著者
陳 贇
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.279-296, 2012-04

The word "Min-do" first appeared in newspapers around 1888, but a clear etymology of the word has never appeared. This paper traces back the history of the word's formation and proposes the possibility that this word is a Japanese-created Chinese word influenced by Western thought. This paper also considers the reception of this word in China and researches its mutual relationship with "kokumin-teido (国民程度)" (the condeition of the people) in China during the first two decades of the 20th century.
著者
許 海華
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.44, pp.297-318, 2011-04

While Japan at the end of the Edo period revised their national seclusion system and started to set forward with internationally opening policy,it was the training of translators to communicate at practical negotiations with foreign countries that was most urgently required. In the case of To tsuji 唐通事,Chinese translators at Nagasaki during the Edo period, some of the youths transferred themselves to be in charge of two languages,from solo translation for Chinese to translation for both Chinese and English. They later became very active in the frontlines for diplomacy,education and translation because of their English abilities during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era. One of the typical examples was Ga Noriyuki. Ga Noriyuki was the person who flourished as a liege of Tokugawa Shogunate, a bureaucrat,an educator as well as a translator,who had been working as a Chinese translator at Nagasaki. It was his mastering English which brought him a great turning point for his life. This paper examines historical backgrouds and progress for Ga Noriyuki's mastering English from the view point of the alteration of To tsuji at Nagasaki during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era, through full survey on articles on his carrers.
著者
佐藤 健太郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.47-65, 2012-04

Milk and its by-products are naturally nutritious food, and people in ancient Japan enjoyed tasting them as foods, drinks, or medicines. On the other hand, milk and its by-products were closely related to the philosophy of Buddhism and were often supplied at Buddhist rituals. There have been many studies on ancient diets including milk and its by-products and we have obtained useful knowledge on nutritious foods in ancient Japan. Among the milk products, "So" (蘇), a type of dairy product made from layers of milk skin, has been re-produced, and Japanese people enjoy it as it was enjoyed in the ancient diet. Based on previous studies, in this article the author describes the use of milk and its by-products as well as the contribution system of offerings in ancient Japan. The newly found research materials including Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula (弘仁式逸文) that describe "So" (蘇), wooden plates (木簡), and clay pots (墨書土器) are used for discussion. Since materials useful for studying the contribution system of offerings (蘇) in the Heian Era are unavailable except for 延喜民部式貢蘇条 (a Japanese book of laws and regulations), the contribution system of offerings (蘇) earlier than Engishiki (延喜式) is not known. Thanks to Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula, the contribution system of offerings under regulation called Kouninsikisei (弘仁式制) has been clarified. By comparing the contribution system of offerings called Engishiki with that of Kouninshiki, every aspect of change, i.e., difference in systems and any historical factors for transformation, have been reviewed. It is not clear when the contribution system of offerings was changed from Kouninshiki to Engishiki, but it is certain that the contribution system of offerings (蘇) apparently existed until 887 (the 3rd year of Ninna) according to Kouninshiki.
著者
陳 贇
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.279-296, 2012-04

The word "Min-do" first appeared in newspapers around 1888, but a clear etymology of the word has never appeared. This paper traces back the history of the word's formation and proposes the possibility that this word is a Japanese-created Chinese word influenced by Western thought. This paper also considers the reception of this word in China and researches its mutual relationship with "kokumin-teido (国民程度)" (the condeition of the people) in China during the first two decades of the 20th century.
著者
二階堂 善弘
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.41-50, 2017-04-01

I have been engaged in research on temple guardian gods in Japan and China, as well as, over the course of several years, investigations into Buddhist temples in Vietnam. I have come to the conclusion that the Vietnamese temple guardian known as Duc chua ong has its origins in India Sudatta (Anathapindika). In mainland China some papers asset an Erlanshen infl uence from Zoroastrianism. I agree in part with this viewpoint.
著者
佐藤 健太郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.47-65, 2012-04

