著者
永田 大輔
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.3, pp.21-37, 2015-02-28 (Released:2019-05-24)
参考文献数
16

This paper discussed the process of creating “otaku originality” within the context of their consumption. Otaku considered their culture original and distinct from that of normal anime consumers in the 1980s. In prior studies, people called otaku were those committed to worthless culture. Though people regarded otaku culture as worthless, we should observe its formation process. Otaku made it a culture of worth for their community, turning it into a high context culture. Becoming a high context culture meant it achieved interactions with people other than anime fans, but how was this happen?This paper focuses on anime fan culture, and discusses the video environment and active television viewing. The VCR diffusion rate increased from 2.2% to 66.8% during the 1980s. Otaku started to watch videos with their friends. They wanted to show their videos to their friends. However, this was considered an unnatural behavior. This paper mainly analyzes community with video consumption among anime fans and discusses their motivations. They wanted to show off the VCRs “Slowmotioning” meant “unique watching”. Originally, anime meant “animation”, but their activity enabled anime fans to enjoy “pictures”. Consumers could attain “creators literacy”. However, this literacy was marketed by the creators. Anime magazines evaluated this marketing. The culture of editing by anime fans formed a frame. They consumed the unique experience of watching anime together as consumers who had a specific literacy. Otakus’ high contextual culture, including their knowledge and literacy, was created by interactions between creators and consumers of anime magazines.
著者
伊藤 理史
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.35-51,128, 2014-02-28 (Released:2015-04-10)
参考文献数
34

This paper explains Japanese politics in the post-1955 system using the theory of mass politics (Kornhauser 1959). Since the prior theory of class politics does not adequately explain the Japanese situation in the post-1955 system, many scholars have focused on the theory of populism, which does not regard voters as an important aspect. In contrast, the theory of mass politics consists of two aspects that are connected by public opinion: available politicians and accessible voters. The former is synonymous with the concept of populism, and the latter concerns those who are socially and politically marginalized. This paper focuses on the breakthrough of the Toru Hashimoto camp in Osaka as a model case for Japanese politics in the post-1955 system. Voting behavior in the Osaka mayoral election of November 27, 2011, is analyzed using a social survey on political attitudes and civic participation in Osaka City. Path analysis is used to examine the model, which is based on the theory of mass politics. The results are as follows: (1) CFI and RMSEA values show the validity of the analytical model; (2) voters who are socially and politically marginalized voted for Hashimoto because of their distrust of public officials; (3) voters who are not socially and politically marginalized voted for Hashimoto because they favored the competitive principles of the market (neo-liberalism); and (4) there are no indirect effects of voters’ socio-economic status on voting behavior. Therefore, mass politics modified by both accessible and non-accessible voters is confirmed. Based on these results, a framework can be presented for analyzing Japanese politics in the post-1955system.
著者
渡辺 恵里子
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.19-34,237, 2008-02-29 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
1

Based on interviews with women applying for the post of a clinical psychologist (CP), this paper analyzes the manner in which the number of CPs has increased. In Japan, the clinical psychology profession has the following three features. First, it is a new profession established as recently as 1988 by the Japanese Society of Certified Clinical Psychologists (JSCCP). Second, individuals aspiring to become CPs are required to attend graduate school. Third, despite unstable employment, a rapid increase in the number of CPs has been observed since 1988. Approximately 70 percent of CPs are women, although the JSCCP does not welcome only female CPs. However, the reason women aspire to become CPs is different from the reason that they pursue other traditional occupations such as a nurse, a nursery school teacher or a librarian. In order to make the profession of clinical psychology as advanced as that of medicine, the JSCCP applied two strategies that resulted in mostly women working as CPs. First, the JSCCP stopped making an effort to secure the employment of CPs. Second, they expanded educational institutions and demanded that those applying for the post of CP have a master’s degree. Both these strategies attracted highly educated women who were not looking for work to support themselves or for a career. Rather, they were motivated to work for the following two reasons. First, they wished to work as a CP for pleasure while managing other housework. Second, they had academic backgrounds that enabled them to attend graduate school without expending a great effort. As a result, the JSCCP inadvertently placed women at an advantage in becoming CPs. This paper suggests that this will result in CPs becoming a new occupation that is suitable for women.

