著者
團 康晃
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.85, pp.205-224, 2014-07-31

Inoue (1998) pointed out differences in the reading experiences of manga between men and women. In this paper, I develop Inoue's findings by analyzing two surveys. Firstly, I present data from a "school library survey," and report the following. For instance, as boys and girls grow older, boys stop reading the monthly comic magazines, such as "Corocoro-comic," that they read in elementary school, and start reading weekly comics, such as "Shonen Jump," in junior high school. In contrast, girls change from reading the monthly girls' comic magazines, such as "Ribon," that they read in elementary school, and start reading monthly fashion magazines, such as "Seventeen," in junior high school. Secondly, a questionnaire survey on youth culture and communication was conducted in 2010 that targeted young people in Nerima-ku in Tokyo. The aim of the survey was to identify youth opinions and behavior in relation to hobbies and culture. Some of the findings in the analysis concern comics. In terms of the media, although men and women mainly read comics as collected volumes, men tend to read magazines while women do not. In terms of reading volume, men read an average of 4.8 collected volumes and 2.8 magazines per month, while women read an average of 4 collected volumes and 0.7 magazines. Additionally, it was found that there is a positive correlation between how frequently women read comics as collected volumes or magazines, and how frequently they discuss comics, go to manga stores with friends, and make friends through such discussions about comics. This correlation was not seen in the men. The survey results suggest that the culture of reading comics may be dominated by men, while for women, it is more of a subculture. It is rare for women to read comics; therefore, reading comics becomes a resource for communication.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
関東社会学会
雑誌
年報社会学論集 (ISSN:09194363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2015, no.28, pp.124-135, 2015-08-07 (Released:2016-10-12)
参考文献数
13

Since the outbreak of the Korean War, Sasebo City has received favors because it hosts a U.S. army and navy base. During the war, the number of cyclos that carried officers and soldiers to recreational facilities with prostitutes in Sasebo's red-light district increased. The local government passed ordinances that enabled it to clamp down on these cyclos and “liquidate” them. With these changes in the law and the government's enforcement of the ordinances, the cyclos changed their routes and the urban experience.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
関東社会学会
雑誌
年報社会学論集 (ISSN:09194363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2017, no.30, pp.75-86, 2017-07-31 (Released:2018-09-01)
参考文献数
17

This paper analyzes how the meaning associated with the word “shikohin” evolved and was extended in the Meiji era. “Shikohin” was originally introduced as a word for knowledge of German hygiene in a textbook translated by Goto Shinpei, who worked for the Board of Health. Soon after, in a fast-changing environment of consumption, “shikohin” was used in the public relations magazine ‘Shiko’, where it connoted not only a knowledge of hygiene but also knowledge relevant to taste.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.82, pp.173-191, 2013-01-31

This paper examines activities related to reading mobile phone novels (Keitai Shosetsu), which became a social phenomenon in the 2000s. Previous literature on readers or the audience of such texts has not focused on the specific local activities related to text, because existing models and theories of audience do not adequately help researchers conduct a comprehensive study of such topics. In addition, studies on mobile phone novels have overlooked the various related activities accompanying reading and instead focused exclusively on the originality of media usage and the novelty of the stories' plots. In contrast, my research approach focused on examining local activities - how students en-gage in reading, how they discuss the novels - through fieldwork, including participant observation and group interviews of middle school students. I found that most girls spent their recess time reading and talking about mobile phone novels not by means of mobile phones but instead by means of physical books, while boys attempted to become friends with the girls under the pretext of asking them about their favorite novels. These activities were analyzed using Sacks' notion of Membership Categorization Device (MCD) in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. My results revealed firstly that reading mobile phone novels presupposed the use of the category "girl." Further, while girls enjoyed reading these mobile phone novels as love stories, boys considered the content of the novels to be indecent, which, according to the girls, is because most boys read only the obscene sections of the novels. This difference in perspectives regarding reading mobile phone novels is the result of using MCD. Furthermore, students' behaviors were not driven by their culture, but accomplished by membership categorization. Therefore, as an exception a boy read content liked by girls. The above observations suggest that students are not readers or the audience of texts as a model, but instead behave according to the uses of membership categories.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
SHAKAIGAKU KENKYUKAI
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.3-19,142, 2013

