著者
井原 なみは 入戸野 宏
出版者
広島大学大学院総合科学研究科
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:18817688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.37-42, 2012

In Japan, the word kawaii ("cute" or "adorable" in English) has become difficult to define because it is widely used for describing various objects. This study attempted to find common psychological factors in the feelings of kawaii toward different types of objects. Both male and female university students (N = 180) rated their feelings on six 5-point scales after imagining a scene in which they encountered each of four types of kawaii objects: objects with baby schema (e.g., infants, baby animals), humans (e.g., women, smiles), inanimate objects (e.g., accessories, sweets), and idiosyncratic objects (e.g., lizards, mushrooms). The scales consisted of two adjectives ("kawaii," "infantile"), two scales of approach motivation ("want to be closer to it," "want to keep it nearby"), and two scales of nurturance motivation ("want to help it when it is in trouble," "want to protect it"). Results show that kawaii and infantility ratings were correlated with each other only moderately. Partial correlation analyses revealed that higher kawaii ratings were associated with higher approach motivation, but not with higher nurturance motivation, across four categories. The findings were inconsistent with the baby schema hypothesis, which holds that the feeling of kawaii is linked with caregiving and protection for the young and the weak. Rather, the results suggest that the scope of kawaii is not limited to baby schema and that the feeling of kawaii can be better conceptualized as a positive emotion with strong approach motivation.
著者
松本 義明
出版者
早稲田大学人間科学学術院
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:18800270)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.92-92, 2012-03-26
著者
岡田 斉
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.25-34, 2006-12-20

This study aims to develop an abridged version of the Auditory Hallucination and Mishearing Questionnaire (SORAMIMI Questionnaire). The abridged version is designed to be used as a quick tool for the assessment of auditory hallucination, mishearing, and subjective hearing loss. Data from 469 university students were used to analyze the item statistics and psychometric properties. Twenty-four items with an optimal combination of high item-total correlations and reliability in assessing changes were selected for the SORAMIMI Questionnaire.
著者
相良 守次
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.19-27, 1983-03

資料はじめに――――われわれ人間科学部心理学研究室のスタッフは、研究室の相良守次教授を囲んで、先生と心理学をめぐるさまざまなお話を伺う会をもっている。この回は不定期ではあるが現在も継続中である。相良教授は日本心理学会の会長を務められたこともある心理学界の重鎮であり、先生のお話の中には、日本の心理学会の動向についての貴重な資料になりうる部分が多く含まれているように思われる。話していただくテーマはさまざまであるが、われわれはすでに約10時間に及ぶお話のテープを保管している。本稿は、1972年8月に東京で開催された第20回国際心理学会議(XXth International Congress of Psychology)について伺ったお話の一部をまとめたものである。当時相良教授は日本心理学会会長であり、その国際会議のための組織委員長を務められていた。本資料を得るための会合は1982年7月18日神奈川県葉山相洋閣で行われ、出席者は相良教授のほか人間科学部心理学研究室のスタッフ全員(高柳信子、 岡堂哲雄、 秋山胖、 上杉喬、 丹治哲雄、 大熊保彦)と総合研究室の森井利夫教授の計8名であった。なお本資料の収集と整理にあたり1982年度学部共同研究費の援助を受けたことを付記しておく (人間科学部心理学研究室一同)
著者
小林 孝雄
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
no.26, pp.67-75, 2004-12-20

The purpose of this article is to examine the definitions of empathic understanding made by Rogers(Rogers, 1957. 1959. 1975). He defined empathic understanding (or being empathic) as a "state" at first, and later as a "process". Some qualities of descriptions as follows were pointed out. The definition as a process includes descriptions about `to do', but some descriptions express the actions that can not be directly realized. The definition as a state describes the quality of subjective experiences that can be directly realized in nature, but have problem how to realize `as if' quality. The definition as a state is useful yet to consider realizing the therapists' conditions. And the definition as a process is useful rather in clinical practices.
著者
谷口 清
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, pp.55-63, 2012-03-01