Milk and its by-products are naturally nutritious food, and people in ancient Japan enjoyed tasting them as foods, drinks, or medicines. On the other hand, milk and its by-products were closely related to the philosophy of Buddhism and were often supplied at Buddhist rituals. There have been many studies on ancient diets including milk and its by-products and we have obtained useful knowledge on nutritious foods in ancient Japan. Among the milk products, "So" (蘇), a type of dairy product made from layers of milk skin, has been re-produced, and Japanese people enjoy it as it was enjoyed in the ancient diet. Based on previous studies, in this article the author describes the use of milk and its by-products as well as the contribution system of offerings in ancient Japan. The newly found research materials including Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula(弘仁式逸文) that describe "So"(蘇), wooden plates (木簡), and clay pots(墨書土器) are used for discussion. Since materials useful for studying the contribution system of offerings (蘇) in the Heian Era are unavailable except for 延喜民部式貢蘇条 (a Japanese book of laws and regulations), the contribution system of offerings (蘇) earlier than Engishiki (延喜式) is not known. Thanks to Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula, the contribution system of offerings under regulation called Kouninsikisei (弘仁式制) has been clarified. By comparing the contribution system of offerings called Engishiki with that of Kouninshiki, every aspect of change, i.e., difference in systems and any historical factors for transformation, have been reviewed. It is not clear when the contribution system of offerings was changed from Kouninshiki to Engishiki, but it is certain that the contribution system of offerings (蘇) apparently existed until 887 (the 3rd year of Ninna) according to Kouninshiki.
著者
横山 俊一郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.48, pp.213-228, 2015-04

This paper examines the mutual relationship between the academic connections and the political practice of Adachi Seifu, a graduate of Hakuen-juku in Osaka and Shoheikoin Edo, as an example of the depth of Confucian learning that samurai engaged in practical affairs had acquired by the late Tokugawa period. Examples of Adachi's scholarly contacts are two men he befriended during the course of his education toward the end of the Tokugawa period: the Confucian scholar Mori Kiemon and the village headman Okubo Shichirozaemon. Adachi's political practice was embodied in a land reclamation project he conducted in the Shoboku district of Okayama prefecture after the Meiji Restoration of 1868. This examination reveals that Seifu saw the rise of an educated populace as desirable, and practical education in the classroom as crucial to achieving this end. The paper concludes with an examination of the scholarly connections and political ideas of Yamada Kodo, a graduate of the Kaitokudo in Osaka, and demonstrates that Adachi Seifu wasengaged in a practical implementation of Kodo's political vision.
著者
薄 培林
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.47, pp.207-224, 2014-04

In the late nineteenth century, the international order in East Asia was undergoing a transition from tradition to modernity. Relations among the nations in the region were being radically transformed. In the 1870s, confrontation between the Japanese and Chinese governments regarding sovereignty over the Ryukyu Islands was aggravated. In the midst of these difficulties, the late-Qing intellectual Wang Tao (王韜) was invited by Japanese scholars of Chinese literature and culture to Japan, where he made the acquaintance of many Japanese intellectuals of the period. Wang Tao's visit took place immediately after the Meiji government had carried out the "Ryukyu shobun" (policies that eventuated in the annexation of the Ryukyus by Japan as Okinawa Prefecture), a time when tensions between China and Japan had reached a new level. This paper focuses on the issue of the Ryukyus as a source of conflict between Japan and China in the 1870s and 1880s. It analyzes the related writings by Wang Tao and his Japanese acquaintances such as Nakamura Masanao (中村正直), Shigeno Yasutsugu (重野安繹), and Oka Senjin (岡千仞). It examines the question of how Japanese and Chinese intellectuals perceived the international status and identity of the Ryukyus in the rapidly changing East Asian international order, and how they associated the Ryukyu issue with Sino-Japanese relations at the present and the triangular relations of China, Japan and the Ryukyus in the future. At the same time, this paper will highlight the contradictions between the perceptions of these intellectuals concerning the Ryukyu issue and their proposals to "Develop Asia" (興亜), and analyze the nature of the intellectual shift toward modernity manifested in the perceptions of international relations and global politics by the Chinese and Japanese intellectuals of this period.
著者
許 海華
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.297-318, 2011-04

While Japan at the end of the Edo period revised their national seclusion system and started to set forward with internationally opening policy, it was the training of translators to communicate at practical negotiations with foreign countries that was most urgently required. In the case of To tsuji 唐通事, Chinese translators at Nagasaki during the Edo period, some of the youths transferred themselves to be in charge of two languages, from solo translation for Chinese to translation for both Chinese and English. They later became very active in the frontlines for diplomacy, education and translation because of their English abilities during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era. One of the typical examples was Ga Noriyuki. Ga Noriyuki was the person who flourished as a liege of Tokugawa Shogunate, a bureaucrat, an educator as well as a translator, who had been working as a Chinese translator at Nagasaki. It was his mastering English which brought him a great turning point for his life. This paper examines historical backgrouds and progress for Ga Noriyuki's mastering English from the view point of the alteration of To tsuji at Nagasaki during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era, through full survey on articles on his carrers.
著者
王 暁雨
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.49, pp.297-312, 2016-04-01

