these intellectuals concerning the Ryukyu issue and their proposals to "Develop Asia" (興亜), and analyze the nature of the intellectual shift toward modernity manifested in the perceptions of international relations and global politics by the Chinese and Japanese intellectuals of this period.
著者
吉川 潤
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.41-65, 2007-04

This paper introduces "Nagasaki Kankei Monjo (The Documents related to Nagasaki)" which is archived at Hideo Tsuda Library of Kansai University, and aims to investigate the life in Nagasaki Kaisyo at the end of Tokugawa Syogunate. "Nagasaki Kankei Monjo" contains huge amount of documents, mainly consists of documents written by (or suspected to be written by) Yamada (山田) Kaduki (香月), the official working at Nagasaki Kaisyo, and documents of Ito Family, and trading records at Nagasaki Kaisyo. This paper focus on "Honuri Negumi Cho (本売直組帳) to investigate "Negumi (直組)", the products imported by Chinese or Dutch ships to Japan in 1845. Nagasaki Kaisyo handled "Negumi (直組)" for variety kinds of imported products. We think it basically carried out its business by sometimes raising the price of imported goods, and othertimes by folloing the precedent price "Zenkakusumi Nedan (前格済直段)". By using these two methods, the Kaisyo could carried out its business smoothly. In addition to that, this paper investigate diaries wirtten (or suspected to be written) by the officials in Kaisyo like Yamada, and introduced their activities like going to Osaka, during Genji and Keio periods.
著者
溝井 裕一
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.79-103, 2006-04-01

Since ancient times in Europe, stories have been told about heroes, gods and saints who fought with dragons. While many of them faced monsters and killed them, there are some stories of heroes and heroines who were swallowed by a dragon, killed it from inside, and emerged unhurt from its body. Some of the pictures and legends from the ancient or medieval times tell about those dragon-slayers. For example, according to a picture on a vase of the 5th century B.C., the famous Greek hero Jason was swallowed apparently by a dragon and came out again of its mouth. A legend also tells that the Irish hero Fionn Mac Cumhail entered the body of a dragon and killed it from inside. We can also find the similar motif in the medieval paintings and the legend of St. Margaret. The meaning of those pictures and legends seems difficult to understand. I analyzed the motif of the "swallowing dragon" by applying it to the scheme of rites de passage. According to Arnold van Gennep, the rites of passage consist of three steps-separation, transition, and incorporation. It is also said that they symbolize the death and rebirth of a person who moves from one state to another. I viewed that the motif of the "swallowing dragon" represents the death and rebirth at the rites of passage of heroes or saints. At the beginning of the article, the pictures and stories of the "swallowing dragon" are presented. After that, I will compare the European "swallowing dragon" stories with the notion of the "swallowing animals" in other countries (they appear at the initiation of Siberian and Eskimo shamans as well as the people of New Guinea) and examine the analogy between them. Then, I will apply the Genneps schema to "swallowing dragon" stories and consider whether we can count them among the rites of passage. With the results from those studies, I will clarify the notion of death and rebirth in the European pictures, myths and legends.
著者
許 海華
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.297-318, 2011-04

While Japan at the end of the Edo period revised their national seclusion system and started to set forward with internationally opening policy, it was the training of translators to communicate at practical negotiations with foreign countries that was most urgently required. In the case of To tsuji 唐通事, Chinese translators at Nagasaki during the Edo period, some of the youths transferred themselves to be in charge of two languages, from solo translation for Chinese to translation for both Chinese and English. They later became very active in the frontlines for diplomacy, education and translation because of their English abilities during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era. One of the typical examples was Ga Noriyuki. Ga Noriyuki was the person who flourished as a liege of Tokugawa Shogunate, a bureaucrat, an educator as well as a translator, who had been working as a Chinese translator at Nagasaki. It was his mastering English which brought him a great turning point for his life. This paper examines historical backgrouds and progress for Ga Noriyuki's mastering English from the view point of the alteration of To tsuji at Nagasaki during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era, through full survey on articles on his carrers.
著者
野間 晴雄
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.A51-A60, 2009-04-01