G.Gottliebの発達理論、発達的心理生物学的システム論を概説した。 1)生体は遺伝子から環境まで多層の水準が双方向で作用するシステムである(双方向性)。 2)細胞は等能で、遺伝子は環境との相互作用によって発現し蛋白質を合成する(非決定性)。 3)発達は遺伝子から環境まで二つ以上の要因の相互作用(協働)である経験を通して遺伝子が発現し、機能・構造が形成される(確率論的後生説)。 発達科学構築にあたっての上記の主張の意義を考察し、今後の課題として人の発達環境の分析とそれを踏まえた世代の継承を担保する社会システム、養育システムのあり方を検証する必要性を指摘した。
著者
松嶋 淑恵
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, pp.185-208, 2013-03 (Released:2013-04-02)

The concept of Gender Identity Disorder has taken hold in Japan, allowing medical care and legal change of sex for people with Gender Dysphoria. However, there is a negative understanding that assumes having a gender identity that differs from one’s sex is a disorder. Individuals whose gender identity does not fit into a set category are also ignored. A solution based on medical model has little impact on gender dualism and gender norms and compels people who have a unique gender identity to adopt it. We investigated the impact of financial status, human relationships, and psychological problems based on quantitative approach that included various subjects with a unique gender identity. Results indicated that there were economic disparities similar to the male-female disparity for Mt and Ft and the male–male disparity for Mt and Mt. Subjects with a gender identity that was not generally recognized tended to be isolated in comparison to individuals with a typical GID. Anxiety about one’s transition led to inability to play the social role one wished more so than discontent with one’s physical transformation. Sustained efforts to tackle the problem posed by gender dualism, gender norms, and gender discrimination for the transgendered as well as the cisgendered must be made to create a society that includes people with Gender Dysphoria.性同一性障害概念ができたことにより性別違和をもつ人々に対する性別変更のための医療や制度が成されたが、性同一性障害は身体と異なる性自認をもつ事を疾患としてとらえる消極的な理解であるとともに、典型的な当事者にあてはまらない多様な当事者を不可視化している問題がある。また医学モデルに基づいた解決は、当事者を苦しめる男女二元論やジェンダー規範を揺るがさないまま当事者側だけが変化すべき対象であることを強いている。そこで、多様な当事者を対象に含め、量的調査法による実態調査を行い、特に経済状態の影響、他者との関係性、精神的問題について調査した。その結果、MtとFt間で男女間および男性間の経済格差が見られ、治療の機会不均等に影響していた。典型的性同一性障害像に比して認知度の低い性自認をもつ人は孤独に陥りやすかった。また、性別移行に関する不安は、身体変容が満たされないことよりも社会関係上で望む役割が果たせないことから生じることが明らかになった。性別違和をもつ人々が社会から排除されずに生きるためには、男女二元論やジェンダー規範、性差別といった非当事者にもかかわる問題に取り組み、社会が変化していくことが必要であると言える。
著者
宮島 三香子
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.48-57, 1984
著者
下村 五三夫 伊藤 大介 Shimomura Isao Ito Daisuke
出版者
国立大学法人北見工業大学
雑誌
人間科学研究
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.13-62, 2008-03 (Released:2016-11-22)