In the classroom, although students often laugh with friends, teachers cansometimes censure them for certain activities where laughter is unacceptablebehavior. This paper describes the structure of this type of hilarity, consideringinstances where teachers can disapprove, according to ethnomethodology andconversation analysis By analyzing two types of interaction, the author attempts to shed light onthe following main points. First, in terms of laughter produced during a groupinterview, two types of laughter exist. On the one hand, some jokes elicit laughterfrom every participant. On the other hand, some jokes are not funny for allparticipants. Some activities considered to be joking produce the latter kind oflaughter, and can be penalized by the teacher. This form of mockery differs incertain aspects from that examined in a preceding study by Drew. Second, ittends to be produced in a particular sequence organization. Three steps have beenobserved in such a sequence. First, a preceding actor acts in a certain manner so asto poke fun at a subsequent actor. Some actions tend to be utterances organized asfirst-pair part with some amusing components, or to be utterances with humorouscomponents dependent on a preceding utterance. Second, when the subsequentactor responds to the preceding action, the embedded comical component isimputed to him. Third, participants can laugh at the subsequent actor because ofthis imputation. In addition, if the subsequent actor does not respond to the preceding action,the preceding actor could repeat this action, that is, to tease, to laugh at him, or toimpose sanctions against the rejection of the preceding action. As a consequence of these structures, the subsequent actor is given a paradoxicalidentity different from those sharing co-membership.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
SHAKAIGAKU KENKYUKAI
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.3-19,142, 2013

In the classroom, although students often laugh with friends, teachers cansometimes censure them for certain activities where laughter is unacceptablebehavior. This paper describes the structure of this type of hilarity, consideringinstances where teachers can disapprove, according to ethnomethodology andconversation analysis By analyzing two types of interaction, the author attempts to shed light onthe following main points. First, in terms of laughter produced during a groupinterview, two types of laughter exist. On the one hand, some jokes elicit laughterfrom every participant. On the other hand, some jokes are not funny for allparticipants. Some activities considered to be joking produce the latter kind oflaughter, and can be penalized by the teacher. This form of mockery differs incertain aspects from that examined in a preceding study by Drew. Second, ittends to be produced in a particular sequence organization. Three steps have beenobserved in such a sequence. First, a preceding actor acts in a certain manner so asto poke fun at a subsequent actor. Some actions tend to be utterances organized asfirst-pair part with some amusing components, or to be utterances with humorouscomponents dependent on a preceding utterance. Second, when the subsequentactor responds to the preceding action, the embedded comical component isimputed to him. Third, participants can laugh at the subsequent actor because ofthis imputation. In addition, if the subsequent actor does not respond to the preceding action,the preceding actor could repeat this action, that is, to tease, to laugh at him, or toimpose sanctions against the rejection of the preceding action. As a consequence of these structures, the subsequent actor is given a paradoxicalidentity different from those sharing co-membership.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.173-191, 2013-01-31 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1

