著者
伊藤 理史
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.35-51,128, 2014-02-28 (Released:2015-04-10)
参考文献数
34

This paper explains Japanese politics in the post-1955 system using the theory of mass politics (Kornhauser 1959). Since the prior theory of class politics does not adequately explain the Japanese situation in the post-1955 system, many scholars have focused on the theory of populism, which does not regard voters as an important aspect. In contrast, the theory of mass politics consists of two aspects that are connected by public opinion: available politicians and accessible voters. The former is synonymous with the concept of populism, and the latter concerns those who are socially and politically marginalized. This paper focuses on the breakthrough of the Toru Hashimoto camp in Osaka as a model case for Japanese politics in the post-1955 system. Voting behavior in the Osaka mayoral election of November 27, 2011, is analyzed using a social survey on political attitudes and civic participation in Osaka City. Path analysis is used to examine the model, which is based on the theory of mass politics. The results are as follows: (1) CFI and RMSEA values show the validity of the analytical model; (2) voters who are socially and politically marginalized voted for Hashimoto because of their distrust of public officials; (3) voters who are not socially and politically marginalized voted for Hashimoto because they favored the competitive principles of the market (neo-liberalism); and (4) there are no indirect effects of voters’ socio-economic status on voting behavior. Therefore, mass politics modified by both accessible and non-accessible voters is confirmed. Based on these results, a framework can be presented for analyzing Japanese politics in the post-1955system.
著者
渡辺 恵里子
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.19-34,237, 2008-02-29 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
1

Based on interviews with women applying for the post of a clinical psychologist (CP), this paper analyzes the manner in which the number of CPs has increased. In Japan, the clinical psychology profession has the following three features. First, it is a new profession established as recently as 1988 by the Japanese Society of Certified Clinical Psychologists (JSCCP). Second, individuals aspiring to become CPs are required to attend graduate school. Third, despite unstable employment, a rapid increase in the number of CPs has been observed since 1988. Approximately 70 percent of CPs are women, although the JSCCP does not welcome only female CPs. However, the reason women aspire to become CPs is different from the reason that they pursue other traditional occupations such as a nurse, a nursery school teacher or a librarian. In order to make the profession of clinical psychology as advanced as that of medicine, the JSCCP applied two strategies that resulted in mostly women working as CPs. First, the JSCCP stopped making an effort to secure the employment of CPs. Second, they expanded educational institutions and demanded that those applying for the post of CP have a master’s degree. Both these strategies attracted highly educated women who were not looking for work to support themselves or for a career. Rather, they were motivated to work for the following two reasons. First, they wished to work as a CP for pleasure while managing other housework. Second, they had academic backgrounds that enabled them to attend graduate school without expending a great effort. As a result, the JSCCP inadvertently placed women at an advantage in becoming CPs. This paper suggests that this will result in CPs becoming a new occupation that is suitable for women.
著者
MARIOTTI Marcella
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.19-35, 1999-10
著者
秋風 千恵
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.53-69,235, 2008-02-29 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
19

This paper discusses whether it is true that a person’s distress in life is proportionate to the severity of a person’s disability, by analyzing the meaning-world of mild disabled persons. Robert F. Murphy wrote “Some disabilities disturb the able-bodied more than others. There is a hierarchy of devaluation that varies with the severity and type of disability. At the bottom of the scale are persons with facial disfigurement or marked body distortion.” This is to say that the more different a body is from the norm, the more people dislike it. It is also commonly accepted that severely disabled persons are more distressed in life than mild disabled persons. But it would appear that mild disabled persons’ perceptions do not agree with Murphy’s hierarchy, or with these commonly accepted ideas. The results of this research make it clear that the situation for mild disabled persons is very different from that for the severely disabled. Mild disabled persons cannot decide whether they belong in the group of the able-bodied or in the group of disabled persons. They live in limbo, and tend to be isolated. For this reason, they do their best to enhance their value and try to compensate for their disabilities by making a great effort to acquire recognition. However, occasionally their disabilities prevent them from achieving what they have set out to do, thus proving that they are disabled. But even if they are able to prove this, they find themselves isolated once again. Their difficult situation describes a circle, like a Möbius strip.
著者
鶴田 幸恵 小宮 友根
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.1, pp.21-36,159, 2007

