著者
許 海華
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.44, pp.297-318, 2011-04

While Japan at the end of the Edo period revised their national seclusion system and started to set forward with internationally opening policy,it was the training of translators to communicate at practical negotiations with foreign countries that was most urgently required. In the case of To tsuji 唐通事,Chinese translators at Nagasaki during the Edo period, some of the youths transferred themselves to be in charge of two languages,from solo translation for Chinese to translation for both Chinese and English. They later became very active in the frontlines for diplomacy,education and translation because of their English abilities during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era. One of the typical examples was Ga Noriyuki. Ga Noriyuki was the person who flourished as a liege of Tokugawa Shogunate, a bureaucrat,an educator as well as a translator,who had been working as a Chinese translator at Nagasaki. It was his mastering English which brought him a great turning point for his life. This paper examines historical backgrouds and progress for Ga Noriyuki's mastering English from the view point of the alteration of To tsuji at Nagasaki during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era, through full survey on articles on his carrers.
著者
佐藤 健太郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.47-65, 2012-04

Milk and its by-products are naturally nutritious food, and people in ancient Japan enjoyed tasting them as foods, drinks, or medicines. On the other hand, milk and its by-products were closely related to the philosophy of Buddhism and were often supplied at Buddhist rituals. There have been many studies on ancient diets including milk and its by-products and we have obtained useful knowledge on nutritious foods in ancient Japan. Among the milk products, "So" (蘇), a type of dairy product made from layers of milk skin, has been re-produced, and Japanese people enjoy it as it was enjoyed in the ancient diet. Based on previous studies, in this article the author describes the use of milk and its by-products as well as the contribution system of offerings in ancient Japan. The newly found research materials including Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula(弘仁式逸文) that describe "So"(蘇), wooden plates (木簡), and clay pots(墨書土器) are used for discussion. Since materials useful for studying the contribution system of offerings (蘇) in the Heian Era are unavailable except for 延喜民部式貢蘇条 (a Japanese book of laws and regulations), the contribution system of offerings (蘇) earlier than Engishiki (延喜式) is not known. Thanks to Kouninshiki's lost writings' formula, the contribution system of offerings under regulation called Kouninsikisei (弘仁式制) has been clarified. By comparing the contribution system of offerings called Engishiki with that of Kouninshiki, every aspect of change, i.e., difference in systems and any historical factors for transformation, have been reviewed. It is not clear when the contribution system of offerings was changed from Kouninshiki to Engishiki, but it is certain that the contribution system of offerings (蘇) apparently existed until 887 (the 3rd year of Ninna) according to Kouninshiki.
著者
二階堂 善弘
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.41-50, 2017-04-01

I have been engaged in research on temple guardian gods in Japan and China, as well as, over the course of several years, investigations into Buddhist temples in Vietnam. I have come to the conclusion that the Vietnamese temple guardian known as Duc chua ong has its origins in India Sudatta (Anathapindika). In mainland China some papers asset an Erlanshen infl uence from Zoroastrianism. I agree in part with this viewpoint.
著者
陳 贇
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.279-296, 2012-04

The word "Min-do" first appeared in newspapers around 1888, but a clear etymology of the word has never appeared. This paper traces back the history of the word's formation and proposes the possibility that this word is a Japanese-created Chinese word influenced by Western thought. This paper also considers the reception of this word in China and researches its mutual relationship with "kokumin-teido (国民程度)" (the condeition of the people) in China during the first two decades of the 20th century.
著者
三村 尚彦
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.A79-A100, 2018-04-01

