著者
多田 功
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.3SUPPLEMENT, pp.S49-S67, 2008 (Released:2008-11-10)
参考文献数
103
被引用文献数
1 1

For a long period Japan was a country with a variety of parasites linked to the geo-climatic features of the country and agricultural modes. However national endeavors to promote parasite controls resulted in the successful elimination of those parasites by around 1970. In this short article, I briefly overview the control programs of soil-transmitted parasites, lymphatic filaria, Schistosoma japonicum and malaria, and cite some of the characteristic features and remarkable facts revealed in the course of individual control programs.
著者
山下 俊一
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2SUPPLEMENT, pp.S93-S107, 2014 (Released:2014-09-26)
被引用文献数
5

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the “Fukushima Health Management Survey Project” for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management.
著者
山下 俊 一
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2014-S14, (Released:2014-05-24)
被引用文献数
5

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the “Fukushima Health Management Survey Project” for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management.
著者
椿 忠雄 近藤 喜代太郎
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
熱帯医学会報 (ISSN:21861773)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.66-69, 1964-05-20 (Released:2011-05-20)
参考文献数
12

Our study of neurological disorders in Amami-Oshima Island in Eastern Chinese Sea is introduced and some neurological problems in tropical Asian-Oceanian regions are briefly reviewed in this symposium.1) Neurological study in Amami-OshimaWe studied all the inhabitants in a part of Amami-Oshima situated 129° E & 28° N, to find neurologic cases. 104 male and 98 female patients with various neurologic disorders were found among 15, 406 in habitants by means of information survey. The prevalence rate per 100, 000 were estimated 447.8 for hemiplegic state secondary to cerebrovascular accidents, 90.9 for epileptic seizure, 375.0 for mental deteriorations, 64.9 for cerebral infantile palsy, 45.4 for the Parkinsonism, suggesting no significant difference compared with those in the other parts of the world.Then we tried to find cases residing in the whole island with either primary muscle diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or diseases of recent neuroepidemiologic interest. We viewed all the in-and outpatient records for past five years at the Medical Departments in Kagoshima University and Oshima Prefectural Hospital. We confirmed 2 cases of chronic polymyositis, 4 of progressive muscular dystrophy and 1 of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Their prevalence rates are identical with those in the other parts. Besides, we encountered 10 cases of peculiar progressive muscular atrophy of neural origin affecting especially lower limbs. Though they show some similarity to Charcot-Marie's disease, they could be attributed to some endemic nutritional or toxic etiology.2) Recent neurological studies in tropical Asian-Oceanian regions.a) Multiple sclerosis is more prevalent in northerncountries in Europe and America than in southern. This parallelity is confirmed in Australia. Though MS has been believed to be quite rare in Japan, its prevalence rate is recently estimated to be 2-3 per 100, 000, far less than that in European countries. Devic's disease is found in 12.5 % of MS in Japan and in 1 % or less in Europe, suggesting racial factor as well as climatic in this demyelinating disease. MS is more common among white people than the natives in New Zealand and Fiji Islands.b) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the remarkable nervous disease called Dementia-Parkinsonism-Complex are astonishingly numerous among Chamor rosin Guamanian Islands. Their correlation is subject to many studies. Neurofibrillary change and granulovacuolar degeneration are found in a similar fashiort in both condition besides their own histological changes.c) Kuru is the unique heredodegenerative disease solely encountered in Fore tribes in the Western Highland of New Guinea. It is a sample of race specific disease of nervous system and studied from various points.d) A variety of neurological studies is now getting on in many of Asian countries. The vast reservoir of neurological diseases in the tropical regions is just beginning to be tapped, and it is likely to yield a wealth of information. On February, 1963, the Commission of Tropical Neurology in the World Federation of Neurology, had reported on the activities in Asia. It is studied neurolues in Ceylon, tuberculoma, lepra, cysticercosis and other neurological infections, postvaccinal demyelinating disease outbursted in South-Eastern Asia, Pellagra, Mn intoxication, multiple sclerosis, Wilson's disease and cerebrovascular disorders in India. It is also reported that nutritional neuropathies are studied in Malaya, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, postvaccinal demyelination in Philippines, various neurological infections in Thailand and Taiwan.
著者
Endurance A. Ophori Musa Y. Tula Azuka V. Azih Rachel Okojie Precious E. Ikpo
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2013-13, (Released:2014-04-23)
被引用文献数
2 30

Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria.
著者
小森谷 武美 海老沢 功
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
熱帯 (ISSN:2186179X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3-4, pp.147-152, 1973-03-31 (Released:2011-05-20)
参考文献数
34
著者
Nguyen Phuoc Long Nguyen Tien Huy Nguyen Thi Huyen Trang Nguyen Thien Luan Nguyen Hoang Anh Tran Diem Nghi Mai Van Hieu Kenji Hirayama Juntra Karbwang
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.3, pp.121-126, 2014 (Released:2014-09-10)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1 3

BACKGROUND: Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research.METHOD: PubMed electronic library was used to retrieve publications of all fields and ethical issues. JoinPoint regression analysis was used to identify the significant time trends of publications of all fields and ethical issues, as well as the proportion of publications on ethical issues to all fields over the past half century. Annual percent changes (APC) were computed with their 95% confidence intervals, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: We found that publications of ethical issues increased during the period of 1965–1996 but slightly fell in recent years (from 1996 to 2013). When comparing the absolute number of ethics related articles (APEI) to all publications of all fields (APAF) on PubMed, the results showed that the proportion of APEI to APAF statistically increased during the periods of 1965–1974, 1974–1986, and 1986–1993, with APCs of 11.0, 2.1, and 8.8, respectively. However, the trend has gradually dropped since 1993 and shown a marked decrease from 2002 to 2013 with an annual percent change of –7.4%.CONCLUSIONS: Scientific productivity in ethical issues research on over the past half century rapidly increased during the first 30-year period but has recently been in decline. Since ethics is an important aspect of scientific research, we suggest that greater attention is needed in order to emphasize the role of ethics in modern research.
著者
Tomohiko Takasaki
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.4SUPPLEMENT, pp.S13-S15, 2011 (Released:2012-04-01)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
16 24

Several dengue outbreaks occurred in Japan from 1942 to 1945. Dengue fever emerged in Nagasaki in August 1942 and soon spread to other cities such as Sasebo, Hiroshima, Kobe and Osaka, recurring every summer until 1945 and constituting the greatest outbreak in the temperate zone. Domestic outbreaks have not been reported in Japan since then. However, the number of imported dengue cases has increased year by year: 868 imported cases were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2010 according to the Infectious Diseases Control Law. Moreover, 406 imported cases were confirmed to be dengue virus infection among 768 dengue suspected cases received at NIID from 2003 to 2010. A total of 142 cases (35.6%), 103 cases (25.8%) and 62 cases (15.5%) were noted in the 20–29, 30–39 and 40–49 age groups, respectively. Infecting dengue virus serotypes were determined for 280 of the 406 cases. The number of cases infected with each of the 4 serotypes was 98 (35%) with type 1, 78 (28%) with type 3, 72 (26%) with type 2, and 32 (11%) with type 4. Sixty percent of dengue cases were imported from July to October, the summer vacation season in Japan.
著者
ODA TSUTOMU SUGENAGA OSAMU ZAITSU MAKOTO MORI AKIO KUROKAWA KENJI FUJITA KOICHIRO OGAWA YASUNORI YAMAZAKI ICHIRO IIDA KUNIHIRO DOI KOUICHI MINE MARIKO KATO KATSUTOMO
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
日本熱帯医学会雑誌 (ISSN:03042146)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.133-137, 1995-06-25
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
3

The positive rate of dogs with Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae among house dogs was examined for 27 years from 1968 to 1994 in the southern and northern parts of Nagasaki City. Roles of the number of the main vector, Culex plpiens pallens and of RPSS (rate of population utilizing a sewage system) were analyzed statistically in relation to the annual changes in microfilarial prevalence. In the southern and northern parts, there was a clear correlation among three parameters of the positive rate in the dogs, the number of Cx. p. pallens and RPSS. The present study proved that the decrease in the positive rate of dogs in both the southern and northern parts is mainly attributable to a decrease in the number of Cx. p. pallens. which resulted from the decrease of the breeding places of this mosquito following the spread of the public sewage system and the improvements in the use of roads and open roadside ditches.
著者
中村 正
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
熱帯 (ISSN:2186179X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.44-46, 1970-09-10 (Released:2011-05-20)
著者
森下 哲夫
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
熱帯医学会報 (ISSN:21861773)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.10-11, 1960-04-20 (Released:2011-05-20)
著者
James H. Diaz Chih-yang Hu
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.3, pp.79-95, 2009 (Released:2009-09-30)
参考文献数
72
被引用文献数
1 1

