著者
室井 一男
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.4, pp.197-200, 2015-10-15 (Released:2015-11-26)
参考文献数
3
著者
中村 成夫
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.3, pp.164-169, 2013 (Released:2013-07-08)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
2 2

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced from molecular oxygen. ROS are the reduced forms of molecular oxygen and have high reactivity to biological components e.g. lipid, protein, and nucleic acid. ROS are considered to cause various diseases e.g. arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cancer, and so on. A living body protects against ROS by antioxidant enzymes e.g. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Natural antioxidants e.g. ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) also scavenge ROS. Recently, some novel artificial antioxidants are synthesized and are expected to a lead compound for drugs.
著者
山本 馨 栗原 毅 福生 吉裕
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.179-180, 2012 (Released:2012-05-30)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
2 3

Anisakiasis is a disease characterized by the abrupt onset of sharp epigastric pain, typically a few hours after eating raw or undercooked seafood. At present, the most common effective treatment is endoscopic removal. However, over 23 years Yamamoto has used an antiallergic drug (Stronger Neo-Minophagen C) and prednisolone to treat more than 190 patients with anisakiasis diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and without endoscopy. In this report, Kurihara reconfirms the effectiveness of this unique treatment for patients with endoscopically diagnosed anisakiasis. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the combination therapy of an antiallergic drug and a corticosteroid is a reasonable, inexpensive, and safe method for treating anisakiasis.
著者
鈴木 俊治
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.102-104, 2015-04-15 (Released:2015-05-26)
参考文献数
12

We surveyed seven teenagers who gave birth without visiting antenatal clinics. Although six of the seven had been aware that they were pregnant, they had not felt able to talk with their parents about their pregnancies.
著者
高橋 秀実
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.3, pp.140-144, 2017-06-15 (Released:2017-07-20)
参考文献数
6
著者
松崎 利行
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.118-124, 2009 (Released:2009-05-15)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1 1

Aquaporins are membrane water channel proteins through which water permeates the lipid bilayer. So far 13 aquaporin isoforms, aquaporin-0 (AQP0) to AQP12, have been identified in mammals. They are classified into 3 subgroups: 1) aquaporins that selectively transfer water, 2) aquaglyceroporins that transfer some small solutes as well as water, and 3) unorthodox aquaporins. They are widely distributed in most water-handling organs, such as kidney, and play important roles in water transfer. For example, segment-specific expression of AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, AQP4, AQP6, AQP7, and AQP11 in the renal tubular epithelium enables water reabsorption to produce concentrated urine. Aquaporins are usually localized to the plasma membrane. Some isoforms, such as AQP2, are present in the intracellular membrane compartment. AQP2 in collecting duct cells translocates between intracellular vesicles and the cell surface via a membrane trafficking mechanism. Mutations of AQP2 result in congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This review summarizes the distribution and physiological importance of aquaporins, with a special focus on the kidney.
著者
東 直行 狩野 律子
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.4, pp.205-209, 2008 (Released:2009-01-15)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
2

Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a rare but severe disease associated with multiorgan failure. The association of DIHS with human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) has recently been reported. We report on an 89-year-old woman with allopurinol-induced DIHS diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and laboratory examinations. A rash appeared as erythema on the trunk and extremities and edematous erythema on the face. Renal dysfunction, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and atypical lymphocytes were also present. An elevated titer of antibodies against HHV-6 and HHV-6 DNA in the blood were observed during the course of the disease (1 : 20 to 1 : 1280). Discontinuation of allopurinol administration and systemic corticosteroid treatment led to an improvement, but symptoms worsened when the corticosteroid dosage was tapered. An elevated titer of antibodies against cytomegalovirus was detected during the course of the disease. The patient died of pneumonia, most likely related to cytomegalovirus. This case indicates that, in addition to the reactivation of HHV-6, reactivation of cytomegalovirus may modify clinical disease activity.
著者
三宅 弘一 島田 隆
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.150-156, 2012 (Released:2012-05-30)
参考文献数
10

Viral vectors are powerful tools for gene delivery and expression both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, many types of viral vectors have become commercially available and are easily used. It is important to choose appropriate viral vectors according to target cells and organs. In this technical note, we describe the characteristics of viral vectors and how to choose the appropriate viral vector to transduce target cells in vitro.
著者
東 直行
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.8-21, 2017-02-15 (Released:2017-03-07)
参考文献数
115

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Both abnormal barrier function and abnormal immune function are closely involved in the etiology of AD. Patients with AD have been subdivided into abnormal filaggrin, normal filaggrin, high immunoglobulin E, normal IgE groups, and so on. Regarding local cytokine profiles in the skin of patients with AD, the involvement of Th2, Th22, and Th17 cells at the acute stage, and the involvement of Th2, Th22, and Th1 cells at the chronic stage have been suggested. The IL-9 level has been reported to be higher in patients with AD than in healthy individuals, but it has also been reported that there are no differences in IL-9 levels between patients with AD and normal individuals. Thus, the role of IL-9 is unclear. The serum IL-18 level is high and induces Th2 reactions in patients with AD. IL-21 is thought to suppress IgE formation, but its activity in relation to AD remains unknown. IL-22 is involved in hyperplasia, increased antimicrobial peptide formation, and reduced filaggrin in patients with AD. IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin are produced in epidermal cells and activate type 2 innate lymphoid cells or premature dendritic cells, resulting in the induction of Th2 reactions. IL-31 is produced by Th2 cells, causing an itching sensation and scratching behavior. A correlation has been reported between serum IL-32 levels and the severity of dermatitis. IL-34 is an element of the control system that suppresses inflammation, but its activity in cases of AD is unknown. One published report describes a correlation between serum IL-37 levels and the severity of dermatitis, but this relationship has not been sufficiently clarified to date, and requires further analysis. In this review, the author has attempted to summarize reports on cytokine expression in patients with AD. The author expects that important cytokines and cells involved in the pathophysiology of AD will be revealed, contributing to strategies for treating AD.
著者
中村 成夫
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.25-30, 2013 (Released:2013-03-11)
参考文献数
7