Shusaku Arakawa (1936-2010) - a modern artist - and Madeline Gins (1942-2014) - a poet - interacted with numerous scientists, thinkers and philosophers, attempting to integrate science and philosophy into art. Among such scientists was Eugene Gendlin (1926-2017), a world-renowned advocate for focusing-oriented psychotherapy. Although it was known that Gendlin was writing a paper on Arakawa and Gins, until recently little was understood about what kind of interests Arakawa and Gins had in the Gendlin philosophy. In 2017, I examined manuscripts by Arakawa and Gins, which revealed that Eugene Gendlin had close academic relationships with Arakawa and Gins. Arakawa and Gins were interested in the function of blanks in poetry studied by Gendlin and David Kolb; Arakawa and Gins made notes on this, to which I succeeded in gaining access. This article focuses mainly on the arguments between Gendlin and Kolb, discussing the function of blanks in poetry and expanding on descriptions of the reasons for their different views on it. My purpose is to further advance the study of manuscripts by Arakawa and Gins. Kolb believes that the two categories of 1) symbols and 2) blanks represent felt meaning, and that they are independent discrete concepts that interact with each other, whereas Gendlin believes that these two categories are presented a priori, and that they do not interact with each other or provide support as discrete entities.
著者
陳 贇
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.279-296, 2012-04

The word "Min-do" first appeared in newspapers around 1888, but a clear etymology of the word has never appeared. This paper traces back the history of the word's formation and proposes the possibility that this word is a Japanese-created Chinese word influenced by Western thought. This paper also considers the reception of this word in China and researches its mutual relationship with "kokumin-teido (国民程度)" (the condeition of the people) in China during the first two decades of the 20th century.
著者
横山 俊一郎
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.48, pp.213-228, 2015-04

This paper examines the mutual relationship between the academic connections and the political practice of Adachi Seifu, a graduate of Hakuen-juku in Osaka and Shoheikoin Edo, as an example of the depth of Confucian learning that samurai engaged in practical affairs had acquired by the late Tokugawa period. Examples of Adachi's scholarly contacts are two men he befriended during the course of his education toward the end of the Tokugawa period: the Confucian scholar Mori Kiemon and the village headman Okubo Shichirozaemon. Adachi's political practice was embodied in a land reclamation project he conducted in the Shoboku district of Okayama prefecture after the Meiji Restoration of 1868. This examination reveals that Seifu saw the rise of an educated populace as desirable, and practical education in the classroom as crucial to achieving this end. The paper concludes with an examination of the scholarly connections and political ideas of Yamada Kodo, a graduate of the Kaitokudo in Osaka, and demonstrates that Adachi Seifu wasengaged in a practical implementation of Kodo's political vision.
著者
李 暁辰
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.271-285, 2017-04

In this paper, I will examine academic activities and the human network at Keijō Imperial University, focusing on the 'Assistants Association of the Department of Liberal Arts'. This association was established in April 1934 by Nakayama Iwamitsu (中山岩光), Takeshita Teruhiko (竹下暉彦), Park Chi-woo (朴致祐), Shūda Tatsuo (習田達夫), Sano (佐野道), and Shōji (庄司秀一). They gathered 44 members in a year and a half. Most of the members had experience as assistants at Keijō Imperial University, and most of the assistants were graduates after 1929, when Keijō Imperial University started producing graduates. They held regular lectures more than 10 times between 1934 to 1935, and published the journal Gakkai twice in 1935. The two journals published contain 17 articles and three poems written by members of the association. This association is important because it gives us a clue about how young Korean and Japan scholars communicated in that period, and helps us understand what the role of the assistant position in Imperial University was like.
著者
許 海華
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.297-318, 2011-04

While Japan at the end of the Edo period revised their national seclusion system and started to set forward with internationally opening policy, it was the training of translators to communicate at practical negotiations with foreign countries that was most urgently required. In the case of To tsuji 唐通事, Chinese translators at Nagasaki during the Edo period, some of the youths transferred themselves to be in charge of two languages, from solo translation for Chinese to translation for both Chinese and English. They later became very active in the frontlines for diplomacy, education and translation because of their English abilities during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era. One of the typical examples was Ga Noriyuki. Ga Noriyuki was the person who flourished as a liege of Tokugawa Shogunate, a bureaucrat, an educator as well as a translator, who had been working as a Chinese translator at Nagasaki. It was his mastering English which brought him a great turning point for his life. This paper examines historical backgrouds and progress for Ga Noriyuki's mastering English from the view point of the alteration of To tsuji at Nagasaki during the periods from the end of the Edo to Meiji era, through full survey on articles on his carrers.
著者
中村 朋美
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 = Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental and Occidental Studies, Kansai University (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.50, pp.231-244, 2017-04