Recently, it has become a new methodological agenda to discuss the methodologies of interviews which could be collected under the rubric of "interview as interaction." But it seems that such discussions do not make clearer the sociological status of the description which is produced by that method.The task of this paper is to point out some confusion in such discussions, and make the viewpoint of "interview as interaction" into a methodological discussion which can thoroughly describe "peoples lives." Methodologies that emphasize the view of "interview as interaction" often differentiate themselves from the standpoint which emphasizes "the facticity of data" or "the pattern of narrative." But apart from facticity or pattern, it is unclear what becomes the value of the data.There are two confusions concerning the view of "interaction." First concerns the usage of the two terms, "construction" and "interpretation." By virtue of the confused usage of these terms in such methodology, our understanding of others conduct is reduced to the activity of "interpretation." The second confusion concerns the claim that they describe not "fact" or "pattern of narrative" but "the mode (or form) of narrative." But in such a claim, "the mode (or form) of narrative" becomes a "model" prepared on the researchers side.Both miss the difference of the various actions and activities in actual interaction and do not make clear the implication of the term "interaction" within the methodology of interviews. But, for the interviewee, the interview is one scene of his/her life in a literal sense.If this is so, the behavior and the activity which appear there must be the part of his/her life and describing them must be directly describing his/her life.Here, using particular data, we present that proposition and argue the importance of the viewpoint of "interview as interaction."
著者
右田 裕規
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.2, pp.37-53,178, 2002-10-31 (Released:2016-05-25)

The modern Japanese emperor system have been regarded as a structure that was maintained by government policy in the earlier studies.Consequently, these studies underestimate the mass media's function in the emperor system and ignore the mass media's autonomy in the face of the government's attempts to rule people through the 'kokutai ideology' that regards the emperor as a god. Howaver,in reality the prewar mass media's report of the imperial family had a great influence on the populace's views of them.The content of this report was highly secular, with pictures and articles reporting the friendly figures of the imperial household and their private lives,and was opposed to the government's attempt to rule people through the 'kokutai ideology'. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the ways in which the modern Japanese mass media, in the process of its own commercialization and Japan's modernization, counteracted the government's attempt to build an absolute monarchy.I also seek to revalue the peculiar function of the mass media in the prewar emperor system by presenting research on the process whereby the mass media created the 'popular emperor system' by reporting secular information on the imperial family in response to popular need.
著者
鈴木 彩加
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.1, pp.21-37,95, 2011-06-30 (Released:2015-05-13)
参考文献数
19

Conservatives and conservative associations have attacked the 1999 Basic Law for aGender-equal Society, whose aim was to correct gender discrimination and the gendergap from 2000. Today, this force is called “Backlash”, and is supported by housewivesat the grassroots. Are these women opposed to gender equality, and if so, why? Thispaper explores the reason why some housewives join the backlash, and examinesgender politics in that backlash. For this purpose, we analyze conservative discoursein magazines, newsletters of various associations, and communication magazines ofgrassroots movements. As a result of the analysis, we find the following two points. Firstly, while abstractarguments that regard the family as the foundation of society and of the state accountfor the vast majority of articles, housewives however emphasize individual experiences,such as communication among family members, housekeeping and child-raising.Secondly, conservative female intellectuals are observed to have two facets, that ofthe intellectual, and that of the housewife. They describe the stories of their ownexperiences in the family as a housewife, and also discuss their value from the point ofview of society and state. In conclusion, we examine the internal politics of the backlash. There are conflictingopinions between housewives and the mainstream of the backlash about the familymodel. However, the two facets of conservative female intellectuals conceal the conflict,and assume a pseudo-continuity between housewives’ individual experiences andconservative discourse.
著者
鶴田 幸恵
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.21-36,157, 2004-10-31 (Released:2016-05-25)
参考文献数
14

The past studies on passing practice have accounted for the interaction about one's appearance and recognition of it. But these studies started their argument from the point that one already has a "normal appearance," and did not account for how it is accomplished that one has a "normal appearance" in the viewer's recognition. The aim of this article is to argue that such a way of accounting of past studies can not adequately account for passing practices of transgenders who intend to accomplish being a "normal natural female," using the transcript data from interviews of Male-to-Female transgenders, because accomplishing that appearance is the most important problem for them. For this, I focus on "viewing" as an action. First, I discuss the logic used in Goffman's Stigma and Garfinkel's famous paper on "Agnes," who is transgender. Through this work, it is found that the person who is passing is categorized in two ways. One is "categorization at a glance" which is an immediate and spontaneous practice. The other is "categorization from inductive judgment," which is conscious judgment by clues in one's appearance. Second, it is found from data that the person who is passing refer to "categorization from inductive judgment" to accomplish being categorized as "normal" with "categorization at a glance." Third, it is only when the question for instance, "Is that person is male or female?" is relevant that "categorization from inductive judgment" usually arises. So, for transgenders, to be categorized with the way of "categorization from inductive judgment" is to fail passing. This means that accounting for achievement or failure in passing must distinguish two ways of categorization. Through that consideration, I conclude that being categorized as a "normal natural female" with the way of "categorization at a glance" is necessary for transgenders to pass as normal. That is, on the one hand, the first step to passing, and on the other hand, the endless practice for transgender people.
著者
山本 めゆ
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.3, pp.103-119,184, 2012-02-29 (Released:2015-05-13)
参考文献数
22

