著者
山内 麻理
出版者
日本労務学会
雑誌
日本労務学会誌 (ISSN:18813828)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.37-55, 2016-12-01 (Released:2018-04-05)
参考文献数
40

Dual system of vocational education and training in Germany has been undergoing periodic revisions to meet new requirements in a changing environment and it still maintains a pivotal position in German labor market. However, those reforms to reflect the changes in technology and industry structure have caused dualization and diversification of training occupations, resulting in the co-existence of those requiring more abstract knowledge and theories and those primarily requiring OJT. In the former, dual system now competes with higher education such as universities in order to secure highly capable young people. Low birth rate and globalization of education and labor markets have also increased the interest of German youth in higher education. To cope with this situation, German firms have invented new training options in order to attract highly capable youth, who have graduated from gymnasium with very good scores. For example, dual study program (DSP) is a hybrid system which offers apprentices opportunities of participation in firmbased OJT and higher education at the same time, while receiving training allowances. Since both initial vocational qualification and bachelor degree can be obtained on fast track, DSP is rapidly gaining popularity. More training options are now available for highly capable German youth, while it is becoming more difficult for graduate from hauptschule, a major supplier of apprentices in the past, to receive training positions that lead to good income. In addition, active updating and sophistication of existing occupations have been accompanied by a side effect of crowding out small companies from dual system due to increased costs. Similarly, DSPs are offered almost exclusively by large firms. Thus, within German vocational education and training, disparities among firms as well as among apprentices are now becoming more salient. When we look at another important institution of collective bargaining, coverage ratio of industry based agreements have now substantially fallen. Segmentalization or dualization of collective bargaining and vocational education and training are observed simultaneously.
著者
川端 由美子
出版者
日本労務学会
雑誌
日本労務学会誌 (ISSN:18813828)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.26-42, 2018-05-01 (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
44

This study examines the human resources management systems for spousal transfers, including workplace transfer programs, administrative leave for trailing spouses programs, and reemployment programs. It was revealed that, even when companies had human resources management systems in place to deal with spousal transfers, they were not necessarily thorough in their responses.Workplace transfer programs are offered by companies across the country, implementing course based personnel management systems. Such programs have often been used, but transfers for trailing spouses pose difficulties for the following four reasons. First problem is location. A job location must be found within a territory where the trailing spouse’s company operates, where there must be a job opening, and the more rural area is, the fewer jobs it has. Second problem is job content; as the work may vary according to the workplace locations, one may have to make a choice to opting for the location or for a job in which one has experiences. Third, such programs are part of regular personnel rotations, hence, there is a time lag before starting the new job. The program applicants have to deal with issues involved in the job transfer while waiting for the company’s decision on whether the relocation is accepted. Fourth, such programs do not envision reuse within a short period of time. Though reuse is formally possible, it is not culturally accepted.Administrative leave for trailing spouses programs is mainly set to prevent women in career track positions from resigning. In many companies, such programs are limited to those whose spouses have been transferred overseas. This non-statutory leave involves the following three issues. First, such programs contain several restrictions: approval authority lies with the company and the total of each leave period must be within the fixed limit. These restrictions make it impossible for such programs to meet individual needs. Second, administrative leave causes a gap in one’s career. Because such programs are not statutory, the companies do not offer assistance in reentering the work force, and it is not even considered. Third, cases of domestic transfers are basically ineligible. In addition, there are no plans to expand such eligibility.Reemployment programs are implemented as a form of mid-career hiring, so they are easy to introduce, and many companies have done so. Reemployment after being out of the work force is not the continuation of employment but a way to restart employment, which involves the following three issues. First, taking advantage of these programs is difficult unless the employee’s spouse’s transfer has been stopped, because there is a limit to the number of years that one may be out of the work force. Second, similar to administrative leave for trailing spouses programs, there would be a gap in one’s employment history, so getting back into one’s career is difficult. Third, reemployment possibilities are determined by companies’ needs since such programs can be customized for responding the business climate.Job transfers affect not only the transferred ones but also their spouses’ companies. Companies that transfer employees are on both the giving and receiving ends of this impact. However, the fact is that companies have little awareness of it. Even if they introduce human resources management systems for spousal transfers, they are unable to carry them out well. When a company transfers an employee, it is crucial to consider how to support the employee, which includes provision of an adequate explanation beforehand, coordination between the company and the employee, and achievement of a mutual agreement.
著者
小薗 修 大内 章子
出版者
日本労務学会
雑誌
日本労務学会誌 (ISSN:18813828)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.1, pp.50-68, 2016-06-01 (Released:2018-01-24)
参考文献数
38

There has been an increasing interest in the question of how to enhance the effectiveness of the training program through a smooth transfer of the contents of Off-JT to the workplace. While the literature identifies several factors that contribute positively to the training effect, they have not been empirically validated and little is known about the transmission channels through which these factors enhance the training effect. Based on the questionnaire survey on participants in four training programs, this study empirically validates that those factors do have a positive impact on the training effect, and identifies the transmission channels. Specifically, we find that all ten factors identified in the literature ('learning readiness', 'personal match with the content and timing of training', 'training environment', 'quality of peers', 'post-training interaction', 'practice readiness', 'willpower', 'supervisor support', 'workplace climate' and 'motivation to grow') positively contribute to the training effect, and also make the following findings: (1) a causal relationship exists among some of those factors ('learning readiness' → 'personal match' → 'practice readiness' → 'willpower'); (2) 'supervisor support' and 'working climate' positively influence 'learning readiness', but 'motivation' does not affect 'learning readiness'; (3) 'training environment' and 'peer quality' have a direct positive impact on 'personal match', while 'personal match' is indirectly affected by 'supervisor support' through 'peer quality', by 'workplace climate' through 'training environment', and by 'motivation' through 'training environment' and 'peer quality'; (4) 'motivation' and 'post-training interaction' have a direct positive impact on 'willpower', while 'supervisor support' and 'workplace climate' have an indirect positive impact on 'willpower' through 'post-training interaction'; (5) there exists a positive correlation among 'supervisor support', 'workplace climate', and 'growth will'.