著者
潮木 守一
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.2-16, 1971-10-15

In 1968, OECD published the statistics in the educational structure of labour forces, from which we can learn the occupational structure of the higher education graduates in sixteen countries. (1) The higher education qualified labour forces among the total labour forces show a ratio about 2 or 3% in most European countries, above 7% in Japan,10% in Canada, and 19% in U. S. A. The former can be called the lower educated societies, the latter the higher educated societies. (2) In the lower educated societies, above 70% of the higher education graduates are absorbed in the professional and technical occupations, while in the higher educated societies only 40-50% are absorbed in such occupational category. That is to say, the traditional privilege of higher education graduates has been lost in the higher educated societies and a considerable number are forced to seek their occupation in clerical, sales or manual jobs. (3) On the other hand, in higher educated societies the chances for the non-higher education graduates to get a professional or technical occupations have diminished considerablly. It means that the positions of the professional and technical occupations are exclusively monopolized by the higher education graduates. For instance, about 75% of the professional and technical occupations are taken by the higher education graduates in U. S. A., while it is about 30% in most European countries. (4) Thus the higher education in the higher educated societies has lost the privileged function to guarantee its graduates for the professional and technical occupations, but in the meanwhile the higher educational qualification has become a more and more neccessary prerequisite to get a professional or technical occupation. (5) Here appears the differentiation among the higher education graduates. Some of the graduates are engaged in the professional and the technical jobs, and others in the clerical, sales and manual jobs. This allocation seems to be due to the following factors. A. A vertical functional differentiation in the higher education. For example, the graduates of the graduate schools are likely to get professional and technical occupations and the graduates of universities or junior colleges are likely to be engaged in clerical, sales and manual jobs. B. A horizontal functional differentiation in study fields. For instance, graduates of law or technical faculties are engaged in professional and technical occupations, and graduates of other faculties, in clerical, sales and manual jobs. C. An informal differentiation between the high-ranked universities and colleges and low-ranked ones.
著者
潮木 守一
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, pp.5-22, 2008-12-15

Yano and Hamanaka have analyzed recent trends in the ratio of advancement to higher education in Japan, and concluded that the increased financial burden on households has been a blocking factor in recent years. They argue that a public policy for reducing the financial burden is needed, and that if such a policy is implemented, it will lead to increased advancement to higher education. As methodology they adopt a time-series multi regression of Japan as a single unit, using several economic variables such as starting salary of high school graduates, household income, unemployment rate and tuition fees. In this paper, the author uses a similar time-series multi regression, but broken down into 47 prefectures, and with the addition of variables describing the educational system such as student capacity in metropolitan areas and in local prefectures. From this analysis, the author finds that economic factors do not have a significant effect on the advancement ratio, and that educational system variables have a greater influence in determining the advancement ratio. In contrast to Yano and Hamanaka, the author argues that the negative attitude toward advancement to higher education in recent years lies not outside of the educational system, but rather inside of the system of higher education. Curricular innovation to provide more relevant content is the key to attracting more students to higher education. In an age where more than 50% of youngsters advance to higher education, enriching teaching content is a more important task than providing financial support. Researchers on higher education should pay greater attention to the educational system itself rather than factors outside of the system.
著者
喜多村 和之 大膳 司 安原 義仁 手塚 武彦 潮木 守一
雑誌
海外学術研究
巻号頁・発行日
1987

日本の高等教育の改革と質的水準の向上にとって, 高等教育機関とくに大学の設置認可のありかた, 設置のための基準の弾力化, 適切な大学評価の方法に関する知織は緊要の課題である. しかるにこの問題に関しては, 日本国内の実態はもとより, 諸外国の事例についても情報が欠如しており, 改革実施の障害になっている. この研究は, 主要先進諸国における大学設置および大学評価の方法と実態について外国の教育情報に詳しい専門家による現地調査を行ない, 今後の日本の高等教育の改革と水準向上の施策のために資することを目的とする.(1)アメリカ合衆国の高等教育機関の設置認可は, 従来は大学の自由設立の原則にもとづき, その認可機関たる州政府の関与はゆるやかで, 認可の基準や手続きも簡素であったが, 近年では学位の乱造の防止や消費者保護の見地から, 州政府の関与の度合いもつよまり, 規制が厳格化される傾向にある. いくつかの州では設置認可基準の厳格化や法制度の整備, さらには新設大学の視察・監督の強化が進行しつつある.(2)アメリカ合衆国においてはすでに1930年代より民間の基準協会が一定の質的基準に到達した大学のみを会員校としてみとめ, 一定期間の実地調査や事後審査にもとづいて大学の質的向上をはかる基準適用活動(Accreditation)を行なっている. 連邦政府や州政府は, 基準協会の認定をうけた会員校のみに公費援助の受給資格を認めており, このことが更には大学内部に自己点検と自己改善を刺激する源泉ともなっている.(3)今年度においては, アメリカ合衆国における大学設置と大学評価システムの実態調査を実施し, 収集情報およびデータの分析は次年度において行なわれる. なお新年度にはさらにヨーロッパ諸国(イギリス, 西ドイツ, フランス)の実態調査と分析を行う予定であり, 以上の欧米諸国の関連情報とデータの比較・分析をふまえて, 日本の土壌にふさわしい大学設置と大学評価システムのありかたを考察する予定である.
著者
潮木 守一
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.7-25, 2008-06-15