Seafood is an important source of dietary protein worldwide, especially for coastal and island dwellers who now comprise 70% of the world’s population. Besides being high in protein and providing 40% of the world’s protein intake, seafood is low in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and contains unique long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Two seafood PUFAs, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) inhibit platelet aggregation and reduce mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke. Although the United States (U.S.) scientific community has recommended a Mediterranean-type diet, based on beneficial PUFAs in seafood, the European scientific community has cautioned that the increasing methylmercury levels in seafood may counteract any cardioprotective effects of PUFAs and actually increase risks of MI. This review describes the health benefits of seafood consumption and makes recommendations for the safe selection and preparation of seafood. In addition, this review describes the burden of seafood-borne diseases, separates seafood-borne toxic, heavy metal, and pesticide poisonings from seafood-borne infectious diseases; and makes recommendations for the management and prevention of seafood-borne illnesses. With the exception of some of the toxic seafood-borne illnesses, most seafood-borne infectious diseases, heavy metal poisonings, and pesticide poisonings can be prevented by careful selection and preparation of fresh seafood and adherence to weekly seafood consumption advisories, especially for those at highest risk of methylmercury poisoning, such as women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or of child-bearing age, and children age seven and younger. A balanced diet combining protein from a variety of sources, including carefully selected and prepared seafood, along with natural antioxidants from fruits and vegetables is recommended to prevent seafood-borne diseases and to promote health and longevity.
著者
Nojima Hisatake Katamine Daisuke Kawashima Kenjiro Nakajima Yasuo Imai Jun-ichi Sakamoto Makoto Shimada Masaaki Miyahara Michiaki
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
日本熱帯医学会雑誌 (ISSN:03042146)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.3, pp.181-193, 1978-12-15

ケニア国タベタ地区での淡水産貝類は以下の8属11種である。即ちBiomphalaria pfeifferi(Krauss),B. sudanica (Martens),Bulinus globosus (Morelet),B. tropicus (Krauss),B.forskalii (Ehrenberg),以上5種は住血吸虫との関係種,Lymnea natalensis (Krauss),Ceratophallus natalensis(Krauss),Segmentorbis angustus (Jickeli),Gyraulus costulatus (Krauss),Bellamya unicolor (Olivier),Melanoides tuberculata (Muller)である。B. pfeifferiはLumi川と灌漑用溝に, B. sudanicaはJipe湖畔に,それぞれの多数の棲息をみたが,マンソン住血吸虫の自然感染はB. pfeifferiのみに見られた。B.globosusは灌漑用溝のみに多数棲息し,B. tropicusは灌漑用溝とJipe湖畔に,B. forskaliiは少数ながらあらゆる水系に見出された。ビルハルツ住血吸虫の自然感染はB. globosusのみに見出され,その貝の棲息数が多いと約10%の高い感染率が常時認められた。一方これらの実験感染では,B. pfeifferiには3隻のミラシジウムで,B. sudanicaには5隻のそれで100%感染が成立し,両種ともマンソン住血吸虫の好適な中間宿主であることがわかった。B. globosusは1.5~8.5mmの若い貝は5隻のミラシジウムで100%感染が成立し,11~12mmの成貝では20隻以上のミラシジウムが必要である。ビルハルツ住血吸虫の好適な中間宿主であることがわかった。以上からタベタ地区でのマンソン住血吸虫症,ピノレハルツ住血吸虫症の媒介中間宿主として,前者にはB. pfeifferiとB. sudanicaが,後者にはB.globosusが主な役割を演じていることが推測される。The present study was carried out in the permanent water streams of Lumi River, Irrigation Furrow and Lake Jipe in the Taveta area, Coast Province, Kenya during the dry seasons of 1974 and 1975, and the experimental infection was made at laboratory in Japan. Freshwater snails collected in the Taveta area were as follows: Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss), B. sudanica (Martens), Bulinus globosus (Morelet), B. tropicus (Krauss), B. forskalii (Ehrenberg), Lymnea natalensis (Krauss), Ceratophallus natalensis (Krauss), Segmentorbis angustus (Jickeli), Gyraulus costulatus (Krauss), Bellamya unicolor (Olivier) and Melanoides tuberculata (Muller). B. pfeifferi was commonly found in river and irrigation canal, whereas B. sudanica only in lake. Natural infection of Schistosoma mansoni was found in B. pfeifferi, but not in B. sudanica. Both the two species were experimentally proved to be suitable intermediate snail hosts of S. mansoni. Therefore it was indicated that B. pfeifferi is the host snail of S. mansoni in the endemic area along river and irrigation canal while B. sudanica is suspected of playing the role in the transmission of S. mansoni in lakeshore. B. globosus was commonly found in irrigation canal. Around 10 per cent of the snails proved to be naturally infected with S. haematobium on the conditions that many snails occurred. This snail was also experimentally proved to be susceptible to S. haematobium. B. forskalii was widespread, but the snail density seemed to be low. B. tropicus is well known as the not-intermediate snail host of S. haematobium. Therefore there might be a possibility to contribute only by B. globosus to the transmission of S. haematobium in this area.
著者
Hermann Feldmeier Osuke Komazawa Kazuhiko Moji
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2014-S15, (Released:2014-05-27)
被引用文献数
1 1

