著者
岩崎 学 吉田 清隆
出版者
日本計量生物学会
雑誌
計量生物学 (ISSN:09184430)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.53-63, 2005-12-31 (Released:2011-09-30)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
3

For the occurrence of a rare event A such as a severe adverse drug reaction, there exists the “Rule of Three” to remind practitioners that “absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.” The Rule of Three actually says that even if the event A was not observed among n patients it would be quite possible to observe three events among other n patients. The present paper examines this useful rule in detail and also extends it to a testing problem for occurrence probability of A.First, the Rule of Three is extended to the case that the number of the event observed among the first n patients is more than zero. We give rules that when k (> 0) events were observed among n patients, nk events would be possibly observed among other n patients. Next, a testing procedure is introduced to examine whether the occurrence probabilities of A for two populations are the same under the condition that k events were observed among n patients for one population. It will be shown that the relevant probability distribution is a negative binomial, and then critical regions for small k's are given. For a possible application of the procedure, we mention the signal detection for spontaneous reporting system of adverse drug reaction.
著者
佐野 文哉 岩崎 学
出版者
日本行動計量学会
雑誌
行動計量学 (ISSN:03855481)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.199-207, 2017 (Released:2018-04-26)
参考文献数
17

Experimental study with random allocation of treatments is regarded as the gold standard for estimation of causal parameters in statistical causal inference. However, when non-compliance among participants exists in the experiment it is likely to result in biased estimates of the parameters of interest. This paper discusses a sensitivity analysis in the estimation of causal parameters under apparent non-compliance. A motivating example is shown that concerns students' performance in university lectures. A procedure of sensitivity analysis for the estimates of causal parameters is presented that incorporates existence of apparent non-compliers, who are genuine compliers but act as non-compliers. An example of such procedure is shown for the case considered.
著者
佐藤 恵子 岩崎 学 菅波 秀規 佐藤 俊哉 椿 広計
出版者
日本計量生物学会
雑誌
計量生物学 (ISSN:09184430)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.37-53, 2014-08-31 (Released:2014-10-15)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
1

All statisticians are expected to produce statistical outcomes of high quality and reliability. To ensure reliability in statistical performance and outcomes and to meet societal expectations, certain standards of conduct (SOC) must be established such that individual statisticians embrace their own principles and so that the community of statisticians as a whole functions with more self-control.In 2008, the Biometric Society of Japan began revision of the code of conduct, and the working group drafted an SOC. This particular draft re.ected the opinions of statisticians and the basic concepts which aligned well with ethical guidelines of the American Statistical Association and the International Statistical Institute. As forced guidelines rarely result in full compliance and increased ethical conduct, the SOC offers a framework to encourage individual biostatisticians to establish and hold their own principles and to act responsibly with integrity.The SOC comprises a preamble, mission statement, values, ten principles and background information. The draft SOC was approved by the Council of the Biometric Society of Japan in November 2013.The SOC will help statisticians improve their capacity to perform sound statistical practices, improve the working environment, cultivate the next generation of statisticians with professionalism, and acquire societal trust.
著者
岩崎 学
出版者
一般社団法人 日本統計学会
雑誌
日本統計学会誌 (ISSN:03895602)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.217-230, 2016-04-07 (Released:2017-01-27)
参考文献数
72

ビッグデータの時代と言われる現在,統計家そして日本統計学会などの学術団体の果たす役割も変化しつつある.本稿では,筆者の直接の経験に基づき,これまでの統計家の歩んできた道およびいくつかの統計学上のトピックスを挙げ,これからの統計家の在り方を考える手立てとする.
著者
岩崎 学
出版者
Japanese Society of Applied Statistics
雑誌
応用統計学 (ISSN:02850370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.67-80, 1994-01-20 (Released:2009-06-12)
参考文献数
54
被引用文献数
3 2
著者
岩崎 学
出版者
日本行動計量学会
雑誌
行動計量学 (ISSN:03855481)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.46-58, 1999-03-31 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
2 2

Recent vast development of high-speed computer and large storing facilities together with network environment enables us to construct very large or sometimes huge databases such as giga-byte level. In order to extract novel, useful and also interpretable information from those databases, new technology becomes potentially important and being called for in various research and commercial fields. Data mining and knowledge discovery in databases(KDD)are the names given to such activity which involves database technology, machine learning, data visualization and statistics. Since we deal with data, statistics and statisticians are to be expected to play an essential role in data mining and KDD as well. Data mining, however, differs from traditional statistics on some dimensions, in which?gscale?his the most important one. The present paper first reviews recent achievement of data mining and KDD from a statistical viewpoint. Although some differences between data mining and traditional statistics are pointed out, it will be emphasized here that those two areas are closely related and should be recognized as complement to each other. Some important research areas are also discussed. One important message of this review is that statisticians should be involved in this new activity and should play a vital role in developing new methodologies and also in finding various application areas in practice.
著者
岩崎 学
出版者
日本行動計量学会
雑誌
行動計量学 (ISSN:03855481)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.223-231, 2002-12-25

