著者
西山 崇
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究. 第II期 (ISSN:00227692)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.259, pp.129-137, 2011-09-27

This article examines engineering and military ethics in the Japanese Navy during World War II. It focuses on what a group of engineers did from 1944 to 1945 for research and development of MXY 7, the world's only aircraft specifically created and deployed for suicide missions. Contrary to common portrayals of the military operation, I argue that the process was complicated and contested, especially among the engineers. They remained neither monolithic nor fanatic, rationally debating inherently moral issues within themselves. The engineers' detailed calculations, design blueprints, and personal memos during the war testify to this untold story of the war.
著者
伊藤 憲二
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究 (ISSN:21887535)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.288, pp.266-283, 2019 (Released:2021-01-24)

This paper examines one of the most publicized scientific scandals in Japan before the end of WWII, Takeuchi Tokioʼs alleged discovery of artificially induced radioactivity in common salt. In 1936, Takeuchi, then an associate professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology, claimed a discovery of a new way to produce a radioactive substance. According to his paper, he could induce radioactivity in common salt by a gamma ray from a radium source. When Takeuchiʼs patent for this alleged discovery was announced, Nishina Yoshio and other researchers at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) objected. A debate took place at a monthly meeting of the Mathematico-Physical Society of Japan in June 1941. The controversy ended when Takeuchi and Nishikawa Shōji conducted an experiment to confirm that Takeuchiʼs result was due to contamination from the radium cells, and Takeuchi withdrew his patent. This incident attracted much media attention: Newspapers and magazines published many articles on it. By examining the debates and the media coverage, this paper analyzes how Nishina and other nuclear physicists sought to set a clear boundary between acceptable and unacceptable studies of radioactivity, and shows that not only researchers, but also newspapers treated and demonstrated to the public the studies of radioactivity as something rationally verifiable, rather than magical or mysterious, indicating that the relation between the lay public and nuclear physics at that time was far more sophisticated than previously suggested. The paper concludes by discussing how such boundary work was possible in the given socio-cultural context.
著者
中村 滋 杉山 滋郎
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究. 第II期 (ISSN:00227692)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.240, pp.209-219, 2006-12-01
参考文献数
61
被引用文献数
2

HOSHINO Kasui (1885-1939), who graduated in mathematics from Tokyo Higher Normal School, wrote and published The Study of Geometry by the CHART System, a math study book for entrance exams, in 1929. Since then, the study books, which are named CHART System, have been published for over 75 years. Therefore, it can be said that the CHART System is an established method of study used in study books. However, there exists no previous research on the CHART System or its founder, HOSHINO Kasui. This paper clarifies the following two points: 1) Origin of the CHART System: The CHART System was developed by Hoshino Kasui in cooperation with his business involving the publication of a monthly magazine and several study books for entrance exams as well as through his managing and teaching experiences in a cramming school. 2) Features of the CHART System: The features of the CHART System become evident upon comparing the solution provided by Hoshino and that provided by a previous study book with regard to the same question. Hoshino led students to the solution by providing CHARTs, which were precepts based on solution scenarios that did not require dependence on rare inspiration. Hoshino's CHART System, which he extracted from numerous solution scenarios, was the first step in the compilation of solutions to questions in study books into a manual.
著者
水沢 光
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究. [第III期] (ISSN:21887535)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.272, pp.379-396, 2015-01-31

This paper analyzes the distribution of the Subsidiary Fund for Scientific Research, a predecessor to the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI), which operated in Japan from the 1930s to 1950s. It reveals that the Japanese government maintained this wide-ranging promotion system since its establishment during the war until well into the postwar period. Previous studies insist that, at the end of the war, the Japanese government generally only funded the research that it considered immediately and practically useful. In contrast to this general perception, my analysis illustrates that both before and after the war, funding was allotted to four research areas: natural science, engineering, agriculture, and medicine. In order to illuminate this continuity, I compare the Subsidiary Fund with another research fund existing from 1933 to 1947: the Grant of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). The comparison demonstrates that the JSPS received externally raised capital from the military and munitions companies. However, while this group focused upon engineering and military-related research as the war dragged on, the Subsidiary Fund has consistently entrusted scientists with the authority to decide the allocation of financial support.
著者
平田 光司 高岩 義信
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究 (ISSN:21887535)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.293, pp.38-52, 2020 (Released:2021-01-24)

Inter-University Research Institutes (IURIs) are supposed to be shared properties of the researchers of corresponding disciplines. The Institute of Nuclear Study (INS) affiliated to the University of Tokyo was the first IURI equipped with large scientific facilities. A newly found set of records, collected and archived by Hiroo Kumagai, a former professor of INS, gives us new insights and interpretation of the history of the INS and its successors. INS was designed to be managed democratically on the sole basis of the common will of all nuclear physicists in Japan (the autonomy of the research community). It conflicted with the principle of the autonomy of the university. It is shown that the conflict of the two different kinds of autonomy was one of the motivations to create a new, larger physics institute, the Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK). Because of this historical background, KEK and other newer IURIs could provide “virtual” autonomy for researchers, though they are formally the institutes operated by the government.