This article summarizes observations made in Northern Uganda and a lecture given at the Nodding Syndrome Workshop in Nagasaki September 2013. The objective of the manuscript is to summarize the current knowledge on nodding syndrome and to provide an agenda for investigations into the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and care management of nodding syndrome in Uganda.
著者
Basu D. Pandey Takeshi Nabeshima Kishor Pandey Saroj P. Rajendra Yogendra Shah Bal R. Adhikari Govinda Gupta Ishan Gautam Mya M. N. Tun Reo Uchida Mahendra Shrestha Ichiro Kurane Kouichi Morita
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2012-17, (Released:2013-08-20)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
6 23

Dengue is an emerging disease in Nepal and was first observed as an outbreak in nine lowland districts in 2006. In 2010, however, a large epidemic of dengue occurred with 4,529 suspected and 917 serologically-confirmed cases and five deaths reported in government hospitals in Nepal. The collection of demographic information was performed along with an entomological survey and clinical evaluation of the patients. A total of 280 serum samples were collected from suspected dengue patients. These samples were subjected to routine laboratory investigations and IgM-capture ELISA for dengue serological identification, and 160 acute serum samples were used for virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that affected patients were predominately adults, and that 10% of the cases were classified as dengue haemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome. The genetic characterization of dengue viruses isolated from patients in four major outbreak areas of Nepal suggests that the DENV-1 strain was responsible for the 2010 epidemic. Entomological studies identified Aedes aegypti in all epidemic areas. All viruses belonged to a monophyletic single clade which is phylogenetically close to Indian viruses. The dengue epidemic started in the lowlands and expanded to the highland areas. To our knowledge, this is the first dengue isolation and genetic characterization reported from Nepal.
著者
Suwonkerd Wannapa Prajakwong Somsak 津田 良夫 高木 正洋
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
日本熱帯医学会雑誌 (ISSN:03042146)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.113-115, 1997-09-15

A field study was carried out in 2 villages of Phare Province, Thailand to evaluate effect of the residual spraying of a microcapsulated formulation of 20% fenitrothion (Sumithion 20 MC(R)) on Anopheles minimus populations. In the treatment village, houses were sprayed with 1g/m2 of fenitrothion, except for 2 houses which were selected to spray with 0.5g/m2 of fenitrothion for comparative bio-assay test. The results of bio-assay test showed that mortality of An. minimus was 100% in 1g/m2-30 miniutes until 4 months after the spray. The growth rate of An. minimus population during the first 4 months of the study period in the treatment village was lower than that in the control area. These results suggested that the residual spray of fenitrothion microcapsules at the beginning of the dry season was effective at least for 4 months after the spray and could suppress the density of An. minimus.
著者
Duc Tuan Dinh Mai Thi Quynh Le Cuong Duc Vuong Futoshi Hasebe Kouichi Morita
出版者
日本熱帯医学会
雑誌
Tropical Medicine and Health (ISSN:13488945)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.3-7, 2011 (Released:2011-03-24)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
22 39

We designed a new set of primers for reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to specifically amplify the HA gene of avian influenza viruses subtype H5N1. By testing nine H5N1 virus strains and 41 clinical samples collected in Northern Vietnam, we found that the new primers showed higher sensitivity and specificity than the previously published RT-LAMP primers and were comparable to the RT-PCR method currently recommended by WHO. These results suggest that our RT-LAMP assay may be a better choice as a diagnostic tool for current H5N1 influenza virus infection.