From the viewpoints of cultural anthropology and experimental phonetics, this paper dealt with a mysterious and little known game called rekukkara or rekuhkara performed by Sakhalin Ainus. This game is conducted by a pair of women, facing each other in a mouth-to-mouth distance, in the following way. One partner sends her guttural voice sounds into the mouth cavity of the other through a tube made of their hands. The guttural voice being applied into the receiver’s mouth can be modulated by the volume alteration of the mouth cavity. Similar games are recognized only among Chukchas and Canadian Inuits. In the framework of ‘speech synthesis by vocal tract simulation’, we proved that rekukkara is a kind of speech synthesis game. The key secret is for the voice receiver to hold her glottis shut and conduct some pantomimed articulation while the sender is sending her guttural voice into her mouth cavity. We argued that the game might be originated in the speaking jews-harp cultures and black-smith shamanism, one or both of which we can recognize among Ket, Sayan-Altaic, Tuvan, Buryat, Yakut, and Tungusic players of orally resonating instruments. We also pointed out that there is a correlation found between the bellows blowing air into the furnace at a black-smith’s work place and the guttural voice flowing into the mouth cavity of the game player. In the period of Mongolic domination, ancestors of the Sakhalin Ainu, who happened to move from the island to the Coast districts of now Russia, might have acquired from Tungusic players how to make orally applied noises transform into speech sounds. We also discussed the etymological question of a metallic jews-harp called kobuz, whose etymology is still unknown. Based on Tang dynasty 唐代 phonological reading of the eight names 渾不似,胡不兒,火不思,虎拍子, 琥珀 思,虎撥思,胡撥四,呉撥四cited in an Edo.period archive Geiennisshou .苑日 渉, we attested that the word 胡不兒belongs to Bulghar Turkic while the other seven variants to General Turkic. The phonological notation for 胡 不兒 is γοpur, whose ending 兒 /r/ seems to be a plural marker {-r} in Bulghar Turkic. The ending 兒/r/ contrasts with all the other endings 似, 思,子,四, whose phonetic value of the period of Tang dynasty is /s/, whose voiced variation /z/ is also a plural marker in General Turkic. Therefore, kobuz and its phonetic variations may be Turkic words, which can be decomposed into the two components, *kob- (noun) + -uz or -ur (plural marker). We conducted spectrographic analysis on the sound archives of rekukkara recorded by Bronislaw Pilsudski, a Polish exile to Sakhalin island from 1887 to 1903. We compared their sonograms with those of the sound recordings of the same game collected by NHK in 1950s and the sound recordings of its Chukcha and Inuit versions collected by K. Tanimoto in 1979 and 1992, respectively. We recognized that there appear speech synthesizing processes in the sonograms of the speech samples from Ainu sound archives compiled by NHK, which reinforces our hypothesis that the throat-exchange game rekukkara might have originated in speaking jews-harp cultures combined with black-smith shamanism in southern Siberia. As to the question of whether the Ainu rekukkara can be related with the Chukcha and Inuit versions, the answer solely depends on whether their sound recordings reveal the speech synthesizing processes in their sonograms.
著者
入戸野 宏
出版者
広島大学大学院総合科学研究科
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:18817688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.19-35, 2009

"Kawaii," which is often translated into English as cute, is regarded as a key concept characterizing modern Japanese culture. Many books and articles are published on this subject; however, these discussions are mostly based in humanities or social sciences. This paper provides the basic data and a framework for research on the concept of "kawaii" from a behavioral science perspective. First, I describe the dictionary meaning and history of "kawaii." Second, I investigate its frequency and familiarity in the Japanese language corpus: "kawaii" is used less often than "utsukushii" or "kirei" (both of which mean beautiful) in the written language, but is rated as being the most familiar among the three. Third, a total of 685 Japanese university students between 18 and 22 years of age answered three questionnaires, the results of which suggest the following: (1) the word "kawaii" has connotations of helpless, weak, small, loose, slow, lightweight, approachable, and familiar; (2) female students tend to apply "kawaii" to a wider range of objects (including adults and artifacts) more often than male students; (3) almost all female students find human babies "kawaii," whereas about 20% of male students do not; (4) about 90% of male and female students fi nd animals "kawaii;" (5) both male and female students are fond of and are interested in "kawaii" objects and believe that "kawaii" objects make them feel good and comforted; and, despite the above, (6) "kawaii" is rarely used as a standard of value for judging things. On the basis of these findings and in the light of past research, I propose a two-layer model of "kawaii" as a starting point for future empirical research. This model postulates that the base of "kawaii" is a positive emotion related to social motivation for protecting and nurturing others, which originally stems from affection toward babies and infants. In addition, it assumes that this cultureindependent, biological nature has been amplified and expanded by the characteristics of Japanese culture, suc