The purpose of this paper is to consider the trading design of the Russian Empirein the Seas of East Asia in the early 19th century. After the treaty of Kyakhta in1727, the Russian Empire and the Qing Dynasty maintained relations based on trade, and the trade in the only overland border town of Kyakhta increased year by year. At the end of the 18th century, however, Russia attempted to increase itsprofi ts from the trade. This request came to the fore when the Golovkin Embassy was dispatched to the Qing Dynasty by the Russian Empire in 1805‒06. Firstly, this paper illustrates the background to growing interest in Guangzhou trade, and how and why the Russian government dispatched the first Russian to circumnavigate the globe and the Golovkin Embassy at the same time. I then consider issues occurring related to the fur trade in Kyakhta by observation of Yu. A. Golovkin. Finally, it shows that analyzing the instruction given to Golovkin and the documents written by Russian government officials, the Russian government attempted to negotiate with the Qing for the rights to enter the Guangzhou Trade and the Amur River navigation rights, and Russia envisaged the establishment of trading routes that connected the three points, Guangzhou and the Jiangnan district (and Japan), the colonies in Kamchatka and Alaska, and central Siberia in the Seas of East Asia.
著者
奥村 佳代子
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.43, pp.131-142, 2010-04

There are two types of Chinese-language translations of the Japanese joruri (narrative drama) work "Kanadehon Chushingura" (The Treasury of Loyal Retainers: A Model for Emulation). "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) is a work translated by Nagasaki To Tsuji (Japanese interpreters of Chinese located in Nagasaki), and "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange, a colloquial Chinese-language translation of Chushingura) is a work completed by a Japanese intellectual. Both works were translated in the Edo Period."Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange) was long ignored as a Chinese language source, but comparing it with "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) revealed that it depicts the results of a Japanese intellectual learning a foreign language, i.e. Chinese.This paper begins by looking at the heterogeneity of vocabulary found in "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) and the diverse vocabulary found in "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange). It then examines how "Chushingura Engi" (An Adaptation of The Treasury of Loyal Retainers) is reworked in "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange). Finally, the paper profiles the translator of "Haiwai Qitan" (Tales of the Strange) and discusses his translation style.
著者
原田 正俊
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.46, pp.17-31, 2013-04

In medieval Japan, the eight kenmitsu (exoteric-esoteric) Buddhism sects: the six sects of the Southern capital, the Tendai sect, and the Shingon sect, established orthodox Buddhism and became the mainstream of the Buddhist rituals. In the Kamakura period, however, Zen monks introduced Chinese Buddhist services and ascetic rules from Southern Sou and Yuan, from which point on the new Chinese-style Buddhist services spread into the Japanese society. During the Muromachi period, the zen Buddhist services started to incorporate Japanese elements, which was a new turn Japanese Buddhism took. Mannen-san Shokoku Jotenzen-ji ekou narabini sho, a document brought to one of the five great Zen temples in Kyoto, Shokoku-ji, provides important information on Zen Buddhist services during the Muromachi period and shows extensive practice of Zen services during that time. This paper analyses the structure and the content of this historical document, which has not been fully examined. The Shokoku temple was built by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who united the court nobles and samurai warriors. Yoshimitsu constantly performed big Buddhist services in this temple, through which the Muromachi shogunate promoted Buddhist policies to the public.
著者
毛利 英介
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.549-567, 2016-04-01