32 9 1 0 OA 道徳と主体

著者
川田 耕
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.97-113,189, 1994-10-31 (Released:2017-02-15)

Morality is generally something more than traditional practices. M.Foucault distinguishes the moralities between the "code-oriented" moralities, which have a system of traditonal practices and rules of behavior in detail, and the "ethics -oriented" moralities, in which such system and rulues are rather rudimentary and leave their function to each individual's retlective consciousness. In the latter case, each individual is required not only to have self-awareness but to make self-formation as "ethical subject". I think "the popular morality "in Japan which was named and investigated by Yasumaru Yoshio can be called ethics-oriennted morality, because this morality demands people should reform traditional practices and have reflective consciousness. The popular morality is ethical because of its great interest in each individual's consciousness and it is popular because of its premise that establishment of proper consciousness may bring some social profit. The popular morality depends on smooth circle of the moral doctrine, each individual's consciousness and the social profit. When this circle is not satisfactory, the existence of ethical subject is threatend,and the effects of morality tend to be code-oriented. I investigate such structure of this morality in early modern Japan (especially in the discourse of the "Rono" in the late Edo period and the "Hotokushugi" in the Meiji period), and search the transformation of it in the Meiji period and the possibility of creating new ethics.
著者
MARIOTTI Marcella
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.19-35, 1999-10
著者
有薗 真代
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.1, pp.55-71,187, 2004

This paper reconsiders gender/sexuality theory by focusing on a transgendered individuals way of life. It is also an attempt to extend the sociology of life history by focusing on changes in her narrative. My task in this dissertation is to externalize their straggles with their own issues. For the purpose of analyzing changes in narrative, I introduced the approach of Narrative therapy. Narrative therapy assumes that when people tell their own stories certain events are untold and recognized, or intentionally left out. A persons subjective narrative is told as if it were the definitive story of what has happened. This is the method of Narrative therapy. Subverting the dominant narrative of personal experience will create alternative stories that have been left out in repeated retellings, locate the multi-dimentional nature of the individuals own stories, and respond to their complexity. Furthermore, attention to power in narrative therapy will show what kind of power is at work when such stories are formed. By analyzing the individuals narrative in this fashion, I describe the creative process of techniques for overcoming the difficulty and pain that exist in a minoritys everyday life.
著者
右田 裕規
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.2, pp.37-53,178, 2002-10-31 (Released:2016-05-25)

The modern Japanese emperor system have been regarded as a structure that was maintained by government policy in the earlier studies.Consequently, these studies underestimate the mass media's function in the emperor system and ignore the mass media's autonomy in the face of the government's attempts to rule people through the 'kokutai ideology' that regards the emperor as a god. Howaver,in reality the prewar mass media's report of the imperial family had a great influence on the populace's views of them.The content of this report was highly secular, with pictures and articles reporting the friendly figures of the imperial household and their private lives,and was opposed to the government's attempt to rule people through the 'kokutai ideology'. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the ways in which the modern Japanese mass media, in the process of its own commercialization and Japan's modernization, counteracted the government's attempt to build an absolute monarchy.I also seek to revalue the peculiar function of the mass media in the prewar emperor system by presenting research on the process whereby the mass media created the 'popular emperor system' by reporting secular information on the imperial family in response to popular need.
著者
横山 麻衣
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.3, pp.21-37,197, 2013-02-28 (Released:2015-05-13)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1

The meaning of the statement, “sexual assault disintegrates personality” wasinvestigated from the perspective of Goffman’s sociology. Psychological and psychiatric studies have indicated that survivors of sexual assaulttend to suffer trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The effects of socialnorms on the survivors of sexual assault have also been discussed sociological studies.In societies that have male-dominated sexual norms, women suffering sexual assaulttend to be stigmatized. Some sociologists have argued that behind such negativeperspectives, there is a “sexuality-personality principle,” a norm that associates sexualitywith the personality; if this connection is broken, the survivors can be relieved of theirtrauma. Others have argued that sexual assault actually disintegrates the personality,and maintaining and reinforcing a “sexuality-personality principle” is important in orderto resist sexual assault. The discussion of the validity of identifying sexuality withpersonality was named as an argument about “sexuality-personality” in the presentstudy. However, this argument is an insufficient means of resisting sexual assault, and itcould trivialize survivors’ problems. This study focused on the stigma of the survivors ofsexual assault and examined the meaning of the statement, “sexual assault disintegratespersonality” from a sociological perspective. The results indicated that this statementimplies that sexual assault inevitably makes the social relationships of the survivorsunstable and continues to demand changes which put the survivors in uncomfortablesurround.
著者
永田 大輔
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.3, pp.41-58, 2017-02-01 (Released:2020-06-27)
参考文献数
8

本稿は、オタク文化を社会学的に考察するために、OVA(オリジナル・ビデオ・アニメーション)の使用実践に着目する。中でも一九八〇年代のOVAの言説的な特徴を詳らかにするために、OVAが“第三のメディア”とアニメファンの間で呼ばれていたことに着目する。 言説を検討する際に、二つの構造的な条件が重要である。一つ目は一九八〇年代中盤のビデオの急速な普及であり、二つ目はアニメーター数が、作品数が増加し質の向上が求められる中で、増加していなかった点である。そうした条件を元に、OVAというメディアをめぐる言説を検討する。 まず第三のメディアの言葉の含意を考えるために、第一のメディア(テレビアニメ)と第二のメディア(劇場版アニメ)の移行関係に着目する。その移行は一九七〇年代後半頃に起こった。テレビアニメは子供むけのものとされてきたが、一九七〇年代後半に子供だけではないファンが発見される。ファンの存在を背景とし、アニメ制作者の側も作家性を発揮することを求めるようになる。しかし、当時のテレビアニメは作家性を発揮するには制約が多かった。そこで注目されるのが劇場版アニメであった。しかし、こうした移行の段階で「作家性の発揮」と「万人に受容されること」の競合関係が存在し、両者の議論の制約としてクリエーターの人数が存在した。 本稿では、OVAが上記の論点を引き継いで語られた媒体であることに着目する。その中で制作者人口が限られた中での「商業の論理」と「作品の論理」のせめぎあいを編集者・消費者・制作者がそれぞれどのように意味づけていくのかという点からその歴史を検討し、様々なアクターの論理のせめぎあいのダイナミズムの中での歴史性を検討する。
著者
秋風 千恵
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.53-69,235, 2008-02-29 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
19