イギリスのプラントハンターの総元締めのJ.Banksが記した海外からの植物の移送・保存に関する指示書。マイクDフィルムからの手稿の翻刻をした。 This paper is aimed to transliterate the English manuscript " Rules for Collecting and Preserving Specimens of Plants" (1796) written by Joseph Banks (1743‒1820), who is a renown English plant collector, and then became an infl uential patron for plant hunters, explorers or natural historians in the late 18th century to the early 19th century. Since the original document is preserved in the British Library, the author used the microfi lm copy possessed in Kansai University library. The background of this written document is how to transport live plants collected in Asia, Africa and New Continents for plant hunters to Western Europe with moderate and cool climate. The end of 18th century is the last phase of scientifi c navigation era for European countries. British Empire sent James Cook to the Pacific Ocean navigation in order to astronomical survey and make correct maps in 1768‒1771. J. Banks took the same ship and collected many rare plants. After he came back to Britain, he, as the president of the Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge, started to support fi nancially to collect rare or economically useful plants in the world by plant hunters. At the same time, he instructed plant hunters or botanists to send rare plants, seeds, and herbarium to Kew Garden in the suburbs of London. Thus, the Kew Garden has become the world center of plants. Since the transport live plants to Britain by ship safely is a very diffi cult work at that time, so Banks instructed minutely in the document such as the protection them from sea water, uncertain temperature and humidity.
著者
王 暁雨
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.49, pp.297-312, 2016-04-01

The word guomin in Chinese or kokumin in Japanese, which translates into Englishas either "nation" or "people", is not a term of modern coinage; it has been used sinceantiquity in both China and Japan. The promoting of the modern nation and its people is closely related to success or failure in the formation of the nation-state. Because of this, in both China and Japan, it has been said that the establishment of the concept of the "nation/people" (guomin, kokumin) is a crucial part of this modernization process. A look at the changing terminology for the constituent members of the state should be useful in clarifying what is subsumed under the concept of guomin/kokumin, as well as aiding towards a deeper awareness of the value judgments and interaction with foreign cultures that were involved in fostering the modern nation and its people. This paper offers a modest analysis of the changes in value judgments and personal perspectives thattook place in both China and Japan during the progress of modernization, both from theperspective of how the concept of the modern nation and its people was established, andby reference to the discourse of intellectuals regarding the constituent members of the state.
著者
山寺 美紀子
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.51, pp.111-143, 2018-04

This paper presents five newly-identified documents on music, written by OGYŪ Sorai (1666-1728). It first introduces two letters from the second month of 1720 (Kyōho 5) responding to questions posed by ARIMA Ujinori (1668-1736), a close confidant of the eighth shōgun of the Edo bakufu, TOKUGAWA Yoshimune. They describe the measurement system used in the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and changes in musical tonal systems and metrological standards over successive periods. This is followed by OGYŪ's notes on his work, Sango Yōryaku-kō (Reflections on Sango Yōryaku; believed to have been written in 1727 [Kyōho 12]) and on the music accompanying it. Sango Yōryaku-kō talks about a manuscript copy of Sango Yōryaku - a collection of musical notations for the Japanese gagaku biwa. The third document discusses historical materials concerning the seven-stringed qin, its strings, tonal system, and modes. The fourth, written in the fifth month of 1727 , discusses a work on music theory formerly held by the Kissui-in monastery. These four manuscripts are contained in historic documents owned by the OGYŪ family. For the purpose of presenting their contents, I have transcribed facsimile copies available in the Masao Maruyama Collection at the library of the Tokyo Women's Christian University. The fifth and final item comprises copies of four letters from OGYŪ which were contained among FUJISAWA Tōgai's manuscript copies in the Hakuen Collection at the Kansai University Library. In my opinion, OGYŪ most likely wrote them in 1725 (Kyōho 10) to the scholar of calendrical calculations, NAKANE Genkei (1662-1733), at around the time that the bakufu ordered OGYŪ to review Zhu Zaiyu's musical treatise, Yuelü quanshu (Complete compendium of music and pitch). From these letters, I have selected the parts concerning music and present them in transcription.
著者
三村 尚彦
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.A79-A100, 2018-04-01

Shusaku Arakawa (1936-2010) - a modern artist - and Madeline Gins (1942-2014) - a poet - interacted with numerous scientists, thinkers and philosophers, attempting to integrate science and philosophy into art. Among such scientists was Eugene Gendlin (1926-2017), a world-renowned advocate for focusing-oriented psychotherapy. Although it was known that Gendlin was writing a paper on Arakawa and Gins, until recently little was understood about what kind of interests Arakawa and Gins had in the Gendlin philosophy. In 2017, I examined manuscripts by Arakawa and Gins, which revealed that Eugene Gendlin had close academic relationships with Arakawa and Gins. Arakawa and Gins were interested in the function of blanks in poetry studied by Gendlin and David Kolb; Arakawa and Gins made notes on this, to which I succeeded in gaining access. This article focuses mainly on the arguments between Gendlin and Kolb, discussing the function of blanks in poetry and expanding on descriptions of the reasons for their different views on it. My purpose is to further advance the study of manuscripts by Arakawa and Gins. Kolb believes that the two categories of 1) symbols and 2) blanks represent felt meaning, and that they are independent discrete concepts that interact with each other, whereas Gendlin believes that these two categories are presented a priori, and that they do not interact with each other or provide support as discrete entities.
著者
河村 晃太郎
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.65-81, 2005-04-01

