- 一般社団法人 日本鉱物科学会
- 岩石鉱物科学 (ISSN:1345630X)
- vol.30, no.3, pp.126-156, 2001 (Released:2008-08-30)
Bandai volcano is located in the southern part of Tohoku-Honshu arc, Japan, and has been active from about 300 ka. Most recently, the volcano erupted in 1888 and the phreatic eruption caused volcanic body collapse and produced huge debris avalanche deposit. Here we present new data of the tephrochronology and volcanic geology of Bandai volcano and discuss its growth history. The tephra-loam association in this area consists of the Hayama and the Mineyama Loam Formations. Sixty-three layers of tephra are recognized in the Mineyama Loam Formation, and seventy-seven layers of tephra in the Hayama Loam Formation. The volcanic activity is classified into seven stages based on tephrochronology: Stage 1: 300 ka≤(presumed age), Stage 2: 300-280 ka, Stage 3: 250-230 ka, Stage 4: 170-85 ka, Stage 5: 75-57 ka, Stage 6: 36-28 ka, Stage 7: 24-0 ka. Pyroxene andesite lavas and tephras are eruptions of Bandai volcano throughout its activity, and more than 13 large avalanche deposits are found in Stages 2, 5, 6, and 7 including 1888 debris avalanche. Modes of eruptions were almost sub-plinian with lava effusions from Stages 2 to 3, whereas sub-plinian was subsequently followed by vulcanian with lava effusions from Stages 5 to 7. Sub-plinian eruptions occurred in the earliest phase of Stages 5, 6, and pumice falls with occasional pumice flows were associated. Stage 4 consists of two eruption types. Large debris avalanches were commonly produced related with the sub-plinian eruption, except for 1888 eruption. Bandai volcano is a complex of at least five stratocones, and resurge of volcanic activity caused collapse of pre-existed volcanic body. This cyclic feature is considered to be the behavior of the volcano.