At 1954, Professor Yoshihiro SHIMIZU of Tokyo University emphasized that the Educational Population Study could be a major topic in the field of the sociology of education. He was well informed regarding contemporary research trends in French sociology, and was very aware of the importance of the Population Study. Since then, several students in the sociology of education have engaged themselves in the study of educational populations. Governments have compiled statistics on education like student population, number of teachers and educational expenditure. In some countries these statistical data can be traced back to the middle of the 19th century. The first scholar who attempted a systematic analysis of such governmental educational statistics was Friedrich Edding in Germany. In 1957, he published International Trends in Educational Expenditures. In this book he compared trends of educational expenditures in several countries since the middle of the 19th century. From this time-series comparative study he drew the conclusion that countries which had attained a similar level of economic development should have similar sizes of educational systems and similar sizes of investment in education. In 1961, he presented a keynote paper to the OECD conference on "Economic Growth and the Investment in Education" along with Svennilson and Elvin, pointing out the existence of a strong correlation between the enrolment ratio and per capita GNP of OECD member countries. At the same time, they examined the ratio of educational expenditures to GNP, and they broke down 5 components which determine the ratio of educational expenditure among GNP, like proportion of school age population among total population, enrollment ratio, ratio of average teacher salary against GNP p.c. and per-teacher student ratio. This formulation has made possible international comparison of those educational indicators. Furthermore this formulation has made possible the simulation of educational expenditure allocation. This simulation model is now used by various international cooperation agencies to make clear trade-off relationship between various educational indicators. Stimulated with these research trends overseas, several Japanese students of educational population has started to analyze the trends of Japanese educational population based on modified models which have been developed in oversea countries. The author, who studied with Friedrich Edding since 1968, forecasted required numbers of high school and educational expenditure necessary for this expansion in 1974. Since then, various research outputs have been produced in the field of educational population studies. One major task facing this field of study is to extend the research perspective beyond the borders of one country. With globalization, movements of educational populations should no longer be confined within one country's borders. A second task is to encourage follow-up studies to ensure the quality of research outcomes in the field of educational population studies. Japanese scholars of sociology of education produce a large research output every year. However, most lack connections with the outputs of their colleagues. Outside people are much interested with those research outcomes, but most of the outcomes are not verified objectively by colleagues. Therefore, outside people are skeptical about whether these findings of particular experts are reliable because of the lack of follow-up studies. Recently, there have been strong opinions in factor of "Evidence-based policy." To put this into reality, we need to vitalize the cross-check studies, follow-up studies on research output done by our colleague researchers in the field of educational population studies.
著者
潮木 守一
出版者
一般社団法人日本教育学会
雑誌
教育學研究 (ISSN:03873161)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.2, 2011-06-30
著者
潮木 守一 矢野 眞和 市川 惇信 宮澤 彰 植草 益 山本 眞一 小林 信一 浦田 広朗 三浦 真琴
巻号頁・発行日
1994-03 (Released:2010-03-08)

科学研究費補助金 研究種目:総合研究(A) 課題番号:04306021 研究代表者:潮木 守一 研究期間:1992-1993年度
著者
潮木 守一
出版者
筑波大学大学研究センター
雑誌
大学研究 (ISSN:09160264)
巻号頁・発行日
no.30, pp.67-86, 2004-01

ご紹介いただきました潮木と申します。私は普段からワンサイド・レクチャーは好きではありませんので、どうぞ話の途中でもかまいませんから「そこのところをもうちょっと説明してほしい」、あるいは「別な言葉で言い換えたらどうなのか」など ...
著者
潮木 守一
出版者
筑波大学
雑誌
大学研究 (ISSN:09160264)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, pp.51-57, 1998-03

ご紹介いただきました潮木でございます。「政府と大学」というテーマ、それも「国立大学から見て」をいうことで依頼を受けました。今朝からずっといろいろお話がありまして、ほとんど問題点は出尽くしているのではないかと思います ...

1 0 0 0 IR 教員養成

著者
潮木 守一 Ushiogi Morikazu 名古屋大学 Nagoya University
出版者
東洋館
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.78-90, 1973-10-15

After the World War II, the teacher training system in Japan was reorganized and all of the higher education institutions including junior colleges were authorized to issue the centificate for teacher under the condition to claim students a few units for the professional studies of the principle of education and educational psychology, and a few weeks for teaching practice. This system is called "open system". Besides this open system, however, teacher training colleges still exist and have supplied most of teachers in the elementary schools and some in the lower secondary schools. This open system has been criticized mainly by governmental committees, for instance, Central Advisory Committee for Education and Advisory Committee for Teacher Training System, because of the overissue of teacher's certificates and the loose and less substantial training of teachers. Although Governmental Committees have tried several times to level up and to make strict the minimum standard of certification, these trials have always failed with the opposition of various interest groups including teacher's unions. They have insisted that those reforms should lead to increase of the governmental control over the higher education, to less opportunities for students of universities and colleges other than teacher training colleges to obtain certificates for teachers, and as a result to the revival of the normal school in the pre-war period, which had been under the strict governmental jurisdiction. The main problem seems to find how to coordinate the contradictory interests between teacher training college and other institutions of higher education by avoiding the governmental control over the higher education, especially over the teacher training colleges.