The word guomin in Chinese or kokumin in Japanese, which translates into Englishas either "nation" or "people", is not a term of modern coinage; it has been used sinceantiquity in both China and Japan. The promoting of the modern nation and its people is closely related to success or failure in the formation of the nation-state. Because of this, in both China and Japan, it has been said that the establishment of the concept of the "nation/people" (guomin, kokumin) is a crucial part of this modernization process. A look at the changing terminology for the constituent members of the state should be useful in clarifying what is subsumed under the concept of guomin/kokumin, as well as aiding towards a deeper awareness of the value judgments and interaction with foreign cultures that were involved in fostering the modern nation and its people. This paper offers a modest analysis of the changes in value judgments and personal perspectives thattook place in both China and Japan during the progress of modernization, both from theperspective of how the concept of the modern nation and its people was established, andby reference to the discourse of intellectuals regarding the constituent members of the state.
著者
山寺 美紀子
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.51, pp.111-143, 2018-04

This paper presents five newly-identified documents on music, written by OGYŪ Sorai (1666-1728). It first introduces two letters from the second month of 1720 (Kyōho 5) responding to questions posed by ARIMA Ujinori (1668-1736), a close confidant of the eighth shōgun of the Edo bakufu, TOKUGAWA Yoshimune. They describe the measurement system used in the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and changes in musical tonal systems and metrological standards over successive periods. This is followed by OGYŪ's notes on his work, Sango Yōryaku-kō (Reflections on Sango Yōryaku; believed to have been written in 1727 [Kyōho 12]) and on the music accompanying it. Sango Yōryaku-kō talks about a manuscript copy of Sango Yōryaku - a collection of musical notations for the Japanese gagaku biwa. The third document discusses historical materials concerning the seven-stringed qin, its strings, tonal system, and modes. The fourth, written in the fifth month of 1727 , discusses a work on music theory formerly held by the Kissui-in monastery. These four manuscripts are contained in historic documents owned by the OGYŪ family. For the purpose of presenting their contents, I have transcribed facsimile copies available in the Masao Maruyama Collection at the library of the Tokyo Women's Christian University. The fifth and final item comprises copies of four letters from OGYŪ which were contained among FUJISAWA Tōgai's manuscript copies in the Hakuen Collection at the Kansai University Library. In my opinion, OGYŪ most likely wrote them in 1725 (Kyōho 10) to the scholar of calendrical calculations, NAKANE Genkei (1662-1733), at around the time that the bakufu ordered OGYŪ to review Zhu Zaiyu's musical treatise, Yuelü quanshu (Complete compendium of music and pitch). From these letters, I have selected the parts concerning music and present them in transcription.
著者
三村 尚彦
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.A79-A100, 2018-04-01

Shusaku Arakawa (1936-2010) - a modern artist - and Madeline Gins (1942-2014) - a poet - interacted with numerous scientists, thinkers and philosophers, attempting to integrate science and philosophy into art. Among such scientists was Eugene Gendlin (1926-2017), a world-renowned advocate for focusing-oriented psychotherapy. Although it was known that Gendlin was writing a paper on Arakawa and Gins, until recently little was understood about what kind of interests Arakawa and Gins had in the Gendlin philosophy. In 2017, I examined manuscripts by Arakawa and Gins, which revealed that Eugene Gendlin had close academic relationships with Arakawa and Gins. Arakawa and Gins were interested in the function of blanks in poetry studied by Gendlin and David Kolb; Arakawa and Gins made notes on this, to which I succeeded in gaining access. This article focuses mainly on the arguments between Gendlin and Kolb, discussing the function of blanks in poetry and expanding on descriptions of the reasons for their different views on it. My purpose is to further advance the study of manuscripts by Arakawa and Gins. Kolb believes that the two categories of 1) symbols and 2) blanks represent felt meaning, and that they are independent discrete concepts that interact with each other, whereas Gendlin believes that these two categories are presented a priori, and that they do not interact with each other or provide support as discrete entities.
著者
李 暁辰
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.271-285, 2017-04