研究ノートTwo treaties were concluded between the Khitai and the Northern Song, in 1004 and 1042 respectively. The first is famous as the Treaty of Shanyuan; the second, the subject of the present paper, is referred to as "the revised treaty." A set of documents, known as the Guannan Oath, was exchanged between the Khitai and the Northern Song when the revised treaty was signed in 1042. The present paper specifically addresses the following:▪ A translation of the Guannan Oath into modern Japanese, and an analysis of itscomposition as a text.▪ A comparison of the provisions of the Guannan Oath with those of the Shanyuan Oath.▪ An evaluation of the historiographic value of the text of the Guannan Oath as contained in Sanchao beimeng huibian, which up to now has been overlooked.
著者
北川 勝彦
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.51-64, 2008-04-01

This study is a part of wider research in which this author has been so far investigating into various aspects of liberation struggles in Southern Africa. In particular, discussions have been focused on the relations between guerrillas war and peasant society and legacies of liberation struggles in the post-independent Zimbabwe. It is also intended to research on decolonization of imaginations which had been constructed under the European colonial rule in Africa. Visual images invented under colonialism have played significant roles in disseminating political landscape of Southern Africa. This means that the study is not only about visuality but also cultural contacts and political encompassment engendered by European expansion in Africa. Specific attention is paid upon the Matopos Hills south of Bulawayo in colonial Zimbabwe. In the process of colonization, European settlers explored, exploited and conquered the new lands and converted landscapes of the Matopos to their own one. In other words, Europeans tried to make colonial landscapes fit with their concept of what they had learned in Europe. To begin with, the word pictures by Thomas Baines, the main producer of visual images of the nineteenth century Rhodesian landscape is analyzed. To the next, the meaning of Rhodes' interment in the Matopos is considered as one of the most significant rituals of colonization of landscape. After his funeral on April 10th 1902 nothing was spared in installing Rhodes as the "spirit" of the land. Finally African view of the Matopos is taken not merely as the site of struggle but the deeply rooted imaginations of their landscape in the late 1970s liberation struggles. For African people the cave is the nucleus of a living and active landscape and Mwali cult and shrines of the Matopos does all things to the landscape of the hills. There is no doubt that combination of stone and water is central to their imagination of the landscape of the Matopos. This had been shaped by an interaction with hunter gatherers, cultivators and cattle-keepers for thousands of years although it seemed to nineteenth century European travelers so wild.
著者
小野 文
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
no.40, pp.157-178, 2007-04

The present article examines the process of how Hieroglyphics and Chinese characters have been studied in parallel. The article includes the author's examination of how the perspective on relationships between Hieroglyphics Studies and Chinese Writing Studies was modified in the 19th century. To begin, we are going to outline several ideas of Sinologists on Egypt-China relation, that are formulated from the 17th century to the 19th century. Secondly, we will examine epistemological obstacles that prevented European Chinese Studies from facing the phonographical aspect of Chinese Writing. Lastly, we are going to analyze the development of Phonological Studies in the 19th century, and remark a similar tendency in Chinese Writing Studies in Europe.
著者
岡村 心平
出版者
関西大学東西学術研究所
雑誌
関西大学東西学術研究所紀要 (ISSN:02878151)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.381-393, 2017-04-01

This paper is a Japanese translation of "Arakawa and Gins: The Organism-Person-Environment Process" (Genedlin, 2013). The purpose of this paper is a comparative discussion about the project of Arakawa and Gins, and of Genedlin's philosophy. First, the author pointed that Arakawa and Gins used the word "persons" as a verb, and he introduce a new concept "inging" to emphasis that function of personing. Secondly, the inging process is compared with Arakawa and Gins's concept of "landing sites," and they are discussed from the perspectives of the implicit intricacy that characterizes his philosophy and practice. Thirdly, it is shown that there is a physical and direct means of accessing the implicit intricacy that is called a "felt sense." Finally, the author introduces TAE (Thinking at the Edge), which is a practice using felt sense to facilitate creative thinking and theorizing, and is shown in these examples.