Drug metabolism involves chemical reactions modifying pharmaceutical substances. Lipophilic chemical compounds are converted to hydrophilic compounds by enzymes related to drug metabolism. Some drugs are activated after drug metabolism; on the other hand, some xenobiotic compounds become toxic through these enzymes. Cytochrome P450 is an enzyme that plays a major role in drug metabolism. Metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 from one drug are predictable from the viewpoint of chemical reactivity. Novel metabolites from nonylphenol and bisphenol A are discovered considering the ipso-position metabolic reaction of cytochrome P450.
著者
小川 令 百束 比古
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.3, pp.121-128, 2005 (Released:2005-07-20)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
2 1

Keloids and hypertorphic scar often present difficulties in treatment, and they are a severe problem for every surgeon. In our department, keloids have been treated with multimodal therapy including excision, postoperative electron-beam irradiation, tranilast medication and pressure treatment using silicon gel sheets or bandages. Moreover, we have added a new protocol of electron-beam irradiation which the dose is changed by keloid sites. This trial proposes a new method. In this paper, we introduce some new twists to prevent recurrence of keloid being in use in our department, along with the future prospects of keloid treatment.
著者
折茂 英生
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.92-96, 2011 (Released:2011-05-06)
参考文献数
8

The delivery of genes into cells is a basic procedure in molecular biology. The induction of genes into prokaryotic cells is referred to as transformation, which is a basic method in gene cloning, whereas that into eukaryotic cells is called transfection. Several transfection methods have been reported: physical, chemical, and biological. In this technical note, a transfection method using cationic lipids is described for studies of gene function and the expression of mutant proteins.
著者
小澤 一史
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.1, pp.25-31, 2008 (Released:2008-03-17)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1 1

The neuroendocrine system of the hypothalamus is involved with the regulation of pituitary hormone secretion and with feeding, sexual behavior, stress response, and circadian rhythm. The neuronal networks for the regulation of feeding, sexual behavior, and stress responses communicate with and influence each other in a complex manner. This paper presents an overview of the interaction of these neuroendocrine systems, particularly from of the point of view of the mechanism of the onset of puberty.
著者
並松 茂樹 杉崎 祐一 土屋 眞一
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.4, pp.178-184, 2010 (Released:2010-11-09)
参考文献数
15

Current antigen retrieval techniques include the use of citrate buffer, Tris-HCl containing 5% urea, and EDTA solutions combined with heating in a microwave oven or autoclave. These methods must be adjusted for a given tissue or antigen. To improve the efficiency of antigen retrieval for immunohistochemical staining, we developed a new method using citraconic anhydride. We describe this new antigen retrieval method using 0.05% citraconic anhydride solution of pH 7.4 and heat. This antigen retrieval method produced satisfactory staining results for a wide variety of antigens.
著者
洲鎌 秀永 柿沼 由彦
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.3, pp.96-105, 2019-06-15 (Released:2019-07-10)
参考文献数
59

Stress has been well documented to bring about various clinical disorders, ranging from neurodegeneration, as seen in such conditions as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, to metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus. It is also known that dysregulation of immune responses in the brain is closely linked to clinical disorders. In fact, it is accepted that stress associated with daily activities, be it good or not, can affect immunity as well as general health. However, the effects of stress on immune functions, especially brain immune cells, are not fully understood. As for immune cells, three types of glial cells contribute mainly to brain immunity: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Microglia differ from the others in several aspects: first, they have a monocyte lineage; and second, they originate from the mesoderm, while astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, like neuronal cells, originate from the ectoderm. Thus, microglia are considered to be the central player in exerting immune functions in the brain. In this review, we describe the microglial responses induced by various kinds of stress and propose a possible mechanism by which stress induces microglial activation.
著者
三上 俊夫
出版者
日本医科大学医学会
雑誌
日本医科大学医学会雑誌 (ISSN:13498975)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.168-173, 2012 (Released:2012-05-30)
参考文献数
28

Regular exercise plays an important role in preventing metabolic diseases, the impairment of cognitive function, and the onset of depression. Regular exercise enhances adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the exercise-derived prevention of cognitive deficits and depression is closely related to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Both blood-derived factors and brain-derived factors are thought to contribute to the exercise-induced enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Blood-derived factors include insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) . Exercise increases the transport of these substances from the blood to the brain and increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In contrast the exercise-induced enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis can be blocked by inhibiting the binding of IGF-1 or VEGF to its receptor. On the other hand, brain-derived factors include brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or Wnt3. In particular, BDNF plays a wide range of roles in neuronal development and survival, and the exercise-induced enhancement of hippocampal BDNF contributes to the increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Aging and chronic stress impairs cognitive function, whereas regular exercise prevents age- or stress-induced impairment of cognitive function, the improvement of which is attributed to the action of IGF-1 or BDNF. In addition, the preventive effect of exercise on the onset of depression is also dependent on the improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis via BDNF or VEGF. These findings demonstrate that regular exercise helps maintain cognitive function and prevents depression in the elderly and the stressed; however, the mechanism of the exercise-induced improvement of cognition or depression remains unclear. Clarifying the mechanism via neuroscientific and molecular biological studies is needed to promote the usefulness of exercise for preventing cognitive deficits and depression.