This paper examines activities related to reading mobile phone novels (Keitai Shosetsu), which became a social phenomenon in the 2000s. Previous literature on readers or the audience of such texts has not focused on the specific local activities related to text, because existing models and theories of audience do not adequately help researchers conduct a comprehensive study of such topics. In addition, studies on mobile phone novels have overlooked the various related activities accompanying reading and instead focused exclusively on the originality of media usage and the novelty of the stories' plots. In contrast, my research approach focused on examining local activities - how students en-gage in reading, how they discuss the novels - through fieldwork, including participant observation and group interviews of middle school students. I found that most girls spent their recess time reading and talking about mobile phone novels not by means of mobile phones but instead by means of physical books, while boys attempted to become friends with the girls under the pretext of asking them about their favorite novels. These activities were analyzed using Sacks' notion of Membership Categorization Device (MCD) in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. My results revealed firstly that reading mobile phone novels presupposed the use of the category "girl." Further, while girls enjoyed reading these mobile phone novels as love stories, boys considered the content of the novels to be indecent, which, according to the girls, is because most boys read only the obscene sections of the novels. This difference in perspectives regarding reading mobile phone novels is the result of using MCD. Furthermore, students' behaviors were not driven by their culture, but accomplished by membership categorization. Therefore, as an exception a boy read content liked by girls. The above observations suggest that students are not readers or the audience of texts as a model, but instead behave according to the uses of membership categories.
著者
岡澤 康浩 團 康晃
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, pp.63-81, 2016

In this paper, we examine the role of literary taste among youth in Japan.Pierre Bourdieu's theory of taste assumes that individuals are ranked accordingto their taste from the most refined to the most vulgar. Reading novels appearsto be a perfect example of Bourdieu's theory, as reading is taught directly inschool. However, Bourdieu's theory seems to be at odds with the Japanese situation,where influential literary critics have witnessed the 'downfall' of onceesteemedliterature that, as they saw it, has now ceased to be relevant to societyand become merely entertainment. Even when the popularity of" light novels" and" cell phone novels" causedcontroversy in the 2000s regarding their quality due to the former's anime/manga-like characters and the latter's unconventional style of writing andexcessively sentimental plots, scholars and journalists countered the disparagingdiscourse on these supposedly "lowbrow" novels. Although Bourdieuassumes individuals to be taste-sensitive and taste to be a fundamental capitalin every field of cultural practice, for the case of novel reading in Japan, thisvery assumption must be called into question. Drawing from the 2010 Youth Culture and Communication Survey in Nerima(Tokyo), we explore whether literary taste is still relevant to the sense of distinctionamong young novel readers. We examine the difference between selfcategorizednovel hobbyists and non-hobbyist novel readers, and we testwhether what they read accounts for the gap between the two groups. The findings show that the types of novels are relevant to their self-categorization.In particular, those who read classical novels are more likely to regardreading novels as a hobby and those who read cell-phone novels are less likely.Against literary critics' skepticism about the cultural authority of literature inJapan, these findings indicate that even urban youth conform to the conventionalhierarchy of literary taste.
著者
團 康晃
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.3-19,142, 2013-10-31 (Released:2015-05-13)
参考文献数
11

In the classroom, although students often laugh with friends, teachers cansometimes censure them for certain activities where laughter is unacceptablebehavior. This paper describes the structure of this type of hilarity, consideringinstances where teachers can disapprove, according to ethnomethodology andconversation analysis By analyzing two types of interaction, the author attempts to shed light onthe following main points. First, in terms of laughter produced during a groupinterview, two types of laughter exist. On the one hand, some jokes elicit laughterfrom every participant. On the other hand, some jokes are not funny for allparticipants. Some activities considered to be joking produce the latter kind oflaughter, and can be penalized by the teacher. This form of mockery differs incertain aspects from that examined in a preceding study by Drew. Second, ittends to be produced in a particular sequence organization. Three steps have beenobserved in such a sequence. First, a preceding actor acts in a certain manner so asto poke fun at a subsequent actor. Some actions tend to be utterances organized asfirst-pair part with some amusing components, or to be utterances with humorouscomponents dependent on a preceding utterance. Second, when the subsequentactor responds to the preceding action, the embedded comical component isimputed to him. Third, participants can laugh at the subsequent actor because ofthis imputation. In addition, if the subsequent actor does not respond to the preceding action,the preceding actor could repeat this action, that is, to tease, to laugh at him, or toimpose sanctions against the rejection of the preceding action. As a consequence of these structures, the subsequent actor is given a paradoxicalidentity different from those sharing co-membership.