4 4 0 0 OA 科学史研究

著者
日本科学史学会 編
出版者
日本科学史学会
巻号頁・発行日
1991
著者
渡邊 洋之
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究. [第Ⅲ期] = Journal of history of science, Japan. 日本科学史学会 編 (ISSN:21887535)
巻号頁・発行日
no.270, pp.169-181, 2014-07

This paper discusses some facts that were pivotal in the process of the introduction of Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, into various places in Japan, however have not been considered in the existing literature. This paper points out that L.macrochirus escaped, and also was stocked, to the open water in Osaka as a result of experiments by a fisheries experimental station in the 1960s and early 1970s. In Shiga Prefecture too, the fish escaped into Lake Biwa as a result of experiments by a fisheries experimental station in about 1969. Neither Osaka nor Shiga are mentioned, by previous studies based on questionnaire research, as the prefectures in which L.macrochirus inhabited in the years between 1960, when the fish was first introduced into Japan, and 1979. In addition, anglers, who considered L.macrochirus an ideal game fish, stocked ponds and lakes in some prefectures with L.macrochirus in around 1970 on purpose to multiply the species. During this process, a network among not only local governments, fisheries experimental stations, and fish farmers, but also industries targeting anglers, such as fishing tackle makers and a magazine for anglers, was being formed, which however did not get established after all. These findings will contribute to enrich the basis of today's genetic research on the distribution of L.macrochirus in Japan.
著者
小林 学
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究. 第II期 (ISSN:00227692)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.254, pp.65-77, 2010-06-25

Seikan Ishigai argued that the most critical innovation involving boilers was changing their shapes, for example from cylindrical to water-tube boilers. Poor material and processing technology made the development of the water-tube boiler difficult in the 19th century. Ishigai didn't pay enough attention to the material technology of boilers. In the late 1930's, H.W. Dickinson and E.C. Smith wrote a comprehensive history of the stationary and marine steam engine respectively. But they didn't pay proper attention to the relationship between engines and boilers. The author tries to explain the transition from cylindrical to water-tube boilers using steel for marine navigation. The popularization of thermodynamics among engineers and ship-owners stimulated the invention of the high-pressure marine steam engine. In the 1870's, Alexander Carnegie Kirk tried to make a water-tube boiler for the triple expansion engine. But it was too complex to put the water-tube boiler into practical use. Around the same time, William Siemens invented the open hearth steel process. In the 1880's, Kirk adopted cylindrical steel boilers and triple expansion engines. The practical application of the water-tube boilers required the invention of seamless steel tube. Understanding the transition from cylindrical to water-tube boilers alone isn't sufficient to understand the comprehensive history of the steam engine. Material and processing technology played a decisive role in the development of the marine boiler in that period.
著者
和泉 ちえ
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究. 第II期 (ISSN:00227692)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.185, pp.43-47, 1993-03-19

The motif of Ovid's Metamorphoses is to tell of bodies changed into new forms. The present author, by reading the texts with an analytical method, comes to recognize that Ovid used some philosophical terms such as Latin 'corpus', 'forma', 'mutare' for the purpose of constructing his philosophical cosmology, that is so closely related to the concept and behaviours of 'corpus' found in Greek natural philosophy. There are few classical scholars who have ever paid their attention to Ovid's concept of 'body' i. e., 'corpus' because they have classified him as a poet of amorous poems. Ovid himself would not make use of this knowledge of natural science only for the rhetorical purpose. Metamorphoses belongs to the Hellenistic tradition of aetiological literature, which combines geographical, historical and scientific information with the legendary materials. We should remember that litterae', in the Augustan Age, was used for representing any texts written in any forms and implying philosophy and science as Cicero said and some contemporary linguistic philosophers have advocated. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, even a soul is described in terms of 'corpus'. The mutability of 'corpus' is actualized in both legendary world and the physical world. We come to know that such aetiological expressions play an important role in telling us the 'cause and effect', i. e., 'aitia' of marvelous phenomena. Based on this thesis, the present author assumes that Ovid certainly tried to construct a new view of the world by unifying myths with the natural philosophy.
著者
OKI Sayaka
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
Historia scientiarum. Second series (ISSN:02854821)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.82-91, 2013-12-31

The term 'mixed mathematics' originally derived from the Aristotelian framework of sciences in which mathematics treated abstract entities and could be 'mixed' with sensible properties in varying proportions. Its history is deeply concerned with major events in history of science: the mathematicians' manifesto on mathesis universalis at the end of the sixteenth century, the impact of Newtonian sciences at the end of the seventeenth century and the development of algebraic analysis in continental Europe in the latter half of the eighteenth century. The first two contributed to extending the scope of mathematics to the cognitive territory of the natural philosophers, and the third encouraged the further enlargement of its scope to the fields of engineering and even those of social human activities such as economics and demographics. It was at the beginning of the nineteenth century that the notion of 'mixed mathematics' gradually disappeared and was replaced by a set of modern terminologies.
著者
山口 歩
出版者
日本科学史学会
雑誌
科学史研究. 第II期 (ISSN:00227692)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.181, pp.9-18, 1992-03-25
参考文献数
96
被引用文献数
2

In japanese power plants, water-tube boilers had been used since the end of nineteenth century. By 1910, water-tube boilers for japanese battleships had come to be manufactured in Japan. But most of boilers in the japanese power plants were made by Babcock & Wilcox Co. in United States or England. In this paper, the author has analyzed what the most important factor was for Babcock & Wilcox boilers to be equipped in japanese power plants, and has examined the reason why few boilers made by japanese factories used in the power plants. Babcock & Wilrox Co. got the first patant for the water-tube boiler in 1867, and worked out main technical problems in their boilers before 1880. So the boilers made by Babcock & Wilcox Co. were spreaded widely in United States by the end of nineteenth century. One of the merits of the Babcock & Wilrox boiler was the good water circulation system, but some other water-tube boilers, the Heine boiler or the Miyahara boiler for example, had also the same merits. A more impotant merit peculiar to the Babcock & Wilrox boiler was the high durability during to the absence of deteriorating strains, and so the boilers seldom required repairs.