Various types of ranking are in evidence throughout the real world. In this paper, we consider in particular, the field of sports, where ranking is most common. The 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan, which took place in June 2002, and the winner was Brazil. Since Brazil's FIFA world ranking was 2 just before the tournament, this result seemed quite plausible. On the other hand, however, France (ranking 1), Argentine (ranking 2) and Portugal (ranking 5) were not able to go to Stage 2 (best 16). These facts raise a question as to whether the FIFA ranking is credible in predicting the winners. In order to assess the credibility of such ranking, we introduce a simple model in this paper. Our model, which is an extension of the so-called Bradley-Terry model, contains an unknown parameter which indicates the credibility of the ranking. For the 2002 FIFA World Cup data, we estimated the credibility parameter and concluded that the FIFA world ranking for the 2002 tournament data was more credible in Stage 2 than in Stage 1.
著者
岩崎 学 阿部 貴行
出版者
Japanese Society of Applied Statistics
雑誌
応用統計学 (ISSN:02850370)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.49-60, 2006-07-30 (Released:2009-06-12)
参考文献数
8

打ち切りとトランケーションは,共に不完全データをもならす要因として,実際のデータ解析で遭遇することが多い.本論では,観測値xがある値c以下でのみ値が観測される場合について,切断点cを変化させることによる推定値への影響を考察する。cがパラメータの推定値に及ぼす影響を,尤度方程式から導かれる陰関数を用いて評価する.特に,応用上重要な指数分布および正規分布について,数値例を交えて詳しく議論する.陰関数の吟味により,打ち切りとトランケーションでは切断点cの影響が逆向きであること,およびトランケーションの場合にはcの影響が観測データ数に依存しないことを示す.
著者
岩崎 学
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 横断型基幹科学技術研究団体連合
雑誌
横幹 (ISSN:18817610)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.97-100, 2010 (Released:2016-03-21)
参考文献数
4

The Japan Statistical Society is a professional society of statisticians founded in 1931. The mission of the society is to promote excellence in statistical research and research training, in statistical education, and in the practice of statistics as well. In this article, after a brief review of its long history the present activities of the society are presented such as academic journal publications, organization of annualmeetings, international affairs and also awarding of distinguished statisticians, among others. Future directions that the society aims to are also discussed.
著者
岩崎 学 廉 民善
出版者
日本行動計量学会
雑誌
行動計量学 (ISSN:03855481)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.91-100, 2007 (Released:2007-05-30)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
3 2

An analysis method is considered that concerns count data with zero truncation, i.e. frequencies of occurrence of an event greater than or equal to 1 are only reported and the frequency of zero occurrence is not available. Relationship between the counts of occurrences of two related events is particularly interested. Such relationship is modeled by a bivariate gamma-Poisson distribution in this paper. To estimate the unknown parameters involved in the model, a simple method based on sample means is proposed. The estimation procedure is applied to some real datasets and interpretations of the results obtained are given. An additional point emphasized in this paper is that the frequency of zero count is not always trusted even the number is reported.
著者
岩崎 学
出版者
公益社団法人日本数学教育学会
雑誌
日本数学教育学会誌 (ISSN:0021471X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.2, pp.26-30, 1996-02-01
被引用文献数
1
著者
岩崎 学
出版者
日本計算機統計学会
雑誌
計算機統計学 (ISSN:09148930)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.41-56, 1991-12-01
被引用文献数
9

射影追跡は,多次元データのもつ特徴的な構造を,直線あるいは平面などの低次元空間に線形射影することによって探るデータ解析手法であり,コンピュータの計算能力およびそのグラフィック機能を活用するものである,本論文では,射影追跡の考え方ならびに実際の計算法を概観し,いくつかの例に適用した結果を報告する. 射影追跡は,射影の興味深さを表す射影指標と呼ばれる関数の最大値を与える射影を探し出すという手順で実行される.そして,射影の興味深さを非正規性としてとらえる点に特徴がある.また,射影追跡ならびにその考えに基づく多変量解析手法は,高次元空間ではデータ点間の距離が大きくなってしまうという「次元の呪い」を回避できる利点をもっている.