In this paper, I will examine academic activities and the human network at Keijō Imperial University, focusing on the 'Assistants Association of the Department of Liberal Arts'. This association was established in April 1934 by Nakayama Iwamitsu (中山岩光), Takeshita Teruhiko (竹下暉彦), Park Chi-woo (朴致祐), Shūda Tatsuo (習田達夫), Sano (佐野道), and Shōji (庄司秀一). They gathered 44 members in a year and a half. Most of the members had experience as assistants at Keijō Imperial University, and most of the assistants were graduates after 1929, when Keijō Imperial University started producing graduates. They held regular lectures more than 10 times between 1934 to 1935, and published the journal Gakkai twice in 1935. The two journals published contain 17 articles and three poems written by members of the association. This association is important because it gives us a clue about how young Korean and Japan scholars communicated in that period, and helps us understand what the role of the assistant position in Imperial University was like.
著者
中村 朋美
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.231-244, 2017-04

The purpose of this paper is to consider the trading design of the Russian Empirein the Seas of East Asia in the early 19th century. After the treaty of Kyakhta in1727, the Russian Empire and the Qing Dynasty maintained relations based on trade, and the trade in the only overland border town of Kyakhta increased year by year. At the end of the 18th century, however, Russia attempted to increase itsprofi ts from the trade. This request came to the fore when the Golovkin Embassy was dispatched to the Qing Dynasty by the Russian Empire in 1805‒06. Firstly, this paper illustrates the background to growing interest in Guangzhou trade, and how and why the Russian government dispatched the first Russian to circumnavigate the globe and the Golovkin Embassy at the same time. I then consider issues occurring related to the fur trade in Kyakhta by observation of Yu. A. Golovkin. Finally, it shows that analyzing the instruction given to Golovkin and the documents written by Russian government officials, the Russian government attempted to negotiate with the Qing for the rights to enter the Guangzhou Trade and the Amur River navigation rights, and Russia envisaged the establishment of trading routes that connected the three points, Guangzhou and the Jiangnan district (and Japan), the colonies in Kamchatka and Alaska, and central Siberia in the Seas of East Asia.
著者
奥村 佳代子
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.43, pp.131-142, 2010-04

There are two types of Chinese-language translations of the Japanese joruri (narrative drama) work "Kanadehon Chushingura" (The Treasury of Loyal Retainers: A Model for Emulation). "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) is a work translated by Nagasaki To Tsuji (Japanese interpreters of Chinese located in Nagasaki), and "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange, a colloquial Chinese-language translation of Chushingura) is a work completed by a Japanese intellectual. Both works were translated in the Edo Period."Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange) was long ignored as a Chinese language source, but comparing it with "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) revealed that it depicts the results of a Japanese intellectual learning a foreign language, i.e. Chinese.This paper begins by looking at the heterogeneity of vocabulary found in "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) and the diverse vocabulary found in "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange). It then examines how "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) is reworked in "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange). Finally, the paper profiles the translator of "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange) and discusses his translation style.
著者
原田 正俊
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.46, pp.17-31, 2013-04

In medieval Japan, the eight kenmitsu (exoteric-esoteric) Buddhism sects: the six sects of the Southern capital, the Tendai sect, and the Shingon sect, established orthodox Buddhism and became the mainstream of the Buddhist rituals. In the Kamakura period, however, Zen monks introduced Chinese Buddhist services and ascetic rules from Southern Sou and Yuan, from which point on the new Chinese-style Buddhist services spread into the Japanese society. During the Muromachi period, the zen Buddhist services started to incorporate Japanese elements, which was a new turn Japanese Buddhism took. Mannen-san Shokoku Jotenzen-ji ekou narabini sho, a document brought to one of the five great Zen temples in Kyoto, Shokoku-ji, provides important information on Zen Buddhist services during the Muromachi period and shows extensive practice of Zen services during that time. This paper analyses the structure and the content of this historical document, which has not been fully examined. The Shokoku temple was built by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who united the court nobles and samurai warriors. Yoshimitsu constantly performed big Buddhist services in this temple, through which the Muromachi shogunate promoted Buddhist policies to the public.
著者
毛利 英介
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.549-567, 2016-04-01

研究ノートTwo treaties were concluded between the Khitai and the Northern Song, in 1004 and 1042 respectively. The first is famous as the Treaty of Shanyuan; the second, the subject of the present paper, is referred to as "the revised treaty." A set of documents, known as the Guannan Oath, was exchanged between the Khitai and the Northern Song when the revised treaty was signed in 1042. The present paper specifically addresses the following:▪ A translation of the Guannan Oath into modern Japanese, and an analysis of itscomposition as a text.▪ A comparison of the provisions of the Guannan Oath with those of the Shanyuan Oath.▪ An evaluation of the historiographic value of the text of the Guannan Oath as contained in Sanchao beimeng huibian, which up to now has been overlooked.