There were at most 800 Japanese residents living in South Africa during the era of apartheid. They were predominantly expatriate employees sent from Japan who were permitted to reside in white residential areas. The existence of this resident population group who would normally have been classified as “non-white” in terms of South Africa’s race categories under apartheid led to the Japanese being described as ‘honorary whites’. In this paper, the ‘honorary white’ status will be discussed, with a focus on what is called the ‘looping effect’ (Hacking), or interactions between a concept that classifies people and those who are classified. For this study, 15 Japanese people who had resided in South Africa under apartheid were interviewed, and documentary materials were also collected both in Japan and in South Africa. These data were used, first, to create a general history of the status of the Japanese in South Africa from the beginning of the 20th century. The study follows the genesis of the title ‘honorary white’ in the early 1960s, and considers the influence of the concept on the Japanese and Chinese communities at that time. Finally it describes the way in which the title ‘honorary white’ affected the identities and actions of the Japanese residents in South Africa, and at the same time how their actions in turn constructed the image of ‘honorary whites’.
著者
有薗 真代
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.1, pp.55-71,187, 2004

This paper reconsiders gender/sexuality theory by focusing on a transgendered individuals way of life. It is also an attempt to extend the sociology of life history by focusing on changes in her narrative. My task in this dissertation is to externalize their straggles with their own issues. For the purpose of analyzing changes in narrative, I introduced the approach of Narrative therapy. Narrative therapy assumes that when people tell their own stories certain events are untold and recognized, or intentionally left out. A persons subjective narrative is told as if it were the definitive story of what has happened. This is the method of Narrative therapy. Subverting the dominant narrative of personal experience will create alternative stories that have been left out in repeated retellings, locate the multi-dimentional nature of the individuals own stories, and respond to their complexity. Furthermore, attention to power in narrative therapy will show what kind of power is at work when such stories are formed. By analyzing the individuals narrative in this fashion, I describe the creative process of techniques for overcoming the difficulty and pain that exist in a minoritys everyday life.
著者
鶴田 幸恵
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.21-36,157, 2004

The past studies on passing practice have accounted for the interaction about ones appearance and recognition of it. But these studies started their argument from the point that one already has a "normal appearance," and did not account for how it is accomplished that one has a "normal appearance" in the viewers recognition. The aim of this article is to argue that such a way of accounting of past studies can not adequately account for passing practices of transgenders who intend to accomplish being a "normal natural female," using the transcript data from interviews of Male-to-Female transgenders, because accomplishing that appearance is the most important problem for them. For this, I focus on "viewing" as an action. First, I discuss the logic used in Goffmans Stigma and Garfinkels famous paper on "Agnes," who is transgender. Through this work, it is found that the person who is passing is categorized in two ways. One is "categorization at a glance" which is an immediate and spontaneous practice. The other is "categorization from inductive judgment," which is conscious judgment by clues in ones appearance. Second, it is found from data that the person who is passing refer to "categorization from inductive judgment" to accomplish being categorized as "normal" with "categorization at a glance." Third, it is only when the question for instance, "Is that person is male or female?" is relevant that "categorization from inductive judgment" usually arises. So, for transgenders, to be categorized with the way of "categorization from inductive judgment" is to fail passing. This means that accounting for achievement or failure in passing must distinguish two ways of categorization. Through that consideration, I conclude that being categorized as a "normal natural female" with the way of "categorization at a glance" is necessary for transgenders to pass as normal. That is, on the one hand, the first step to passing, and on the other hand, the endless practice for transgender people.
著者
永瀬 圭 太郎丸 博
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.19-33,129, 2014-02-28 (Released:2015-04-10)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1

Gender role attitudes are one of the factors hindering gender equality, thus inspiring many studies throughout the world. In Japan, however, little analysis has been done on the factors involved in gender role attitude changes, and most previous studies have focused on short-term trends. Therefore, using data from the Survey on Japanese Value Orientations from 1973 to 2008 conducted by NHK, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, we examined how and why gender role attitudes in Japan have changed, and whether younger cohorts have become more conservative. To understand the factors involved in changes in gender role attitudes, especially how cohort replacement and individual change contributed to aggregate trends, we used a linear decomposition method. We obtained the following results. First, both men and women became more egalitarian between 1973 and 2003, but since then, gender role attitudes have little changed or have been traditionalized. The gender role attitude change in the 2000s is mainly attributable to individual change, and there is no evidence that more recent cohorts are more conservative. In addition, the stagnation or conservative shift after 2003 cannot be explained by social changes in educational level, labor force participation rate, rate of unmarried people, and so on. We propose that the recent trend in gender role attitudes is a consequence of uncertainty in people's daily life, for example decreasing wages and more competitive working conditions, caused by sweeping reforms based on neo-liberalism.