著者
下村 五三夫 伊藤 大介 Shimomura Isao Ito Daisuke
出版者
国立大学法人北見工業大学
雑誌
人間科学研究
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.13-62, 2008-03 (Released:2016-11-22)

From the viewpoints of cultural anthropology and experimental phonetics, this paper dealt with a mysterious and little known game called rekukkara or rekuhkara performed by Sakhalin Ainus. This game is conducted by a pair of women, facing each other in a mouth-to-mouth distance, in the following way. One partner sends her guttural voice sounds into the mouth cavity of the other through a tube made of their hands. The guttural voice being applied into the receiver’s mouth can be modulated by the volume alteration of the mouth cavity. Similar games are recognized only among Chukchas and Canadian Inuits. In the framework of ‘speech synthesis by vocal tract simulation’, we proved that rekukkara is a kind of speech synthesis game. The key secret is for the voice receiver to hold her glottis shut and conduct some pantomimed articulation while the sender is sending her guttural voice into her mouth cavity. We argued that the game might be originated in the speaking jews-harp cultures and black-smith shamanism, one or both of which we can recognize among Ket, Sayan-Altaic, Tuvan, Buryat, Yakut, and Tungusic players of orally resonating instruments. We also pointed out that there is a correlation found between the bellows blowing air into the furnace at a black-smith’s work place and the guttural voice flowing into the mouth cavity of the game player. In the period of Mongolic domination, ancestors of the Sakhalin Ainu, who happened to move from the island to the Coast districts of now Russia, might have acquired from Tungusic players how to make orally applied noises transform into speech sounds. We also discussed the etymological question of a metallic jews-harp called kobuz, whose etymology is still unknown. Based on Tang dynasty 唐代 phonological reading of the eight names 渾不似,胡不兒,火不思,虎拍子, 琥珀 思,虎撥思,胡撥四,呉撥四cited in an Edo.period archive Geiennisshou .苑日 渉, we attested that the word 胡不兒belongs to Bulghar Turkic while the other seven variants to General Turkic. The phonological notation for 胡 不兒 is γοpur, whose ending 兒 /r/ seems to be a plural marker {-r} in Bulghar Turkic. The ending 兒/r/ contrasts with all the other endings 似, 思,子,四, whose phonetic value of the period of Tang dynasty is /s/, whose voiced variation /z/ is also a plural marker in General Turkic. Therefore, kobuz and its phonetic variations may be Turkic words, which can be decomposed into the two components, *kob- (noun) + -uz or -ur (plural marker). We conducted spectrographic analysis on the sound archives of rekukkara recorded by Bronislaw Pilsudski, a Polish exile to Sakhalin island from 1887 to 1903. We compared their sonograms with those of the sound recordings of the same game collected by NHK in 1950s and the sound recordings of its Chukcha and Inuit versions collected by K. Tanimoto in 1979 and 1992, respectively. We recognized that there appear speech synthesizing processes in the sonograms of the speech samples from Ainu sound archives compiled by NHK, which reinforces our hypothesis that the throat-exchange game rekukkara might have originated in speaking jews-harp cultures combined with black-smith shamanism in southern Siberia. As to the question of whether the Ainu rekukkara can be related with the Chukcha and Inuit versions, the answer solely depends on whether their sound recordings reveal the speech synthesizing processes in their sonograms.
著者
入戸野 宏
出版者
広島大学大学院総合科学研究科
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:18817688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.19-35, 2009

"Kawaii," which is often translated into English as cute, is regarded as a key concept characterizing modern Japanese culture. Many books and articles are published on this subject; however, these discussions are mostly based in humanities or social sciences. This paper provides the basic data and a framework for research on the concept of "kawaii" from a behavioral science perspective. First, I describe the dictionary meaning and history of "kawaii." Second, I investigate its frequency and familiarity in the Japanese language corpus: "kawaii" is used less often than "utsukushii" or "kirei" (both of which mean beautiful) in the written language, but is rated as being the most familiar among the three. Third, a total of 685 Japanese university students between 18 and 22 years of age answered three questionnaires, the results of which suggest the following: (1) the word "kawaii" has connotations of helpless, weak, small, loose, slow, lightweight, approachable, and familiar; (2) female students tend to apply "kawaii" to a wider range of objects (including adults and artifacts) more often than male students; (3) almost all female students find human babies "kawaii," whereas about 20% of male students do not; (4) about 90% of male and female students fi nd animals "kawaii;" (5) both male and female students are fond of and are interested in "kawaii" objects and believe that "kawaii" objects make them feel good and comforted; and, despite the above, (6) "kawaii" is rarely used as a standard of value for judging things. On the basis of these findings and in the light of past research, I propose a two-layer model of "kawaii" as a starting point for future empirical research. This model postulates that the base of "kawaii" is a positive emotion related to social motivation for protecting and nurturing others, which originally stems from affection toward babies and infants. In addition, it assumes that this cultureindependent, biological nature has been amplified and expanded by the characteristics of Japanese culture, suc
著者
園生 智広
出版者
早稲田大学人間科学学術院
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:18800270)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.補遺号, pp.129-130, 2009-03-25
著者
原 正幸
出版者
広島大学大学院総合科学研究科
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:18817688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.65-86, 2006

Caput III (Summa)Candidato Ainuusy, qui tres menses in Schola ista laborabat, formaliter permittitur fieri ibi discipulus; coepit <musicae inaudibili> studere, legens Platonis TIMAEUM in linguam latinam traductum, cum modum clamandi doceatur a discipulo seniore Enysorpho ad echoem redire faciendam. Post annum, cum directore Oxecnarf de constructione in illo dialogo animae mundanae colloquto, comprehendit <harmoniam mundi> et suspicatur quaestionem: quid enim sit <revolutio animae humanae>? Cujus explicationi auxilio director commodat ei libros quinque chinense scriptos qui XIANG-WU-QIONG (i.e. Resonat ut numquam exhauriatur) nominantur.第三章(摘要)三箇月在那箇學院作為候補生工作的埃奴虛正式得到入學許可。為了鑽研〈不可聽的音樂musica inaudibilis〉, 他開始學習柏拉圖〈尊子TIMAIOS〉的拉丁文譯, 同時接受由師哥艾女簑兒夥Enysorphos綀習發聲的指導。一年之后, 通過圍繞宇宙靈魂的構成跟院長沃色納爾夫Oxecnarf問答, 他理解〈宇宙之和諧harmonia mundi〉和認識到一箇難題: 〈人的靈魂的回轉運動〉就是什麼意思? 因此院長討他思索貸出以〈響無窮〉為題的無名氏所著的文章。
著者
田畑 暁生
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:13404474)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.21-32, 2003-03