Su Dongpo is one of the most prominent poets in the Song period. In this paper, I examined his thoughts and attitude on art and literature around the time of his exile. As he opposed the political reform by Wang An-shi (王安石), he was impeached for writing many verses which were regarded as lese-majesty. He was exiled to Huang Zhou (黄州) in 1071. Though he didn't write many poems at this time, he devoted himself to drawing. Though this experience he began to realize that both drawing pictures and composing poems were originated from the same source of creation. Just before he was exiled, he recalled his friend, Wen Tong (文同), and wrote an essay about him. Su Dong-po referred to technical skills on drawing, saying "Imagine a bamboo drawn perfectly in your mind and should tackle it." Although he mentioned about drawing, it can be read as a criticism on verse. It might be too much to say that a person who can write poems can draw pictures, but at least Su Dong-po thought that it was verses that give pictures profundity.
著者
木岡 伸夫
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.六三-七五, 2008-04

Le problème de la «rencontre avec le monde moderne» se réduit à deux questions : «Comment les hommes européens ont-ils rencontré les autres 'inconnus' jusqu'alors ?» et «Quelles réflexions ont-ils eu sur eux-mêmes à travers cette expérience de rencontre ?». On doit presque nécessairement vivre entre «décentralisation» et «recentralisation» lorsqu'on sort de son propre monde afin d'entrer dans un nouveau monde qui nous est étranger. C'est justement le cas d'Augustin Berque qui s'est mis en relation extrêmement cordiale avec le Japon.La rencontre avec le Japon n'était pour lui pas autre chose qu'un processus d'établissement de la mésologie (fûdogaku) en tant que discipline. Comme le sens des milieux (fûdo) s'exprime en paysages dans la théorie mésologique, Berque ne put s'empêcher de s'accoutumer, dans ses études sur la culture japonaise, à ces paysages très différents de ceux dans son pays. La diversité des expressions paysagères se fond sur la pluralité des «types» de culture. Il devait donc «décentraliser» en comparant la culture japonaise avec celles de l'Europe, ce qui constitua une étape nécessaire à sa réflexion sur lui-même.Il n'en est pas de même des recherches urbaines, parce qu'on n'aperçoit dans toutes les villes qu'un seul prototype : l'union de la substance physique (astu ; ville ; town) et de la communauté spirituelle(polis ; cité ; city), laquelle est typique des villes historiques à l'Occident. Pour ce qui est de l'unité complète de la «structure» et du «sens», on ne l'a trouvé nulle part ailleursque dans les villes européennes de tout temps historiques. C'est pourquoi Berque leur accorde une position de modèle idéal.Il nous marque son attitude de «recentralisation» en ce qu'il fait de la ville occidentale son cadre de référence. Pourtant ce n'est pas de l'ethnocentrisme, car il fait aussi du Japon une sorte de miroir réfléchissant sur lui-même et il fait par cela même le trajet entre «décentralisation» et «recentralisation», c'est-àdire qu'il accomplit une dialectique proprement mésologique. Et ce qui y joue un rôle de médiateur n'est pas le Japon, ni l'Europe, mais l'Amérique. Une triade «Japon-Amérique-Europe» apparaîtra ainsi avec l'intérêt de se situer dans une structure multipolaire internationale.Le Japon fonctionne alors comme miroir en ces sens : il reflète avant tout l'image positive ou idéale de la France(ou de l'Europe) et puis celle de l'Amérique avec sa réalité négative. Il reflète enfin l'image négative de l'Europe qui se laisse ronger par son double ennuyeux, l'Amérique. Tout cela signifie qu'il y a toujours, dans la pratique de la mésologie, un processus circulaire de «décentralisation- recentralisation». C'est ainsi que le «centre» se prépare à échanger sa place avec la «périphérie».
著者
李 暁辰
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.271-285, 2017-04

In this paper, I will examine academic activities and the human network at Keijō Imperial University, focusing on the 'Assistants Association of the Department of Liberal Arts'. This association was established in April 1934 by Nakayama Iwamitsu (中山岩光), Takeshita Teruhiko (竹下暉彦), Park Chi-woo (朴致祐), Shūda Tatsuo (習田達夫), Sano (佐野道), and Shōji (庄司秀一). They gathered 44 members in a year and a half. Most of the members had experience as assistants at Keijō Imperial University, and most of the assistants were graduates after 1929, when Keijō Imperial University started producing graduates. They held regular lectures more than 10 times between 1934 to 1935, and published the journal Gakkai twice in 1935. The two journals published contain 17 articles and three poems written by members of the association. This association is important because it gives us a clue about how young Korean and Japan scholars communicated in that period, and helps us understand what the role of the assistant position in Imperial University was like.