- 環境変異原研究 (ISSN:09100865)
- vol.26, no.2, pp.125-133, 2004 (Released:2005-12-21)
Reactive oxygen species generated by environmental factors, such as radiation, UV and chemicals can cause sequence-specific DNA damage and play important roles in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. We have investigated sequence specificity of oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage by using 32P-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the human c-Ha-ras-1, p53 and p16 genes. Free hydroxyl radicals cause DNA damage with no marked site specificity. Copper-hydroperoxo complex caused DNA damage at thymine, cytosine and guanine residues. 1O2 preferentially induces lesions at guanine residues. Benzoyloxyl radical specifically causes damage to the 5’-G in GG sequence; this sequence is easily oxidized because a large part of the highest occupied molecular orbital of this radical is distributed on this site.Recently, we demonstrated that BP-7,8-dione, a metabolite of carcinogenic benzo [a] pyrene (BP) , strongly damaged the G and C of the 5’-ACG-3’ sequence complementary to codon 273 of the p53 gene in the presence of NADH and Cu (II) . BP-7,8-dione also caused preferential double base lesion at 5’-TG-3’ sequences. Since clustered DNA damage is poorly repaired, it is speculated that induction of the double base lesions in DNA might lead to activation of proto-oncogene or inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene. Therefore, oxidative DNA damage induced by BP-7,8-dione, especially double base lesions, may participate in the expression of carcinogenicity of BP in addition to DNA adduct formation. Here, we discuss the mechanisms of sequence-specific DNA damage including clustered DNA damage in relation to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.