This paper discusses whether it is true that a person’s distress in life is proportionate to the severity of a person’s disability, by analyzing the meaning-world of mild disabled persons. Robert F. Murphy wrote “Some disabilities disturb the able-bodied more than others. There is a hierarchy of devaluation that varies with the severity and type of disability. At the bottom of the scale are persons with facial disfigurement or marked body distortion.” This is to say that the more different a body is from the norm, the more people dislike it. It is also commonly accepted that severely disabled persons are more distressed in life than mild disabled persons. But it would appear that mild disabled persons’ perceptions do not agree with Murphy’s hierarchy, or with these commonly accepted ideas. The results of this research make it clear that the situation for mild disabled persons is very different from that for the severely disabled. Mild disabled persons cannot decide whether they belong in the group of the able-bodied or in the group of disabled persons. They live in limbo, and tend to be isolated. For this reason, they do their best to enhance their value and try to compensate for their disabilities by making a great effort to acquire recognition. However, occasionally their disabilities prevent them from achieving what they have set out to do, thus proving that they are disabled. But even if they are able to prove this, they find themselves isolated once again. Their difficult situation describes a circle, like a Möbius strip.
著者
鶴田 幸恵
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.21-36,157, 2004-10-31 (Released:2016-05-25)
参考文献数
14

The past studies on passing practice have accounted for the interaction about one's appearance and recognition of it. But these studies started their argument from the point that one already has a "normal appearance," and did not account for how it is accomplished that one has a "normal appearance" in the viewer's recognition. The aim of this article is to argue that such a way of accounting of past studies can not adequately account for passing practices of transgenders who intend to accomplish being a "normal natural female," using the transcript data from interviews of Male-to-Female transgenders, because accomplishing that appearance is the most important problem for them. For this, I focus on "viewing" as an action. First, I discuss the logic used in Goffman's Stigma and Garfinkel's famous paper on "Agnes," who is transgender. Through this work, it is found that the person who is passing is categorized in two ways. One is "categorization at a glance" which is an immediate and spontaneous practice. The other is "categorization from inductive judgment," which is conscious judgment by clues in one's appearance. Second, it is found from data that the person who is passing refer to "categorization from inductive judgment" to accomplish being categorized as "normal" with "categorization at a glance." Third, it is only when the question for instance, "Is that person is male or female?" is relevant that "categorization from inductive judgment" usually arises. So, for transgenders, to be categorized with the way of "categorization from inductive judgment" is to fail passing. This means that accounting for achievement or failure in passing must distinguish two ways of categorization. Through that consideration, I conclude that being categorized as a "normal natural female" with the way of "categorization at a glance" is necessary for transgenders to pass as normal. That is, on the one hand, the first step to passing, and on the other hand, the endless practice for transgender people.
著者
鈴木 彩加
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.1, pp.21-37,95, 2011-06-30 (Released:2015-05-13)
参考文献数
19

Conservatives and conservative associations have attacked the 1999 Basic Law for aGender-equal Society, whose aim was to correct gender discrimination and the gendergap from 2000. Today, this force is called “Backlash”, and is supported by housewivesat the grassroots. Are these women opposed to gender equality, and if so, why? Thispaper explores the reason why some housewives join the backlash, and examinesgender politics in that backlash. For this purpose, we analyze conservative discoursein magazines, newsletters of various associations, and communication magazines ofgrassroots movements. As a result of the analysis, we find the following two points. Firstly, while abstractarguments that regard the family as the foundation of society and of the state accountfor the vast majority of articles, housewives however emphasize individual experiences,such as communication among family members, housekeeping and child-raising.Secondly, conservative female intellectuals are observed to have two facets, that ofthe intellectual, and that of the housewife. They describe the stories of their ownexperiences in the family as a housewife, and also discuss their value from the point ofview of society and state. In conclusion, we examine the internal politics of the backlash. There are conflictingopinions between housewives and the mainstream of the backlash about the familymodel. However, the two facets of conservative female intellectuals conceal the conflict,and assume a pseudo-continuity between housewives’ individual experiences andconservative discourse.